This higgs field breaks electroweak symmetry and provides mass to particles though a process called the higgs mechanism. The excitation of the higgs field is called a higgs boson.

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Chiral symmetry breaking and confusion with terminology

I am confused about Chiral symmetry breaking and the terminology we use. First of all, I think the symmetry is started with taking quark masses zero and writing the Lagrangian as; $$ ...
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Why do we need to “create our own” Higgs boson in order to see one?

I understand that the LHC found the Higgs boson by pumping so much energy into a tiny space (via near light speed proton-proton collisions) that a Higgs boson appeared momentarily, then instantly ...
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1answer
23 views

Is there any Higgs Model that has 4 Charged Higgs and 1 Neutral?

There is a 2HDM that predicts 3 neutral and 2 charged Higgs particles. There are also many more models out there. I already did some searching, but there is a large body of work here, and various ...
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49 views

Creation / annihilation and Higgs mechanism representations

a silly question about the Feynmann diagrams of matter creation / annihilation In this Electron–positron annihilation , the Higgs mechanism steps in 3 times : after the electronic pair , before the ...
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1answer
77 views

why does the higgs mechanism need to exist?

I feel like this is kind of a pleb question but I'm gonna ask it anyway. As far as I know, mass is fundamentally the property that a field has when it can have energy without having momentum. But why ...
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1answer
60 views

Why do some fields have a distance limit and other don't? [closed]

I'm not a mathematician or a physicist but interested in quantum mechanics/gravity/relativity. I'm trying to understand some ideas that are presented for laymen, and a lot of them talk about different ...
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68 views

Reason for not using Higgs mechanism to solve mass gap problem

I am curious as to precisely why one can't introduce masses for gluons in Yang-Mills by a Higgs-type mechanism as in electroweak theory. Is it because then one would end up with an unwanted massless ...
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26 views

Correct Yukawa Term with a SU(2) Higgs Triplet?

Given $SU(2)$ doublet fermions $\Psi^1$ and $\Psi^2$ and a $SU(2)$ triplet Higgs $H$, how does the correct Yukawa term look like in tensor notation? Schematically, we have $$ 2 \otimes 2 \otimes 3 ...
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1answer
28 views

Does having inertial mass demand that the particle must have (Higgs and other) potential energy?

My understanding is that a photon is pure kinetic energy and has no inertial mass of its own (or probably too low to be significant). But for a box with two photons whose momentums cancel, the photons ...
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28 views

Feynman rules complex field in polar form

I am trying to derive the Feynman rules for this field: $$L=-\partial \phi^*\partial \phi - \frac{\lambda}4 (|\phi|^2-v^2)^2 $$ With this coordinates $\phi = \frac 1 {\sqrt2}\rho \exp(i \theta)$, ...
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28 views

Feynman diagrams with ghosts and symmetry breaking

Let us think of an abelian gauge theory, precisely a scalar QED with 3 complex components of the scalar field and a 4-degree auto-interaction mixing components. Let us consider a spontaneously ...
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27 views

$\rho$-parameters for several Higgs multiplets

I'm studying the Higgs mechanism of the spontaneus symmetry breaking in the SM. The expression for the $\rho$-parameter is $$ \rho=\frac{M^2_W}{{\cos^2\theta_w}M^2_Z}, $$ that, in the case of a ...
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27 views

Why does Higgs break the symmetry

Usually classical analogies are given of the form: A ball sits on top of a mexican hat potential, rolls down spontaneously and will come to rest at at minimum. But classical systems of balls on hills ...
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1answer
103 views

Doubts about spontaneous symmetry breaking

I have been exposed to the usual treatment about spontaneous symmetry breaking in the standard model but it shames me to admit that there are some loose ends I still have to tie up. For simplicity, ...
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1answer
113 views

Is the Higgs mechanism a gauge transformation or not? ( $U(1)$ context )

I'm trying to understand the way that the Higgs Mechanism is applied in the context of a $U(1)$ symmetry breaking scenario, meaning that I have a Higgs complex field ...
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1answer
57 views
+50

Soft SUSY breaking fermion mass terms in MSSM for matter fields

In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, the chiral fermion fields (the Higgsinos) don't have any soft SUSY breaking mass terms and soft SUSY breaking trilinear interactions while their scalar ...
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48 views

What is the relationship between the “mass” of QFT and that of Newtonian mechanics?

In QFT we work with Lagrangians which contain terms $m$ such that the relativistic relation $E^2 = p^2 + m^2$ is satisfied. By classical analogy $m$ is called the 'mass'. We note that due to the ...
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35 views

Can the Higgs mechanism provide complex masses for quarks and neutrinos?

Can the Higgs mechanism give complex masses to quarks and neutrinos, or is only real mass generation possible? There exist complex phases in the CKM and PMNS matrices, can they be explained through ...
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38 views

QFT decay rates in lower dimensions

My starting point is the decay of a Higgs particle into two fermions, with decay rate proportional to \begin{equation} \Gamma \propto g_\psi^2 N m, \end{equation} where $g_\psi$ is the coupling, $N$ ...
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2answers
126 views

Has the Higgs boson always existed?

I am slow and need some help understanding this. So has the Higgs boson always existed? If not, than how did it come to exist? What would have excited it before matter or particles were created? So ...
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1answer
48 views

Why aren't all possible VEVs of the Higgs field in (quantum) superposition?

It is is usually said the the Higgs field chooses a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), around which we now expand our field operators. From this a mass term emerges, and one or more gauge fields acquire ...
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118 views

How to find symmetry transformations?

For a given Lagrangian $$ {\cal L} = - \frac{1}{4} F_{\mu \nu} F^{\mu\nu} + |D_{\mu} \phi|^2 -V (\phi) $$ with $\phi = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} (\phi^1 + i \phi^2)$, there are the infinitesimal local ...
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0answers
76 views

What happens to Goldstone bosons in the Higgs potential after symmetry breaking?

When the gauge symmetry of our Lagrangian breaks spontaneously through the Higgs mechanism, we usually find that $n$ Higgs degrees of freedom become massless through the vacuum expecation value (vev), ...
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Why are there only two linearly independet quartic Higgs terms for the adjoint $24$ in $SU(5)$ GUTs?

I've read the statement in countless papers, for example, here Eq. 4.2 or here Eq. 2.1 without any further explanation or reference, that the "most general renormalizable Higgs potential" for an ...
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76 views

Higgs mechanism in 1+1 spacetime dimensions

I know there are problems with Goldstone's theorem, as stated by Coleman in http://projecteuclid.org/download/pdf_1/euclid.cmp/1103859034. What about Higgs mechanism? Can I possibly think of a ...
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Why do we need any model beyond SM to fine-tune the Higgs mass?

ATLAS and CMS combined their results recently and it shows that higgs mass is ~125 GeV. Theoretical physicists try to figure out the "low mass" of the Higgs which causes hierarchy problem at high ...
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Why does Higgs obtain certain values in SU(5) symmetry breaking?

In the SU(5) GUT model the symmetry is broken by a Higgs field with the element diag(2,2,2,-3,-3) taking a non-zero value. To break it down to SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) But why exactly this element of all the ...
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1answer
77 views

Invariant mass spectrum to a transverse momentum distribution

For the decay of the Higgs boson in 2 photons having the following invariant mass formula: $$M = 2E_{1}E_{2}(1 - \cos \theta)$$ How can I go from an invariant mass spectrum distribution to a ...
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82 views

Are new discoveries in quantum physics (e.g. Amplituhedron) supporting one of the classical QM interpretations? [closed]

Are new discoveries in quantum physics (e.g. Amplituhedron, Higgs boson) supporting one of the classical QM interpretations? For example Copenhagen, Everett many worlds or Penrose interpretations. Or ...
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3answers
248 views

Physically what does warping (of space-time) mean?

So there's general relativity and Einstein's field equations that tell us "mass(or equivalently energy) warps space-time, and the warping tells mass how to move", but I'm still having trouble ...
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1answer
123 views

Did the initiation of the Higgs Field and the inflationary period occur simultaneously?

My question is: Both of these concepts involve a phase transition and they both started, as far as I know, early in time, so are the above two ideas linked in any way? My first source for this query ...
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53 views

Could we Bose-condense Higgs bosons?

Apart from the obvious problem that we'd have to create enough of them and somehow not let them decay, is there anything that would prevent a Higgs boson condensate?
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86 views

To what extent is the Standard Model vacuum made of a Bose-Einstein condensate of Higgs bosons?

Note: I very well understand spontaneous symmetry breaking of global symmetries and the Higgs mechanism. I want to know to what extent the Standard Model vacuum is made of a Bose-Einstein condensate ...
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1answer
141 views

If there is a boson that carries mass, why not space, or time? [closed]

If the Higgs Boson carries mass, why doesn't there exist more bosons that carry other fundamental properties such as volume/distance (space), time, or even spacetime? Also if bosons carry force, but ...
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1answer
43 views

How long is a higgs boson stable for before it fully decays?

How long after the creation of a higgs boson is it stable for on average?
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1answer
58 views

How does the Higgss field change with the expanding universe?

Does the expanding universe really have an effect on the Higgs field? Say, is it like the matter getting diluted with the expanding universe? Or does the expansion does not have any effect on the ...
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3answers
442 views

Is the Higgs field needed to explain the mass of the electron?

The self energy of the electron can be represented in two ways: the energy required to bring a charge distribution from infinity to the size of the electron (assuming it is a point charge with no ...
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1answer
515 views

Can two colliding photons create a Higgs Boson?

The LHC discovered the Higgs using the following decay mode: $$ H^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma $$ This got me thinking: if we reverse this mode, will it be valid? In some annihilation/decay pairs, ...
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Is the Higgs field responsible of only 1% of the proton mass?

This post is a sequel of: Where does the majority of the mass of the usual matter come from? The following answer of @hft: Your question asks why the "current quark masses" [see ...
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72 views

What do people mean with a vev=diag( -2,-2,-2,-2,-2,-2,3,3,3,3)?

For example, in this paper on page 21 the authors write the vev that breaks $SO(10)$ to $SU(4)\times SU(2) \times SU(2)$ $$ <54>= 1/5 \cdot diag( -2,-2,-2,-2,-2,-2,3,3,3,3) \omega_s$$ where ...
3
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2answers
72 views

Determination of the ground state of a field theory

Consider the Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the theory $$\mathcal{L}=\frac{1}{2}\partial_\mu\phi\partial^\mu\phi-\frac{\mu^2}{2}\phi^2+\frac{\lambda}{4!}\phi^4.$$ By the ground state of a ...
2
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1answer
32 views

Is the mass of the Z due to mixing with the photon “precursor” B or to interaction with the Higgs?

I want to get something clear that I do not seem to understand. I used to read that the photon A and the Z boson are (different) linear combinations between the W^0 (neutral weak boson before SU(2) ...
5
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1answer
144 views

Georgi-Glashow model and the VEV of the scalar field

Consider the Georgi-Glashow model, an $SU(2)$ gauge theory with a real scalar in the adjoint (thus a 3-vector in the colour space) $\phi$. The Lagrangian is $$ L = -\frac{1}{4g^2} F_{\mu \nu}^{\, a} ...
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0answers
54 views

Explicit Matrix Representation for 54 Higgs rerpesentation for $SO(10)\rightarrow$ Pati-Salam Breaking

Which Higgs field or linear combination of Higgs fields gets a vev if we want to break $$ SO(10) \rightarrow SU(4) \times SU(2) \times SU(2) ? $$ Formulated a bit differently, I'm looking for an ...
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1answer
40 views

Are the mass matrices the same if Higgs corresponding to different Cartan generators get a vev?

I'm trying to understand what happens when a Higgs field in the adjoint representation of a given gauge group gets a vacuum expecation value (vev). Normally, the fermions do not couple to adjoint ...
2
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68 views

Books on superconductivity and its relation to spontaneous symmetry breaking

I wish to understand more about the relationship between superconductivity and spontaneous symmetry breaking. I would also appreciate sources for learning about symmetry breaking and particles in more ...
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104 views

Massless bosons but not massless fermions?

I noticed some article on massless Weyl fermions and it got me thinking. I'm wondering if there is any explanation for why bosons (specifically gauge bosons) can be massless (photon and gluon) but we ...
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50 views

How can I compute the orbit of a Higgs field?

In many papers that deal with symmetry breaking a concept called orbit is introduced: It is worth noting that if the potential is a minimum $\phi_0$ at a value of the field, then from (3.13) it is ...
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1answer
118 views

Gluons and dark energy [closed]

According to my understanding, the dark energy is something that permeates spaces. The space in between the quantum particles(say like space between a nucleus and electrons, going even more deeper,i ...
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1answer
115 views

Is it possible to decrease the mass of the object?

It is known that the Higgs boson gives mass to elementary particles. Also known that if manipulate with the Higgs field and decrease mass of particles then atoms starts to decay and the object will be ...