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1answer
64 views

Angular momentum of light

Can someone explain the classical angular momentum in electromagnetic theory of light? If I shine elliptically polarised em wave on a black disc it rotates. I would like to know how to calculate ...
6
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2answers
118 views

How can helicity be conserved but chirality not?

I read in a book that for $\beta$-decay the electrons have always been found to have an expectation value for their helicity of $h=-v/c$. Then ist is said in the book, that it follows from this ...
4
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0answers
55 views

General relativity from helicity 2 massless field theory by using Deser's arguments

Recently I have discovered the method of constructing of GR from massless field with helicity 2 theory. It is considered here, in an article "Self-Interaction and Gauge Invariance" written by Deser S. ...
7
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1answer
147 views

What is chirality?

I actually wanted to make the title as "What is the difference between chirality and helicity"? But I didn't do that because I don't understand properly what chirality is. I have gone through this ...
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0answers
26 views

Ultrarelativistic limit of helicity values

Let's have helicity operator: $$ \hat {h} = \frac{(\hat {\mathbf S} \cdot \hat {\mathbf p})}{|\mathbf p|}. $$ For massive case spin $s$ representation it has $2s + 1$ eigenvalues $s, s - 1,..., -s$, ...
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0answers
54 views

What's the difference between particle's helicity, spinor's helicity and chirality?

What's the difference between particle's helicity, spinor's helicity and chirality ? I read a saying that right-handed spinor correspond to the left-handed positron, right-handed spinor correspond to ...
2
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1answer
60 views

An identity for spinor helicity formalism

I have a question about the spinor helicity formalism from arXiv:1308.1697 Denote the massless spin-1/2 fermions as Eqs. (2.10)-(2.11) in that paper $$v_+(p)= \begin{pmatrix} |p]_a \\ 0 ...
10
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1answer
146 views

Chirality, helicity and the weak interaction

From what I'm understanding about Dirac spinors, using the Weyl basis for the $\gamma$ matrices the first two components behave as a left handed Weyl spinor, while the third and the fourth form a ...
8
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3answers
384 views

Addition of spin angular momentum for massless particles

How do I add the spin angular momentum of massless particles, like photons, where only the transverse polarizations are allowed? If all three polarizations were allowed, this would be an easy ...
1
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0answers
82 views

If a photon is a boson and has spin 1, shouldn't it have 3 spin orientations since spin 1 is a triplet? [duplicate]

I've gotten used to the fact that a spin can be described by its total spin and its $z$-component. And I've learned that a particle (really, anything) with spin 1 forms a triplet with three possible ...
1
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0answers
55 views

Chirality and helicity

I have massless Dirac equation and chirality and helicity operators which are given as $$ \hat {P}_{ch}\Psi = \gamma_{5}\Psi, \quad \hat {P}_{h}\Psi = \frac{(\hat {\mathbf S} \cdot \mathbf ...
2
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0answers
79 views

The question about Lorentz invariance of the helicity quantum number for the massless particles

I need to show that helicity is Lorentz invariant (under the proper Lorentz transformation) for the massless particles. I heard about most frequently used argument which contains an idea of ...
5
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1answer
204 views

Orbital angular momentum of photon

People talk about orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons. Is there some physical example that cannot be explained without assuming that photons have non-zero OAM? Does different photons have ...
4
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1answer
172 views

Helicity and Chirality

Does the concept of both helicity and and chirality make sense for a massive Dirac spinor? A massive electron in chiral basis is written as a column made up of $\psi_L$ and $\psi_R$. What are the ...
3
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0answers
132 views

Reducing massive representation of the Poincare group to the massless one

I want to ask about the connection for massive and massless representation of the Poincare group. Sorry for the awkwardness. First I must to represent the formalism for both of cases. Massive ...
1
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2answers
405 views

Why does the Standard Model predict Neutrinos are massless?

Why are neutrinos massless in the Standard Model? Is it connected with experimental fact that neutrinos always have only one direction of projection of spin on motion direction?
7
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1answer
171 views

Is the third spin vector of a photon always suppressed?

I like to tell people interested in light polarization that the photon is a vector boson for which the third spin axis, the one in the direction of travel, is suppressed due to photons being massless ...
0
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0answers
93 views

Photons angular momentum / spin

I have a textbook that says that photons have a spin of absolute value $\hbar$ and at some other point, they say that it has angular momentum of absolute value $\hbar$. Now, since they are different ...
1
vote
1answer
179 views

Maxwell's equations as the particular case of massive vector field equation

There was a discussion (please look to the comments on my answer) about getting Maxwell's equations for free spin-1 field by using massive spin-1 representation's equations. I'll start from the ...
1
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1answer
173 views

Coulomb gauge and two degrees of freedom of EM field

The EM field has two possible polarizations, which is caused by spin-one nature of field (leads to the Lorenz gauge) and massless of the field. Really, the Klein-Gordon equations for the EM field $$ ...
3
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1answer
209 views

Weak interaction and the Chirality of anti-particles

Consider a weak current of the form $ J^{\mu} = \bar{u}_{\nu}\gamma^{\mu}(1-\gamma^5)u_{e} $ This describes the part of a weak process where a left-handed electron converts into a left-handed ...
5
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0answers
205 views

Chirality and helicity operators for the massless bispinor rep and their generalisation on arbitrary (tensor, 4-vector etc) cases

Let's have chirality projection operator $$ \hat {C}_{\pm} = \frac{1 \pm \gamma^{5}}{2}. $$ We introduce it and called it chirality, because $$ \hat {C}_{+}\psi = \begin{pmatrix} \psi_{\alpha} \\ 0 ...
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3answers
1k views

If photons carry 1 spin unit, why does visible light seem to have no angular momentum?

Spin 1 silver atoms have a definite spin axis, e.g. up or down along an axis labeled X. This in turn means that they carry angular momentum in an overt, visible fashion. However, spin 1 photons do ...
3
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0answers
180 views

Chirality, helicity and their relationship for the massless case

Chirality can be interpreted as a property of Lorentz group - Lorentz transformation of field through representation $(s, 0)$ or representation $(0, s)$. For the massless particles one says, that ...
3
votes
1answer
479 views

Why helicity is proportional to the spin of particle and has two values?

How can it be shown without using the little group formalism? Let's have the Wigner's classification for the irreducible represetation of the Poincare group. For the massless case the eigenvalues of ...
4
votes
1answer
137 views

Helicity Representation of Massive Spinor

For massless spinors case we can decompose momentum into Weyl sub-parts as $$p = \lambda_{a}\tilde \lambda_{\dot a}.$$ But for the case of massive fermions can I do something like this? Decompose ...
4
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0answers
58 views

Helicity dependence in loop diagrams

I am trying to evaluate a diagram that looks like The middle of the diagram is a fermion loop. I know that the coupling between the $Z^0$ and fermions depends on the fermions' helicities, so it ...
1
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2answers
268 views

Doubts concerning Wigner's classification

Wigner classified particles in function of the eigenvalues of $P_\mu P^\mu$ and $W_\mu W^\mu$. Then, it can be proved that for massless particles spin values can be only $\pm s_{max}$. But for a ...
2
votes
0answers
78 views

Helicity for Zero Rest Mass Field Equations

I'm trying to reconcile the usual definition of the helicity operator, namely $$ h = \hat{p}.S$$ with the definition of a massless helicity $n$ field as a symmetric spinor field $\phi^{A\dots B}$ ...
1
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0answers
222 views

Helicity operator in Non relativistic limit

Helicity operator in Dirac equation is given by $$H=\frac{\vec{S}\times \vec{P}}{P^{2}}$$ This operator commutes with dirac hamiltonian.We can also define a helicity(with same form) operator in case ...
10
votes
1answer
576 views

What is the difference between the properties of Electron spin and Photon polarization/helicity?

What is the difference between a photon's polarization/helicity and an electrons spin half? I know that the photon is spin 1 but isn't its polarization analogous to spin half? This question stems ...
18
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4answers
2k views

Why is the $S_{z} =0$ state forbidden for photons?

If photons are spin-1 bosons, then doesn't quantum mechanics imply that the allowed values for the z-component of spin (in units of $\hbar$) are -1, 0, and 1? Why then in practice do we only use the ...
7
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1answer
1k views

Why does photon have only two possible eigenvalues of helicity?

Photon is a spin-1 particle. Were it massive, its spin projected along some direction would be either 1, -1, or 0. But photons can only be in an eigenstate of $S_z$ with eigenvalue $\pm 1$ (z as the ...
5
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2answers
553 views

Feynman rules with helicity states.

Whenever Feynman rules are stated they are always without any mention of the helicities - this I find to be very confusing. How does one introduce and account for that? Is there an intuitive/simple ...
2
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2answers
542 views

Photon spin projection to arbitrary axis

For photons (and any massless particle) we consider only a spin projection into the direction of motion (helicity). Why it's meaningless to talk about projection of photon's spin into some arbitrary ...
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2answers
1k views

How does one experimentally determine chirality, helicity, spin and angular momentum?

If I've got an instance of a fundamental particle, how can I separate out the measurements of these three concepts? (I think) I understand the theory behind them, and why the particles in the ...
11
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2answers
3k views

What's the difference between helicity and chirality?

When a particle spins in the same direction as its momentum, it has right helicity, and left helicity otherwise. Neutrinos, however, have some kind of inherent helicity called chirality. But they can ...