# Tagged Questions

Heat is energy transferred from one system to another by thermal interaction. In contrast to work, heat is always accompanied by a transfer of entropy. Heat flow is characteristic of macroscopic objects and systems, but its origin and properties can be understood in terms of their microscopic ...

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### Improve heat transfer on frying pan design [closed]

I have a design for an industrial frying pan which will have $T_{Oil} = 500 K$ So the idea is to submerge copper pipes with this dimensions: $thickness = 5 mm$ $inside_{diameter} = 50 mm$ ...
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### Best way to chill a cup of coffee with cold water and 5 minutes [duplicate]

Initial data 1 x 3/4 full cup of hot coffee / tea / your favorite morning beverage cold water 5 minutes Considering that it's starting to get hot outside, and we all want to drink reasonably cold ...
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### Why does asphalt crack along painted lines?

My elementary school playground was made of asphalt and had a track painted on with white lines. While walking on the track, I noticed that cracks in the asphalt often followed the paint. The ...
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### Electricity directly from heating a material [duplicate]

I am looking for some more information about how to obtain electricity from heat directly. This e.g. involves the Seebeck effect, as I have found it is called, where a material produces a voltage ...
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### 1/2 freeze a water bottle

Is it possible to quick freeze half of an unopened bottle of water or soda by putting half of the bottle in a subfreezing solution liquid nitrogen or other solution without freezing the whole bottle?
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### Fluids in thermodynamic equlibrium

I am reading about the Euler Equations of Fluid dynamics from Leveque's numerical methods for conservation laws. After introducing the mass, momentum and energy equations, some thermodynamic ...
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### Why does the Sun feel hotter through a window?

I have this big window in my room that the Sun shines through every morning. When I wake up I usually notice that the Sunlight coming through my window feels hot. Much hotter than it normally does ...
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### What exactly heats a pool of water on a sunny day

On a sunny day an outdoor swimming pool will heat up fairly quickly. My question is, what is the exact mechanism for this and can we put numerical figures on it? Given that water is clear and ...
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### How to calculate incident solar energy on earth in a given day with a spectral filter

The daily solar radiation irradiation is often quoted as being between $3.2 \text{ kW hours}/\text{m}^2$ and $7 \text{kW hours}/\text{m}^2$ per day . If you filter out a range of wavelengths, how can ...
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### Is heat flux density and heat flux the same thing?

Heat flux and heat flux density is the same thing, while electric flux density and electric flux is not the same thing? It makes me confused since we compare Fourier's law with Ohm's law. Here is a ...
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### Optimal way to heat liquid from the sun?

I understand that one way to tell how much a liquid will be heated up by a remote heat source is by looking at its color. I assume clear and colorless heats up least, then white, other colors and last ...
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### Why does the water diffuse at right angles in my coffee? [closed]

I purchase an espresso shot each morning at my local coffee shop, and I usually water it down slightly to take the edge off as well as to cool it. Recently, I have noticed that when I pour the cold ...
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### A really simple question about heat transfer? [closed]

In rectangular coordinates, the heat conduction vector can be expressed in terms of its components $$\vec{\dot{Q_n}}=\dot{Q_x}\vec{i}+\dot{Q_y}\vec{j}+\dot{Q_z}\vec{k}$$ Please explain the meaning of ...
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### Do Microwave oven cook times grow linearly with Wattage? Calculating optimal cook time

So this is a completely random and trivial question that was prompted by looking at my microwave oven and the back of a TV dinner and my google searching failed to produce a meaningful answer so ...
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### Why the heat flux vector at a point must be perpendicular to the temperature isothermal surface? Is it a definition or a deduction?

Before the question: I am working on numerical calculation of three dimension parabolic equation that based on Fourier's Law of which I am a little confused. Here comes the law in modern mathematics ...
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### Having a problem about entropy, thermodynamics

I am a high school student. So, while studying about thermodynamics, I got a little curious about entropy. As I read, entropy is the rate of change of chaos. So, if the entropy change of a system is ...
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When modeling the heat spread from a hot object through a vacuum (or a gas), what is the dominant physical process for heat energy transportation? Thermal diffusion, thermal radiation, a mix of the ...
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### Numerical on heat [closed]

Q. A 120 watt heater is switched on for 44 seconds and provides heat to 10g of ice placed in a metallic container of mass 50g. Find the specific heat capacity of the metallic container. This is what ...
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### How hot does the tip of a pencil get while writing?

When writing with a pencil, there seems to be quite a lot of friction - which seems like it would induce heat. How hot would the tip of a #2 pencil get writing on normal copy paper?
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### Heat transfer in a pipe

I have a gas (assuming air) at T = 500 K that enters a cylindrical pipe. The outlet target temperature is 330K. There will be heat transfer via: Forced convection from the gas to the inside of the ...
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### Conceptual difficulty in understanding Fourier's Law of heat conduction

I am having a bit of difficulty understanding the statement of Fourier's law of heat conduction. As mentioned in Georg Joos , Theoretical Physics The quantity of heat passing per second through ...
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### Solid in Liquid Heat Transfer

If there is a solid immersed in a large (but finite) pool of water, where the solid has temperature $T_s$ and the water has temperature $T_w$, with $T_w>T_s$, how can I calculate $T_s(t)$ and ...
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### Do metals generally lose more heat by convection than non-metals?

I've been experimenting with radiative cooling lately and in my mind convection is always an enemy (especially forced convection since the modules are outdoors). Looking at Newton's law of cooling, ...
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### Why increase pressure to go from liquid to steam?

Assume the following phase diagram $T-H$ of water At a nuclear engineering course, I was told that in order to increase the performance of a pressurized water reactor, one has to increase the ...
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### Adding heat to a system doesn't equal the work done by gas?

So, I answered a physics question for a class that goes as follows: A gas in a cylinder is kept at a constant pressure of $250000\: \mathrm{Pa}$ while $300\: \mathrm{kJ}$ of heat are added to it, ...
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### How long does the 2nd pot of water take to boil right after the 1st one finishes?

Say I have a pot of water that boils in 20 minutes, at whatever temperature. If I leave the fire on, take the pot off, pour the hot water into a container, refill the pot with tap water and put it ...
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### Physical interpretation of different boundary conditions for heat equation

When solving the heat equation, $$\partial_t u -\Delta u = f \text{ on } \Omega$$ what physical situations are represented by the following boundary conditions (on $\partial \Omega$)? $u=g$ ...
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### Constant Pressure lines in evaporation diagram

Assume that there is the following $T-H$ phase diagram with the constant pressure lines. Which is greater preasure? The preasure drops as we move to lower temperatures (i.e. from top to bottom)? ...
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### Why isn't the Earth's core temperature the average of its surface temperatures?

Assuming that the earth is spherical, that its temperature is continuous, and that some other more or less realistic conditions hold, we might think that the Earth's core temperature should be about ...
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### Finding cooling time using an impulse of heat energy

A chip has a thermal resistance of 0.007 K/J s and thermal capacitance of 1.6 J/K. You give it an impulse of heat equal to 100 J. How long does it take for the chip to cool to within 10% of the ...
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### Calculate heat loss of aquifer with unknown shape

I am trying to calculate the heat loss of an aquifer. An aquifer is basically a hot-cold storage $80\: \mathrm{meters}$ under the ground. It is an open system and utilizes groundwater. By pumping for ...
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### Microwave oven heating time

It's logical to think that the time it takes a microwave to heat the food would be proportional to the mass heated. But since a microwave is based on dielectric heating, I think that if you increase ...
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### Dividing values with units

I'm reading about the subject of heat in a basic physics book. If I am not mistaken the formula to work out how much energy is required to increase the temperature of water is ...
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### A Calorimetry Problem

I have a question in calorimetry from an old competitive exam. The question is: The temperature of $100$ grams of water is to be raised from $24 ^\circ$C to $90 ^\circ$C by adding steam to it. ...
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### How would a change in ambient temp affect a radiator?

I'm curious if you have a radiator or say a block of metal (lets say it's copper since it has the highest thermal conductivity) and on one side is a processor producing heat. At idle the processor ...
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### Question about the proof that heat capacity goes to zero if temperature approaches $0K$

I don't completely understand the proof that is given for the claim that the heat capacity goes to zero, if the temperature approaches $0K$. They do it as follows, if $C_x$ is the heat capacity where ...
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### Why is it faster (as in proportion to volume) to boil 4 cups of water than to boil 2 cups?

I did an experiment where I boiled two cups (500ml) of water in a kettle, and it took 1:30 minutes to reach around 98 C, average. However, when I boiled 4 cups of water, (1L) it only took me 2:30 ...
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### Electric power transmission

If we want to transmit electic current for a long distance, we must minimize a heat that releases because of the resistanse. We cannot make a cable wide because it is expensive and it will be massive. ...
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### Find the workdone to increase the temperature of an ideal gas by 300c if gas is expanding under [closed]

Find the work done to increase the temperature of an ideal gas by $30^o C$ if gas is expanding under the condition $V \propto \dfrac{t^2}{3}$.
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### Heat deposition at optical focus in a clear medium

This is an applied physics question for an engineering problem. The well known experiment we have all done--burn paper and wood with a magnifying glass and the sun's rays. My question is, if one were ...
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### Is it 11% hotter today than it was yesterday?

Yesterday the temperature outside was 0.5 °C. Today, the temperature is 30 °C. 30 is 5300% more than 0.5, but today is obviously not 5300% hotter than yesterday. In Fahrenheit, the temperatures are ...
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### Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

Recently I have been looking up James Joule's experiment regarding the mechanical equivalent of heat. After viewing some drawings of the apparatus, I assumed that the lines holding the weights would ...
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### Total massflow through heat exchanger

I am working on a project and I stumbled on a problem. The project is to design a heat pump to replace the old system (actual problem, not some homework problem). There are 100 or so induction units ...
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### Reflectivity of a glowing-hot metal surface

When a polished piece of metal (or steel in particular) is heated to incandescence, how do its reflective properties change? Given a mirror-like surface, would the object temporarily cease to act ...
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### How do you determine the heat transfer from a P-V diagram?

I doubt this question has been addressed properly before, but if there are similar answers, do direct them to me. I am currently studying the First Law of Thermodynamics, which includes the p-V ...
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### Does more reflective aluminum foil make a room cooler compared to less reflective foil?

Aluminum foil is said to be not absorbing light at all. It reflects light. So, does it mean that a more shiny aluminum foil will reflect more light and thus make the room more cooler as compared to ...
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### Heat transfer in fluid between two horizontal plates vs unconfined case

I often see the correlation for turbulent heat transfer between liquid cells published by Globe and Dropkin (1959). In the original paper the fluid was confined between two horizontal plates and ...
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### Beginner Thermal Dynamics Question [closed]

A syringe is set up filled with air (mainly N2 and O2) as shown in the diagram below. The surface area of the syringe is 15.3 cm2. The initial pressure inside the syringe is Pi = 114 kPa and the ...