The study of the physical processes and properties of the planet Earth. Applicable to many subjects about Earth, such as its shape, its magnetic field, and ocean currents.

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Can surface waves exist near a fixed surface

(I'll phrase this question in terms of waves in an elastic medium, but this is a more general question.) Surface waves are waves near the surface of a medium whose amplitude decreases as you go away ...
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What is the longitudinal difference between the sub­solar point and the magnetic poles at time $t$ (hours)?

I'm trying to convert geomagnetic coordinate to geographic, but there are some steps in the paper which I'm reading, that I don't understand. I have the geomagnetic latitude centered around the ...
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Special conditions at layer F2 ionosphere

I saw this graph about the electrons density in different altitudes and difference between night and day, the difference between the 2 electron densities (day and night) decreases till 300 Km (F2 ...
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Richter scale equation

According to Wikipedia, the equation for finding magnitude according to the Richter scale is $M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A - \log_{10} A_0(\delta)$. However, it is rather ambiguous as to the effect of ...
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3D Surface Related Multiple Elmination (SRME)

Let's assume we are looking at first order multiples of the same surface (i.e no peg leg, etc). I am looking at marine 3D SRME and I am a little confused as to how this works. I understand that in the ...
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Betatron vs Fermi acceleration

According to the reference below, the plasma in a planetary radiation belt increases its temperature anisotropy through radial diffusion; temperature perpendicular to the background magnetic field ...
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How to represent a multiple in the frequency domain

So, in my previous question Where does this formula for prediction of a multiple wave come from?, I get that using this picture: we have so far written the time it takes for a multiple to travel ...
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Reference request: Hollow concave Earth hypothesis

Reference request concerning the Hollow concave Earth hypothesis. I am searching for this paper: A Geocosmos: Mapping Outer Space Into a Hollow Earth authored by M. Abdelkader and published in ...