The study of the physical processes and properties of the planet Earth. Applicable to many subjects about Earth, such as its shape, its magnetic field, and ocean currents.

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Betatron vs Fermi acceleration

According to the reference below, the plasma in a planetary radiation belt increases its temperature anisotropy through radial diffusion; temperature perpendicular to the background magnetic field ...
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Geophysics: Dynamic form factor and Equipotential surfaces [closed]

I've got the following problem which I need help with. I'm used to calculating coefficients when the problem is about ellipsoids and first order approximations. But when it comes to spheres and ...
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2answers
76 views

Will the day/night cycle change when the poles melt?

I want to know what will happen to day and night if poles melt i think it will change but I don't know why? ^_^
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3answers
75 views

At what energy consumption would we get a 1 degree rise in the Earth's temperature?

If energy consumption continues to rise at (say) 4% per year, how long before the heat dissipation seriously impacts climate?
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1answer
32 views

Can surface waves exist near a fixed surface

(I'll phrase this question in terms of waves in an elastic medium, but this is a more general question.) Surface waves are waves near the surface of a medium whose amplitude decreases as you go away ...
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64 views

What is the longitudinal difference between the sub­solar point and the magnetic poles at time $t$ (hours)?

I'm trying to convert geomagnetic coordinate to geographic, but there are some steps in the paper which I'm reading, that I don't understand. I have the geomagnetic latitude centered around the ...
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If the gravity at the center of the Earth is zero, why are heavy elements like iron there?

If gravity is zero at the center of the earth, why is there a core of heavy elements, such as iron? Alternate question for the opposite hypothesis: If gravity is greatest at the center of the ...
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1answer
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What happens if the Russians decide to nuke the Kola borehole?

I recently came across research on the Kola Superdeep Borehole in Russia. It's one of the world's deepest at 12 km (7.5 mi) down. If someone decided to hoist a nuclear weapon all the way down and set ...
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1answer
341 views

Why does Earth behave like Natural Bar Magnet?

What is the reason for the Earth to behave like a bar magnet and have poles (North and South poles)?
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What if the earth's core goes cold?

What effects would occur if the earth's core goes cold? Would the planet stay liveable after this happens?
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986 views

Is the earth expanding?

I recently saw this video on youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJfBSc6e7QQ and I don't know what to make of it. It seems as if the theory has enough evidence to be correct but where would all ...
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4answers
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Why has Earth's core not become solid?

The Earth is billions of years old, yet its core has not yet cooled down and become solid. Will this happen in the foreseeable future?
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592 views

How is wind created?

I know that 'blowing air is called wind', but what I don't know is, how is wind created? And I don't want the answer from Google Search. I want to know more about wind at the atomic or molecular ...
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251 views

What is the temperature of the clear night sky from the surface of Earth?

Before you all jump in with 2.73 K or thereabouts, this is more of an experimental question. It will obviously depend on humidity and radiation being scattered back towards the surface of the Earth. ...
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Where did the energy released due to gravitational binding energy of the Earth go?

The gravitational binding energy of the Earth is $2×10^{32} J $, so the same amount of energy must have been released during the Earth's history. According to this and this, the current internal ...
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2answers
492 views

Why do clouds appear black?

I have noticed clouds appearing black during rain. But I don't know what makes clouds to acquire that colour. This phenomenon doesn't appear every rainfall. There has to be distinction to white ...
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4answers
2k views

Why does the sky change color?

Why the sky is blue during the day, red during sunrise/set and black during the night?
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41 views

Calculating altitude without refering to atmospheric pressure?

Is the only way of calculating altitude to try to guess using the atmospheric pressure? Couldn't an electronic device analyze the force of gravity and conclude from that at what altitude it is ...
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In the earth's crust, why is there far more uranium than gold?

In parts per million in the Earth's crust Uranium is around 1.8ppm and Gold 0.003ppm. Given that it takes far more energy to create Uranium than Gold, why is this?
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Why is the current atmosphere made of nitrogen (75.5%)?

As I read a book on meteorology, 4 billion years ago, atmosphere was made by steam, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide and a few nitrogen. Then photosynthesis came, run by underwater organisms, which led ...
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1answer
84 views

How do wind turbines cause lightning?

I saw this paper about Lightning discharges produced by wind turbines More lightning strikes wind turbines than comparable non-moving structures. What would be the physical cause of this? Does it ...
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Why is Earth's climate so stable?

Earth wasn't always the only water-world in the solar system. Mars also appear to have started out wet but, as conditions changed, Mars lost its oceans. So, how has Earth managed to avoid a ...
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2answers
63 views

Estimating the force needed to increase height of a mountain?

How would you estimate the force required by a tectonic plate to make the height of a mountain increase when it pushes against another? I've used a method to try and do it for Mt Everest and have ...
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1answer
300 views

Would days be longer as the polar ice caps melt? [duplicate]

I got question in my mind striking for several days but not able to prove it, suppose polar ice on earth melt, would the days be longer? My friend said it was due to moment of inertia of the earth ...
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1answer
629 views

live Kp index data

I need to create an online service displaying latest Kp index. Where I can take the data? The data should be in machine-readable format, i.e. text files, XML, or CGI gateways, for instance. No ...
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Richter scale equation

According to Wikipedia, the equation for finding magnitude according to the Richter scale is $M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A - \log_{10} A_0(\delta)$. However, it is rather ambiguous as to the effect of ...
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1answer
53 views

Geophysical Effects of Supernova Neutrino Pulse

While neutrinos are generally totally harmless, a supernova produces enough of them at once that the neutrino flux would kill you if you could stand close enough (and not be killed by other means ...
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2answers
203 views

Earth's Temperature

I have a question regarding earth's temperature... How come the average temperature in the middle east (Israel, Saudi Arabia, Sudan or lower) is always so much significantly higher than in Europe ...
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222 views

Amplitude decrease during geometrical spreading of a seismic pulse

I'm looking at amplitude decrease of a seismic pulse as a result of geometrical spreading. Starting with the energy contained in a unit area, $I = E / (4 \pi r^2)$, where $E$ is the original energy ...
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119 views

Why does absorption cause seismic pulses to increase in length over distance?

The specific question I'm trying to answer is "How does the progressive loss of higher frequencies in a propagating seismic pulse lead to an increase in pulse length?" I understand how the higher ...
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122 views

Does the geomagnetic field rotate?

The Earth rotates about it's own axis. Do the geomagnetic field lines rotate due to this rotation or not?
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480 views

How does water carve rock?

How does water carve rock? And more generally, how does a soft material carve a hard material? Obviously it happens, but is it a continual process (every drop of soft water carries away a minute ...
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39 views

Geophysics with earth science [closed]

I am a communications engineering student. I am interested in doing a project on geophysics. The concept is for a hole-digging robot with a camera and sensors and wireless transmitter that is made of ...
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5answers
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Why the water remains on the surface of the Earth?

What makes the water stay on the surface? Why the earth does not absorb the water in it?
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1answer
52 views

Sun radiation in England

I used to live in Italy, and when it was sunny, well, as expected it was pretty hot. Both under the direct light of the sun through the atmosphere, and in the shade, where the temperature was of ...
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2answers
145 views

Does the Earth's core have tides?

Does the moon produce a measurable tidal-effect on the Earth's (liquid) core? If so, how strong is it? Would it play a factor in other geological effects like earthquakes, volcanoes, etc?
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163 views

Could we obtain free electrical energy from the Earth's magnetic field? [duplicate]

If there exists a natural magnetic field due to the metallic core of the earth... could we then extract and get free energy from the earth core ??
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126 views

Tidal Forces from the Moon on the Earth's Crust

How do we determine how much the surface of the Earth deflects due to tidal forces from the Moon (and Sun)?
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Does the conversion of crude oil to greenhouse gases have any measurable effect on earth's gravitational pull?

Oil underground is much denser than greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Does the conversion in anyway effect the gravitational force from earth.
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3answers
9k views

Is the Earth negatively or positively charged?

The Earth carries a negative electric charge of roughly 500 thousand Coulombs. Does that mean the Earth is negatively charged?
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381 views

Radio-dating and the age of the earth

I understand there are a few radio-dating methods to determine the age of the earth, uranium-lead to name one (maybe not the best though). The ratio Pb206 + Pb207 to U allows you to find when the ...
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1answer
55 views

Effect of CO2 on the environment, besides greenhouse effect and ocean acidification [closed]

What effects does the raising level of CO2 in the atmosphere have, besides being a greenhouse gas and responsible for the increased acidity of the oceans? What other environmental damages does it ...
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3answers
446 views

Calculating the mass of a wave of water

I am assuming it is possible to calculate the mass of water if the volume is known. My assumption is that doing this for stagnant water, in a container perhaps, is easy. However I want calculate, ...
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0answers
52 views

Earth as a conductor and emf produced? [closed]

Since about 73% of total surface of Earth is occupied by water, its internal is also occupied largely by hot molten mass.Let,the whole earth is considered a conductor.Sun is a source of gravitational ...
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6answers
725 views

Tsunami dampening mechanisms

Encouraged by the zeitgeist let me ask the following: Is it feasible (now or in the future) to build systems a certain distance of a vulnerable coastline which can serve to dampen a tsunami before it ...
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4answers
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How do we know that earth is not perfect sphere?

I've just read here that: Equatorial radius = 6378.16 kilometers. Polar radius = 6356.78 kilometers, so the difference in circumference is 71.1 kilometers. It is not a perfect sphere, but kind ...
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203 views

Why is the geomagnetic north pole at a different location from the magnetic north pole?

According to this site Magnetic North, Geomagnetic and Magnetic Poles The Geomagnetic poles (dipole poles) are the intersections of the Earth's surface and the axis of a bar magnet hypothetically ...
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what determines the wavelength of waves on the open ocean?

Looking at the picture below, you can totally see that these are tiny boats. The water is practically washing over the hull of these boat models. But the water has boundaries that are very far ...
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231 views

If a planet were cut in half but stayed hemispherical, how hot would the ocean on the flat side be? [closed]

Some time ago I asked a question about gravity on a hemispherical planet. What would gravity be like on a hemispherical planet? Would the water all boil away at first, quickly cooling the core of ...
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4answers
126 views

about the rotation of the earth and gravity, when all continents were merged

A long time ago, I read that the gravity force isn't the same if you are near the Andes Mountains or if you are at Paris. So today I asked to myself if when all continents were one, if the difference ...