physics of the Earth and its environment in space. Its subjects include the shape of the Earth, its gravitational and magnetic fields, the dynamics of the Earth as a whole and of its component parts, the Earth's internal structure, the generation of magmas, the hydrological cycle including snow and ...

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2
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2answers
601 views

Why England is so cloudy?

Why, physically, some regions of the globe are affected by a noticeable cloudiness respect to others? Is the reason why some places are also rainy the same?
6
votes
2answers
219 views

Why are we not affected by the radiation of the radioactive decay going inside the Earth?

I was reading the question Why has Earth's core not become solid?, and one of the answers says that The core is heated by radioactive decays of Uranium-238, Uranium-235, Thorium-232, and ...
25
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3answers
2k views

Why has Earth's core not become solid?

The Earth is billions of years old, yet its core has not yet cooled down and become solid. Will this happen in the foreseeable future?
-1
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1answer
88 views

Surface Area Relative to Element Distribution

We tend to find heavier elements like iron and others toward the center of celestial bodies. Lighter elements like carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are almost always towards the surface. That makes ...
1
vote
1answer
452 views

What is the deepest man-made underground tunnel? [closed]

What is the deepest tunnel in the Earth's surface? I have meet numbers, around 300km. What is the main problem to make tunnel more deeper? What is the problem with 1000km?
1
vote
1answer
53 views

What is the height of breeze/wind?

How high does a breeze/wind blow? (If you are out in the open and can feel the breeze blowing, till how high is this breeze felt?) And what are the factors that affect it?
1
vote
1answer
747 views

Why did the Earth cool down?

In physics text books, it has only stated that Earth cooled down and so, water vapour condense and other life form develop and et cetera. But, why did Earth cooled down in the first place? What caused ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Frequency of earthquakes

Are earthquakes getting less frequent across the centuries? I know that more seismic stations have register more earthquakes in the last century, but that doesn't imply there were more. I am ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Is the fraction of radioactive isotopes on the near side of the moon higher than on the far side?

As time passes more slowly in a region of space close to the source of a gravitational field, shouldn't the moon, which always has one side facing towards the earth, have a higher fraction of ...
2
votes
3answers
270 views

Why does the wind direction vary locally?

If the air is flowing with the earth, as it rotates, how do we feel a breeze and strong winds at times, as everyone has experienced, the wind shifts as if from many directions.
0
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3answers
264 views

Do volcano blast changes earth's course?

Volcano blasts are one of the most powerful calamities on earth. When they blast they release large amount of mass in the air just like a jet does. Does such a blast have any effect on the course of ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Potential collapse during an earthquake? [closed]

I was asked to determine the shear forces on 12" diameter table legs supporting a few hundred pounds of static weight. How does one calculate or determine the potential force on the legs and/or ...
7
votes
2answers
267 views

rotational oblateness

I am trying to compute the amount of oblateness that is caused by planetary rotation. I picture the force of gravity added to the centrifugal force caused by the rotation of the planet as follows: ...
2
votes
1answer
535 views

Pressure derivatives of the bulk modulus of materials? (Solved) [closed]

Isotherm bulk modulus is defined by $$K=\rho\left(\frac{\partial p}{\partial\rho}\right)_T=-v\left(\frac{\partial p}{\partial v}\right)_T$$ wherein $v=\tfrac{1}{\rho}$ is the specific volume. Studying ...
14
votes
1answer
341 views

What is the evidence for the super-rotation of Earth's inner core?

What are the geophysical observations that support (or contradict) the hypothesis that the Earth's inner core rotates at a faster rate than the Earth's mantle? Summary of Answers: 1) Studies of ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Modeling elastic moduli as a continuous function in space for a single solid material

I've read a number of solid mechanics papers where a single material is modeled with constant elastic moduli (lame parameters $\lambda$, $\mu$). I've also seen composite materials modeled with ...
3
votes
2answers
159 views

What made the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake?

The Ocean Drilling Program recently published results indicating that the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake produced a maximum co-seismic slip of more than 50 meters near the Japan Trench. This is the ...
6
votes
2answers
649 views

Why isn't the Earth's core temperature the average of its surface temperatures?

Assuming that the earth is spherical, that its temperature is continuous, and that some other more or less realistic conditions hold, we might think that the Earth's core temperature should be about ...
8
votes
3answers
811 views

How is it that the Earth's atmosphere is not “blown away”?

The Earth moves at a high rate of speed around the Sun, and the solar system is moving quickly around the Milky Way. How is it that the Earth's atmosphere is not “blown away”?
7
votes
2answers
654 views

Is the total mass of Earth's atmosphere essentially constant in time?

Per a few questions and comments on this site such as Huge buildings affect earth's rotation? I wonder, is the mass of the Earth's atmosphere roughly constant? We're burning an incredible amount ...
5
votes
3answers
5k views

Can the Earth's magnetic be used to generate electricity?

Since the Earth has a magnetic field, can it, in theory, be run through a conductive metal coil to create electricity?
6
votes
2answers
268 views

What is known about the Magnetic North Pole's location before 1800?

I was recently startled to find that the Earth's North Magnetic Pole is moving at upwards of 40 km per year, with an additional ~80 km daily elliptical drift about its mean position due to variations ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Energy conversions, on terrestrial scale, before and during a massive Earthquake

Ethan Siegel is an astrophysicist who is now making a living as science blogger. There is a post titled: Where does an Earthquake's energy come from? Ethan Siegel points out that massive earthquake ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

What is the Earth's magnetic field in space?

I have looked around a bit, but haven't found a simple answer. At an altitude between 100-1000 km, Is the magnetic field B still around $\sim 10^{-5}\ T$? Is there a simple equation that would provide ...
2
votes
1answer
147 views

What is the most optimal earth's axial tilt in terms of variation of seasons?

What is the most optimal earth's axial tilt in terms of variation of seasons? What would be optimal axial tilt for earth that life would exist and change of seasons would be at minimal level?
7
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5answers
781 views

Why the water remains on the surface of the Earth?

What makes the water stay on the surface? Why the earth does not absorb the water in it?
-7
votes
1answer
100 views

Energy flows in the core also responsible for another of the planet’s unique [closed]

Energy flows in the core also responsible for another of the planet’s unique features: a strong magnetic field. Scientists believe that the earth has had a magnetic field for at least 3.5 billion ...
1
vote
2answers
262 views

Does Earth produce metallic elements in its core?

Does Earth produce metallic elements in its core?
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Where does the energy of a lightning strike go?

Lightning contains a lot of energy, so where does this energy go after lightning has hit the ground? Does it travel all the way to the core? What happens after that?
12
votes
3answers
259 views

Radio-dating and the age of the earth

I understand there are a few radio-dating methods to determine the age of the earth, uranium-lead to name one (maybe not the best though). The ratio Pb206 + Pb207 to U allows you to find when the ...
4
votes
1answer
926 views

What if the earth's core goes cold?

What effects would occur if the earth's core goes cold? Would the planet stay liveable after this happens?
2
votes
2answers
79 views

Is the altitude of the surface of the ice at the south pole determined by barometric pressure?

In one section of his auto-biography, Alvarez: Adventures of a Physicist, Luis Alvarez describes a tour of Antarctica. This comment about a flight over the south pole caught my attention: The ...
3
votes
2answers
224 views

Earth's core electric charge

Forgive my limited knowledge, but the Earth's magnetic field is created by the conductive liquid in the core and to the best I can tell organizing itself (which means separating charges?). Would this ...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

Magnetic field line length

If I had a magnetic bar in space that was 2cm wide and 2cm high and was one Earth diameter long and had the same magnetic strength as the Earth, would the distribution of field lines be the same ...
4
votes
2answers
302 views

Can wind blowing on smooth water create speckle interference patterns?

On a calm smooth lake, or even a large rain puddle, I've seen transient rough patches on the surface suddenly appear and disappear, and sometimes move across the water some distance before ...
2
votes
1answer
320 views

Refraction seismology - travel time for wave

I am taking an introductory class in seismology, but have some difficulties understanding the logic behind the formula used to calculate the time it takes for a refracted wave to return to the surface ...
6
votes
1answer
130 views

Amount of thermal energy in the Earth?

Does anyone know the amount of thermal energy that the Earth's mantle and core possess? I don't mean the maximum limit of electrical power we could generate with geothermal plants, but rather: if you ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

What geological properties of the earth could we deduce by measuring magnetic field strength and direction?

I wonder if it is of any use for a geophysicist, if we measure the magnetic field strength and direction of the earth. Could we make valid statements about the composition of the the earth, earth ...
3
votes
0answers
54 views

Special conditions at layer F2 ionosphere

I saw this graph about the electrons density in different altitudes and difference between night and day, the difference between the 2 electron densities (day and night) decreases till 300 Km (F2 ...
5
votes
2answers
436 views

Plate tectonics and water

In a couple of places already i've read the following assertion: It is believed that plate tectonics might play an important part in maintaining the presence of water on a planet's surface one ...
6
votes
1answer
64 views

Is it possible to determine astronomically/astrophysically whether other planets have ever encountered polarity reversal?

We know of geomagnetic flip in Earth's history by studying geologic data. Given other planets in the system also possess a magnetic field leads to the assumption that such polarity reversal may not be ...
1
vote
1answer
135 views

Can I estimate the long-term surface heat transfer coefficient based on a temperature difference between the air surface and ground surface?

I want to estimate the long-term or annual heat transfer coefficient for the earth's surface in a particular area where the mean annual air surface temperature is about 13$^\circ$C, and the mean ...
0
votes
1answer
349 views

Refraction and Reflection Seismology

So I am wondering if I got the difference right. Both methods use explosives to send waves into the earth's surface. Now reflection seismology tries to get information from the reflected waves; the ...
3
votes
2answers
204 views

The earth's magnetic field

This might sound like a silly question. Is it possible for the earth's magnetic field to actually destroy or harm earth? (implosion, crushing etc.)
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Gravity measurements above volcanic chamber

I am trying to find out what formula to use for the above issue. If I do a gravity measurement above a volcanic chamber, what do I have to do? I thought about adding the Bouger corrections, as it is a ...
3
votes
1answer
157 views

How far does typical view of clouds/atmosphere extend?

The specific "sub questions" I'm asking are: When you are looking at clouds just on the horizon, how far away would they be? How wide (in km) is that total field of vision at roughly cloud height. ...
1
vote
2answers
529 views

Underground explosions due to plate tectonics and natural gas pockets

I am not sure if anyone has ever researched this but I am curious about underground reservoirs of natural gas and plate tectonics. Specifically, as the Earth's crust gets pulled down to the mantle do ...
3
votes
2answers
540 views

Water from Icebergs

Thousands of icebergs are calved from polar regions annually, and melt in the oceans. George Mougin, an entrepreneurial engineer, aspires to tow multi-million ton icebergs to areas of the world ...
6
votes
2answers
141 views

Would it be possible for geophysicists/geoengineers to develop an artificial way of trapping carbon in the ocean?

There's a mechanism by which the southern ocean sequesters carbon from the atmosphere. It happens when strong winds displace a large slab of surface water, accumulating in a specific region where the ...
4
votes
1answer
111 views

Ratio of horizontal to vertical kinetic energy in ocean

What is the ratio between horizontal and vertical kinetic energy in the ocean and what is the scale dependencies of this ratio ?