The subfield of optics in which light propagation is approximated in terms of rays. It mainly includes reflection and refraction on surfaces.

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How to calculate desired light path in continuous medium with gradient refraction index

See the Figure below. $O:(0,0)$ is the disk center of light source $\odot{O}$ with radius $3$. Then the profile light rays of disk $O$ from the view point $B:(-14,0)$ is defined by segments $DB$ ...
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94 views

False sunset and false sunrise time estimation

False sunset and false sunrise are described . Here is a sample day rise and set time according to AccuWheather site and calculated value of sunrise and sunset in my country. Could you please help ...
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139 views

Why isn't Zemax showing a tilt on the wavefront on my telescope design?

Attached is a Zemax file Zemax File for an afocal telescope system. When i tilt the field by an angle of 2 degrees (In green) I would expect a wavefront tilt at the "Image " plane, however when I ...
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80 views

Optics: finding total power of a syste, including wavelength

Specifically I need to create an ABCD matrix given 2 radii of curvatures, the thickness of the lens, type of glass (BK7) and a given wavelength. I will have to figure this out eventually, so help ...
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40 views

Aquarium/refractive indices/detector

Quick question: I'm currently fiddling around with this homework of mine and I seem to be lacking some basic optics knowledge apparently. An aquarium is filled with a fluid as seen in the figure ...
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132 views

General proof of formulas of geometric optics?

In most lf textbooks formulas of geometric optics like lens maker formula and base formula for that are proven (or rather verified from my point of view) by taking specific case (ray diagram) and ...
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69 views

Rayleigh length determination for Laguerre-Gaussian Modes

Recently I have measured the Rayleigh length of a Gaussian electron beam probe in a scanning electron microscope, using the function: $$w(z) = w_0 \times \sqrt{1 + (z/z_r)^2}$$ Where $w$ is beam ...
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139 views

Interpreting Seidel Aberration coefficients

I am trying to model a simple system in Zemax (though I think the question is general and is not limited to Zemax app), but the ray-tracing does not seem to be consistent with the analysis of the ...
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40 views

Ray tracing a three-way intersection

I've been studying ray tracing in media with linear velocity-depth functions. One of the key concepts I've come across is the ray parameter, and in particular the idea that the ray parameter is ...
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62 views

how can a lens combination take virtual object to the second lens?

When two lenses are in combination. what logic is it to take the image of first lens (which is not formed in real) as a virtual object to the second lens ?
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106 views

Why the Caustic of a circle is the most bright curve in the circle?

Caustic of a cirle is the envelope of light rays reflected by a circle, which is the most bright curve in the circle. But why? Here is the picture shows the Caustic of a circle.
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17 views

Prismatic shaped rear view mirrors

To reduce the intensity of the incident light, prismatically shaped rear view mirrors are used in cars with a day-night switch which changes the angle such that instead of the polished surface ...
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25 views

Method of Transformed Impedances

So I am taking an advanced optics class at the moment, using the book Lasers and Electro-Optics by Chris Davis. At one point, while explaining the concept of impedance, he mentions something called ...
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49 views

Source of a parabolic wavefront

The Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral has been formulated for incident spherical waves. A source of a spherical wave is kind of intuitive, since the perpendicular rays of the sphere converge into a ...
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56 views

Why isn't the magnifying power in a compound microscope zero when image is formed at infinity?

I think, in a compound microscope, angular magnification and lateral(or linear) magnification is given by the same formula for both image at infinity and near point(D) And the formula is ...
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35 views

Optimization of transfer matrix method for quarter wave stack

Does anyone have any tips for Matlab optimization algorithms to use with a 2x2 Transfer Matrix Method Program? I have written a Matlab function that takes a series of refractive index values and ...
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65 views

How does light manage to change its course at the boundary of two media of different optical densities?

This is a conceptual question. I already know the law of refraction but I need something like an idea of the Physical process from both particle and wave theory standpoints. Why does a ray of light ...
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97 views

About Powell lens

I am a Post graduation student and I am doing a project on the conversion of a Gaussian beam into a flat top beam using optical components. I have found that the best component to do the same is a ...
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90 views

geometric ray tracing

I'm using matlab for tracing rays in 3D through an optical system. I have a 3D prism which its yz cross section is a parabola, and its xz cross section is flat. It has non negligible thickness. I know ...
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34 views

Fresnel coefficient

I dont think I have enough backgrounds for optics. I am sorry for asking this elementary question. I am reading a paper Phyc Rev A, Vol 59 # 6, 1999 they introduces discontinuity matrix ...
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48 views

Microscopy: aperture matching and Huygen's principle

I have repeatedly read that the maximum spatial resolution of a microscope occurs when the aperture of the objective and condenser are the same. However, I don't understand why. The resolution is ...
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22 views

Hildring - Influence of vertical temperature gradient on light beam curvature

In special atmospheric condition it is possible to see coastline that normally is behind the horizon. It is apparently lifted to become visible. In Scandinavian the phenomenon is called 'hildring', a ...
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55 views

Does the anisotropic Fermat eikonal equation predict the extraordinary ray direction given by Poynting vector?

Does the anisotropic Fermat eikonal equation predict the extraordinary ray direction given by Poynting vector?
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39 views

Increasing the volume of a object in a photograph

I have two images which look like this --- These images are two views of a calibration object --- the white die that you see hanging in the middle. The problem is that, the die is too small and ...
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47 views

Can multiple lasers be concentrated in a circular area using some optical arrangements?

Can multiple lasers be concentrated in a circular area using some optical arrangements such as using a paraboloid surface? If yes, why do in high laser power systems do they use only 2D arrays of ...
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68 views

Beamsplitter and Dielectric Mirror

Among two optical components. One is a Nd:YAG Laser 50/50 Beamsplitter and the second one is a Dielectric Mirror see pictures. Both of them almost looks like the same. If the specification is not ...
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35 views

How much can a thin layer of hi-speed material within a low-speed volume block a wave due to total internal reflection?

Consider a block of isotropic material with compression wave velocity associated with it, $v_1$. Consider a thin flat layer of high compression wave velocity $v_2, v_2>v_1$ that is buried within ...
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46 views

How close do two wavelengths of light need to be to produce a metamer?

Suppose I have two wavelengths of light ($r_1$, $r_2$) coming from a source. These rays are then reflected specularly on a surface. What is the minimum distance required for the two wave trains of ...
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111 views

Is my textbook in error about this geometric optics relation?

Given a centered optical system (having an axis of rotational symmetry), let $H_1$ be the intersection of the optical axis and the "principal object plane" (I'm studying in French and have no idea how ...
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450 views

What are Jones matrices and how to derive them?

I'm coding a software for an optics lab I'm working in and I need to know how to derive expressions for Jones matrices for various polarizes. What does a Jones matrix represent and how would you ...
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941 views

How to use the Coddington shape factor?

We are given $\sigma=\frac{r2+r1}{r2-r1}$, with $\sigma$ being the Coddington shape factor. What I am having problems with is solving for $r1$ and $r2$ when I am just given a focal length and a ...
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13 views

Using thin needle for object and thick needle for image

I have performed an experiment to determine the focal length of a concave mirror in my school lab. It consists of an optical bench with two needles, one as object and one image. We basically try to ...
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31 views

Sign convention in geometrical optics

This is slight misconception that has bugged me. While deriving the mirror formula: $$\frac{1}{u}+\frac{1}{v}=\frac{1}{f},$$ people (as per my reference book) tend to apply the sign convention to ...
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36 views

Derivation of the formula related to number of images?

I have read in my book that if two mirrors are inclined at an angle $\theta$, if 360/$\theta$ is even , the number of images is given by (360/$\theta$) -1 What is the derivation of this formula? I ...
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13 views

The image of an object through a curved surface

We have a curved surface, separating two different medium, with refractive index n1 and n2. We know the radius R of the curve,then how can we find the position v of the image? I read that the ...
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44 views

Lens formula and Lens maker's formula

When we derive the formula for lens and lens maker's formula using the formula for refraction at spherical interface $$\mu_2/v - \mu_1/u = (\mu_2-\mu_1)/R$$ we put $u$ to be $-u$ as it is on the left ...
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31 views

Refracting telescope image formation

I'm having some trouble understanding how a refracting telescope forms a magnified image for an object that is not assumed to be infinitely far away. I drew this ray diagram: And as you can see, a ...
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62 views

Image formed by a Prism

A series of questions that came in my mind after I saw a question So here it goes first the questions that have made me confused : 1) How image is formed by the prism? 2) When we take different ...
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31 views

Balance lens tilt aberration

Given a doublet (singlet in reference figure), if the rays enter at an angle with respect to the origin axis, we would see a shift of focal length for blue and red. A known optical jitter How could ...
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46 views

Velocity of image formed by a spherical mirror in Y axis

If an object is moving with velocity $v_0$ along the positive Y axis in front of a convex mirror of focal length $f$ at a horizontal distance $u$ from the mirror's pole, what will be the velocity of ...
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23 views

Effect of introducing lens on Fringe width

Suppose I have a light source of wavelength 400 nm. The slits are placed at a distance 1 mm apart. The distance between the slit plane and the screen is 50 cm. So that makes the fringe width, $\beta ...
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22 views

How to collimate a wide-field from a classical Cassegrain telescope?

I have a 0.25 degree field-of-view Cassegrain telescope (see below) that I'm trying to collimate, i.e. make the diverging beam afocal, not collimate in the sense of aligning M1-M2. I can do this with ...
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160 views

A small object faces the convex spherical glass window of a small water tank, find the final image?

I was hoping you guys could look over my solution to this question. A small object faces the convex spherical glass window of a small water tank. The radius of curvature of the window is 5cm. The ...
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44 views

Trapping force in optical tweezer

I am reading a paper on theory of optical tweezers in ray optics regime by A. Ashkin. For reference "click here". It is given that Gradient force $F_g$ is directed perpendicular to the light ray and ...
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77 views

In Fermat's Principle of Least Time, how do we know that light is able to reach the end point?

From my understanding of Fermat's Principle, you decide a start point and an end point for a light ray to travel between, and the light 'chooses' whichever path takes the least time (or technically ...
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56 views

Configurations and configuration manifold in Lagrangian Optics

In Classical Mechanics, given a certain system of particles it is possible to consider the configuration manifold $Q$ which is a differentiable manifold whose points are possible configurations of the ...
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38 views

What's the difference between two types of diaphragms?

What's the principal difference between aperture iris diaphragm and field iris diaphragm?
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87 views

When to use lateral magnification vs angular magnification?

What is the essential difference between lateral and angular magnification (like why do we need to use both and when do we use which)? Also, is there a relationship between the two magnifications?
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23 views

Why would longer distance between collimated lenses improve coupling efficiency?

Im coupling 1550nm output from a single-mode lensed optical fiber to a standard SMF using a pair of collimating lenses, matched to the NA of the respective fibers. However, I find that by increasing ...
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31 views

How can line be parallel to Pricipal Axis after following Paraxial Ray Approximation?

I Studied In my previous Standards that Light Parallel to principal axis passes through focus always in Concave Mirror. But Now In one Book I read that there is a condition which should be followed ...