The subfield of optics in which light propagation is approximated in terms of rays. It mainly includes reflection and refraction on surfaces.

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140 views

Good explanation of a real image?

Okay well I've started to study phys chem in school recently and I honestly can't get my head around what a real image actually is I've asked my teacher to demonstrated it but she's quite lazy, and ...
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2answers
248 views

Calculate the polarization vector on reflection or refraction from a dielectric interface

I am interested in ray-tracing polarized photons. I have code that works very well for unpolarized light. When a ray hits a dielectric interface the photon is either reflected or refracted by ...
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2answers
184 views

Change of hue near shadows

My brother is an artist and he told me his paintings look more natural when he slightly change the hue (color) of the surface near the transition between shadow and light. Here's three examples: (1) ...
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2answers
998 views

Why do powers of lenses get added?

In our physics class, we were told that a power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its focal length. Also, the powers of multiple lenses get added up. But I didn't understand why this is. I ...
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1answer
265 views

How mirror equation can explain farsightedness correction?

I have a friend who has just show me his medical prescription for hyperopia (farsightedness) correction and he needs glasses with 4,25 diopters for that, which seemed to be weird for me because I had ...
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1answer
523 views

Wave theory limit of geometric optics? [duplicate]

Why is geometric optics the low wavelength limit of the wave theory of light? I can't seem to grasp why either a low or high wavelength limit would be necessary.
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1answer
226 views

Refraction of light in water

Here's a question in a paper based on refraction of light. I can't seem to solve it for some reason. A man looks down at a fish length of 20 cm. His eye is 2m above the surface of the water ...
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2answers
375 views

Converting indices of refraction

If I know that the index of refraction of a given substance is 1.4 for the average wavelength (say 550 nm), and I would like to know what is the index of refraction with a wavelength of 832 nm, how ...
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2answers
322 views

Finding the illuminance from a triangular light source

Since most light sources in games are point-like, it's pretty difficult to approximate area light sources with point sources. As triangles are a universal form to represent 3D models (thus area light ...
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2answers
114 views

Simulating an Optical Lens

An optical lens focuses the light according to a rule (due to its special shape) and we know that rule. Now, instead of making bigger and bigger lenses, can we use an array of optical sensors and the ...
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3answers
602 views

Two different mediums can have equal index of refraction?

In other words: given a certain medium, is light's phase velocity unique?
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0answers
43 views

How close do two wavelengths of light need to be to produce a metamer?

Suppose I have two wavelengths of light ($r_1$, $r_2$) coming from a source. These rays are then reflected specularly on a surface. What is the minimum distance required for the two wave trains of ...
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1answer
185 views

Formation on image on screen?

When we first learn elementary geometrical optics, the first thing taught to us is the two broad divisions of the type of reflection.-Regular and Irregular or Diffused. The difference in cause for ...
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1answer
133 views

Seeing the image as explained by Geometrical optics?

I was thinking about how the human visual system perceives the position of an object. I assume it essentially does this by focussing the incoming rays onto the retina and then judging from the power ...
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1answer
136 views

Perfectly focusing refractive surface

On reading Feynman's lecture on physics, in the geometrical optics section he said that a curve which focuses all the rays coming from a point to another fixed point beyond the refracting surface ...
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0answers
90 views

Is my textbook in error about this geometric optics relation?

Given a centered optical system (having an axis of rotational symmetry), let $H_1$ be the intersection of the optical axis and the "principal object plane" (I'm studying in French and have no idea how ...
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3answers
565 views

Light Ray Reflection from concave mirror

Suppose a ray of light hits a concave mirror and is parallel to the principal axis but far away from it such that it doesn't follow paraxial ray approximation. Will it pass through focus or between ...
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2answers
109 views

Is light red shifted in optical tweezers?

This is a question I put to my supervisor during my PhD many years ago, and never really got a satisfactory answer to. In an optical tweezers, assume that a beam of light is used to move a glass ...
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1answer
309 views

Why can't we see real images?

When light from an object passes through a convex lense, it gets reconverged at a single real image. From there, the light rays presumabely begin diverging again, exactly as if there was a ...
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2answers
2k views

Can virtual image be photographed

Is there any instrument that can photograph a virtal image? How would such a device work?
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2answers
492 views

How does the eye perceive a real image?

Okay, so I'm trying to grasp how the human eye will perceive the real image created for example by a convex lens. Take the upper image in this picture for example. If you were to place a screen at ...
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2answers
357 views

Why don't you see multiple images of an object?

Consider the ray model of light. Let's say an object such as a pencil is illuminated, and consider one point on that pencil. Since there could be many rays of light bouncing off the same point on the ...
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1answer
559 views

Sign convention of the lens formula and its application

Why is the sign convention used in the derivation of the lens formula and yet used again when it is applied in numerical problems? Won't the whole idea of sign convention be eliminated if it is used ...
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1answer
195 views

Which fraction of light is refracted from a source of light under a lake?

I was trying to solve this problem: "A punctiform source of light is standing inside a lake, at a height h of the surface. f is the fraction of the total of energy emitted that escapes directly from ...
3
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2answers
179 views

Proof that a spherical lens is stigmatic

In geometric optics, we generally allow that, for example in the case of a convex lens, rays coming from a particular point get refracted towards another particular point on the opposite side of the ...
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3answers
427 views

What does it mean that a wavevector is null?

I have derived geometric optics for gravitational waves and I am trying to interpret one of the results. I have \begin{equation} k_{\rho}k^{\rho}=0 \end{equation} for the wavevector. For the case ...
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4answers
337 views

What does the wave principle of light actually represent?

Light has a dual nature, one of photons and the other of waves. But energy doesn't really travel in waves. So what do the wave represent?
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0answers
14 views

Image formation [duplicate]

What is the real cause behind the formation of an image? It is explained as" when rays of light focus at a point image is formed." So here we have two events, one focusing of light and another ...
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2answers
653 views

All mirrors always shrink to 50% scale?

I have this geometric optics exercise here, in which a man is looking at himself in a mirror. Determine the minimum height at which the bottom of the mirror must be placed so the man can see his ...
2
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1answer
325 views

Eikonal approximation for wave optics. Why follow the unit vector parallel to the Pointing vector?

The description of the passage from wave optics to geometrical optics claims that light rays are the integral curves of a certain vector field (the Pointing vector direction, normalized to 1). Here ...
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2answers
686 views

Can't seem to reconcile geometric optics and wave optics

I was looking at a physics situation involving light, and I can make the correct derivation assuming light is a ray of a given intensity (geometric optics), energy conservation checks out, everything. ...
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2answers
2k views

Does light reflect if incident at exactly the critical angle?

A lot of textbooks and exam boards claim that light incident at exactly the critical angle is transmitted along the media boundary (i.e. at right-angles to the normal), but this seems to violate the ...
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1answer
194 views

On the optics of high-resolution surveillance drones

In this youtube video (which is an except from a documentation I believe) a DARPA development for a high-resolution surveillance camera is presented. This question is regarding the optics that are ...
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1answer
321 views

Thin lens formulae

Hi I have a question about applying the thin lens formula $$ \frac{n_1}{s_o} + \frac{n_2}{s_i} = \frac{n_2 - n_1}{R} \,\text{thin lens formula}$$ for a single lens emerged in medium $n_2$ in the ...
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2answers
472 views

Goldfish perspective

What does the world look like from the Goldfish point of view, from inside a spherical aquarium? If our eyes were inside, would we be able to see the straight lines, focus on different objects and ...
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1answer
321 views

Correcting for bad eyesight on display monitors [duplicate]

I think it would be neat if one could configure one's eyesight parameters (astigmatism and myopia in my case), viewing distance, and perhaps age into a special display driver, such that a computer ...
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2answers
267 views

Why does a blue sky at dusk appear nearly black through a telescope?

Earlier this evening I was looking at the Moon through my cheap toy telescope (x150 magnification) when I noticed a (rather mundane) optical effect I couldn't explain. The Sun had just dipped below ...
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1answer
1k views

Beam splitters- Direction of use

There are two cases I'm asking about. The square in the middle is a cube beam splitter in the same orientation for both cases. We are looking at the beam splitter from the top. In the first case, ...
3
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2answers
301 views

Redirecting light beams from beam splitters

I'm doing a project where I am taking a laser beam and sending it through a beam splitter. As I understand, approximately 50% of the light will go pass through and 50% will be reflected. So this means ...
4
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2answers
1k views

How to make the projected image smaller by adding one ore more lenses in front of the built in projector lense?

I have a projector that creates a large image, even if the distance to the screen is short. The device is very small, approximateley 10x10 cm if you look from above. The height is only 3 cm. I ...
3
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1answer
150 views

Why a star commonly exhibits 6 rays?

Have you realized, that often the photo of a star shows 6 rays spreaded symmetrically around it, independently of the camera chosen? Do you have idea of what kind of optical phenomena is behind it?
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1answer
145 views

Optical waveguide that can displace a 4D light field

Has anyone invented an optical waveguide that can "pipe" a scene from one place to another unaltered? More precisely, I want to displace (and/or rotate) a 4D light field. An optical waveguide is an ...
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1answer
360 views

If light diverges, how can there be a virtual image?

I have seen this question: Why can you see virtual images? but answers evade the question. Light needs to hit the retina in order, what is the meaning of "dashed" lines in most visualizations that ...
3
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2answers
227 views

How did ancient physicists around 500 BC decide that the earth is spherical?

One of the standard stories that is given for this (and is mentioned in Aristotle) is that the hull of a ship disappears first as it sails towards the horizon on a calm sunny day. Is this a myth, or ...
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2answers
407 views

How much of himself a person can see in the mirror? [closed]

A man who is $6$ ft tall is standing in front of a plane mirror that is $2$ ft in length. The mirror is placed lengthwise with its bottom edge $4$ ft above the floor on a wall that is $5$ ft ...
0
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1answer
535 views

How does the Fraunhofer irradiance distribution look for a double slit aperture of different lengths?

How does the Fraunhofer irradiance distribution look for a double slit aperture with $d$ = integer multiples of $b$?
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0answers
322 views

What are Jones matrices and how to derive them?

I'm coding a software for an optics lab I'm working in and I need to know how to derive expressions for Jones matrices for various polarizes. What does a Jones matrix represent and how would you ...
11
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1answer
372 views

light ray 'entropy'

Is there something like an entropy law for light rays? I came up with the following experiment: A black box has two circular holes in it, a small and a large one. I don't care about there ...
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1answer
228 views

How to define the required aspherical coefficients for a lens?

I would like to purchase my own aspherical lens for testing purpose. Then I need to define the required coefficients. But how? My known requirements are f=25mm F/# 2.0 and MTF 0.5 @ 120lp/mm with a wl ...
2
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1answer
237 views

Curved lines in a picture (Photography)

My problem is when I take a picture (a close one) the straight edge looks a little curved. In a standard camera, like a CyberShot. I would like to know if there is some relationship between the ...