A theory that describes how matter interacts dynamically with the geometry of space and time. It was first published by Einstein in 1915 and is currently used to study the structure and evolution of the universe, as well as having practical applications like GPS.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

0
votes
0answers
16 views

Simple Question About Repulsive Potential Field Time Dilation

A space-time with a point mass gravitational potential given by $\Phi(r)$ has a metric described by, $$ds^2=-\left(1+\cfrac{2 \cdot \Phi(r)}{c^2} \right) \cdot c^2 \cdot dt^2+\left(1-\cfrac{2 \cdot ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Does Alcubierre drive allow time travel? [closed]

In Alcubierre drive, one can travel apparently faster than the speed of light by "compressing" space in front in the direction of travel. So let's say we have a stationary observer at point A, and an ...
-2
votes
2answers
285 views

what is relation between time and space in general relativity?

there is a relation between time and space in special theory of relativity: $$t^2c^2-L^2=\tau^2.c^2$$ what is relation between time and space in general relativity?
1
vote
2answers
59 views

Power of blueshifted light falling on observer in circular orbit around Schwarzschild black hole

This answer explains that the time dilation for an observer in a circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole, relative to a distant observer at rest relative to the black hole, is given by the ...
3
votes
3answers
156 views

Large gravitational waves

The recently detected gravitational wave at LIGO were extremely small - requiring a $1 billion interferometer to even detect its presence as it passes Earth. The gravitational constant G is small: ...
5
votes
2answers
57 views

Wald's General Relativity, section 6.3 Page 144

I cannot understand how he reaches the conclusion in equation 6.3.36 and 6.3.37; even the terminology is somewhat confusing. This is a problem of bending of light under gravitational field. This is ...
1
vote
2answers
73 views

How can geometrized units have more than one constant equal to 1?

I can understand how you could manipulate units to make a certain constant equal to $1$, like $c$ or $G$, et cetera. But how can you make it so two constants (in this case $c$ and $G$) are equal to ...
37
votes
4answers
6k views

Are black holes very dense matter or empty?

The popular description of black holes, especially outside the academia, is that they are highly dense objects; so dense that even light (as particle or as waves) cannot escape it once it falls inside ...
3
votes
1answer
162 views

What is the problem with quantizing GR in the Effective Field Theory approach?

In the modern view due to Wilson, the cut-off $\Lambda$ is an intrinsic property of a theory and renormalization just means that the theory is invariant under scale transformations below $\Lambda$. ...
-8
votes
4answers
283 views

Why didn't LIGO wait for a second observation of a gravitational wave? Are not reproducible results fundamental to science? [closed]

Wikipedia states, "Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method." So why did LIGO ignore a main principle of the scientific method? My whole life I have been taught that ...
3
votes
2answers
88 views

Gravity and spacetime bending [duplicate]

Something that puzzles me if gravity is just bending of space time near a mass then what is gravitational force? If say two massive bodies were perfectly at rest relative to each other they would ...
0
votes
2answers
79 views

Are gravitational force and gravitational time dilation proportional?

Particles in gravitational fields are subject to gravitational time dilation. The closer a particle is near a gravitational source, the slower is running its clock. I would like to know more about the ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Einstein-Infeld-Hoffman-Lagrangian for a Test-Particle as Limit of Schwarzschild-Geodesic

Consider a test particle of mass $m$ which is in orbit around a spherical-symmetric body with mass $M$. It therefore has a position as described by the coordinates $r,\phi$, and its motion can be ...
3
votes
7answers
851 views

Is there a universal rest frame of reference?

I am still struggling with C being a constant and what that implies. So can an experiment be done to find the resting state for the universe? Take a device with an observer and a light source and two ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Coordinate form of divergence of anti-symmetric tensor field [closed]

just a quick question on something that might save me a little bit of time and effort. In a general curved metric, the divergence of a vector field, $A^\mu$, can be written as: $ \nabla_\mu A^\mu = ...
2
votes
2answers
188 views

What is the metric tensor for?

I am wondering how to use the metric tensor, in practice? I read the book and done the exercises in A student's guide to vectors and tensors by Dan Fleisch. The concept of a tensor and their ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Classical Limit of Schwarzschild Metric

The orbit of a test particle orbiting a black hole can be described by the Lagrangian $$\mathcal{L} = -\frac{1}{2}\left(-\left(1-\frac{2 G m}{c^2 r}\right) \dot{t}^2 + \left(1-\frac{2 G m}{c^2 ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

What is a zero temperature horizon?

While reading the paper "Disorder horizons: Holography of randomly disordered fixed points" by Hartnoll and Santos, I came across this: We are interested in solutions with a zero temperature ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Why don't big bang photons conserve mass and energy? [duplicate]

A photon from the big bang has lost most of its momentum and energy. What does it push against? Does it break the 'laws' of conservation of energy and momentum? Is there any possibility that momentum ...
4
votes
1answer
105 views

Do gravitational waves travelling through a medium produce sound?

Say Alice decided to orbit dangerously close to a couple of black holes circling each other. She is in a heavily enclosed astronaut suit, as is Bob, who is floating much further away. Assuming Alice ...
6
votes
2answers
179 views

Implementing Category Theory in General Relativity

I was thinking if it may be possible to implement category theory in general relativity. I don't mean writing simply in terms of categories, but actual fundamental ideas (i.e. physics of the theory ...
0
votes
2answers
92 views

How is this conflict about age of the universe resolved?

In a previous Phys.SE question, Does a spaceship travelling at near lightspeed see the universe aging slow or fast?, the answer (which was followed by a proof involving co-moving reference frames) was ...
-3
votes
1answer
51 views

Could particle wave duality be caused by gravity? [closed]

We know that light (and other particles) displays particle wave duality, or the ability to be a particle and a wave at the same time. After that it becomes confusing. We also know that gravity is a ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Function to model deformed spacetime in 2D visualization of an Alcubierre drive

In the Wikipedia article on Alcubierre drive there is a top image. It is 2D visualization of an Alcubierre drive, showing the opposing regions of expanding and contracting space-time that displace the ...
4
votes
0answers
35 views

Radiative equilibrium in orbit of a black hole

According to Life under a black sun, Miller's planet from Interstellar, with a time dilation factor of 60,000, should be heated to around 890C by blue-shifted cosmic background radiation. How they ...
1
vote
1answer
177 views

If a point r lies in the boundary of the chronological future of another point p, why does the chronological future of r belong to that of p?

I am studying the global causality of the spacetime. Here, I come across a problem. Suppose a point $r\in \partial I^+(p)$. $I^+(p)$ is the chronological future of a different point $p$ in ...
-1
votes
0answers
33 views

Is there a direct relation between gravitation and gravitational time dilation? [duplicate]

The following calculation seems to show that gravitational time dilation is not only due to gravitation, but that there is a close relation between both of them: Gravitational time dilation seems to ...
-1
votes
1answer
37 views

Do we exist in warped space and time?

Does the Suns altering of space and time (as evidenced at an eclipse) extend to the Earth such that we exist in warped space and time or are we outside those effects.
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Deriving a Schwarzschild radius using relativistic mass

Introduction I have shown below two different approaches to deriving the Schwarzschild radius. I know these are less rigorous than the derivation of the Schwarzschild solution however the ...
1
vote
2answers
203 views

Confusion about gravity

I understand the “rubber sheet” model of Relativistic gravity is just an illustration, and beyond the initial issues of mixing three dimensional objects with a two dimensional representation of 3D ...
2
votes
2answers
206 views

Timelike Boundary

I was reading in a paper (see 1st paragraph of introduction section in http://arxiv.org/pdf/1510.00709.pdf) that in AdS space, waves can reach the boundary in finite time and, since said boundary is ...
34
votes
2answers
15k views

Layman's explanation and understanding of Einstein's field equations

Most of us have heard of Einstein's amazing equations which describe the universe around us, yet only some of us understand what the equations are actually saying. What are these equations ...
4
votes
1answer
169 views

Rotation of Spacetime => Change in orbit/path

Along the idea of frame-dragging; Will the rotation of a black hole, which has some velocity v and angular momentum, influence its path in 3D space? I've seen the fact that depending on the ...
10
votes
3answers
763 views

Using a black hole as a mirror?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ENd8Sz0AFOk The YouTube video is a good example how the gravity of this merging binary black holes bend light around themselves.
2
votes
0answers
56 views

Einstein equations from the Palatini action [closed]

I am trying to obtain the usual form of vacuum Einstein's equations $$ R_{\mu \nu} - \frac{1}{2} R g_{\mu \nu} + \Lambda g_{\mu \nu} = 0 $$ from the first-order (Palatini) tetradic action $$ ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

If we could perfectly control gravitational waves, could we play music with them? [closed]

Sound is just a kinetic wave propagating through a medium, right? In that case, if we had the ability to make gravitational waves exactly as we want them, could we play music to an observer some ...
7
votes
1answer
230 views

Does the spin of a particle change if observed from an accelerating reference frame?

If we consider a spin-$\frac12$ particle at rest in the absence of any potentials, we can use the Pauli spin operators and an associated basis to describe the observable. Let's arbitrarily choose the ...
0
votes
3answers
315 views

Apparent non-aberration of gravitational waves

Since GR assumes that gravitational waves travel at speed $c$, we expect we would be able to some day detect an aberration effect similar the that of light. Of course, gravitational waves are so tiny ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

Why do we need connections, if we have the Lie derivative?

When I learned about the covariant derivative, it was motivated as a way of defining a good differentiation operation on tensors. To do this, we had to define a connection on the manifold, which was a ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Derivation of the relativistic equation of energy conservation for a perfect fluid

I'm currently attempting to struggle through the first chapter of Sean M. Carrol's spacetime and geometry. I'm a bit stuck, most likely because of not understanding the mathematical operation. ...
0
votes
2answers
195 views

Coordinate Singularity in Metric

Suppose I have some metric $$ds^2=g(t)dt^2+\frac{1}{r}dr^2$$ which has a singularity at $r=0$. However, if I make the coordinate transformation $u=\frac{1}{r}$, then I get: $$ds^2=g(t)dt^2+r^3 ...
0
votes
2answers
71 views

The influence of gravity on the energy levels of atoms

There´s an ongoing debate if gravity waves (or gravity?) contains energy. But what if a very strong wave of gravity hits an atom. Let´s for simplicity say a hydrogen atom. Not a wave that is ...
3
votes
2answers
310 views

Gravitational imaging

Gravitational Imaging So as we know from the famous theory and equations of Einstein is it possible to track the individual gravitational pull?
3
votes
2answers
172 views

If space can expand faster than light why can't gravitational wave?

I heard that gravitational wave is the measure of stretchiness of space time, so since there is no limit to how fast space can stretch what about gravitational wave?
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Why is the speed of gravity the same as that of photons? [duplicate]

Why is it that the speed of massless particles in space is the same as propagating disturbances of space? We can´t send human information (with photons) faster than the speed of light. But we can ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Understanding Vaidya metric and pure radiation stress-energy tensor

I am following Vaidya metric and how it is related to pure radiation from Wikipedia. But when it reaches the line where stress-energy tensor is equated to product of two four-vectors, I cannot follow ...
0
votes
0answers
66 views

What is the explicit form of $\tau^{\alpha\beta}$ in the linearized Einstein field equations $\Box h^{\alpha\beta}=-16\pi\tau^{\alpha\beta}$?

If we let $h^{\alpha\beta}=\eta^{\alpha\beta}-g^{\alpha\beta}\sqrt{|det(g)|}$ then, according to wikipedia, the Einstein Field Equations become $$\Box h^{\alpha\beta}=-16\pi\tau^{\alpha\beta},$$ where ...
3
votes
2answers
89 views

Why does an evaporating black hole always stay a black hole?

Stars can only collaps and form black holes if their masses are above the Chandrasekhar limit, $M>M_{\rm Pl}^3/M_{\rm hydrogen}^2$. When the universe eventually cools down enough, the black holes ...
-1
votes
2answers
36 views

Curvy space in and around massive objects [closed]

If space curves around massive objects, what happens to the space within the massive objects?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term expanded at second order in the fluctuation

Does anyone know a general form for the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term expanded at quadratic order in the fluctuation of the metric? Assume to define the fluctuation of the metric $g_{\mu \nu}$ ...