# Tagged Questions

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### Questions about the degree of freedom in General Relatity

I'm confused about the number of degrees of freedom in General Relatity. There are two ways to count it. However, they are contradictory. For simplicity, we consider vacuum solution. First, ...
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### Parity invariance of Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian

How can we show that the Einstein-Hilbert action is Parity invariant? $$S_{EH}=\int \sqrt{-g}R d^4x$$
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### Is the “Force” of Gravity Simply Hamilton's Principle on a Curved Spacetime?

It's my understanding that General Relativity abstracts away the concept of gravity as a force, and instead describes it as a feature of spacetime by which massive objects cause curvature. Then it ...
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### Lagrangian for FRW metric

For the metric $$ds^2=-dt^2+a^2(t)(dx^2+dy^2+dz^2),$$ $$L= \sqrt{-g_{\alpha\beta}\frac{dx^\alpha}{dt}\frac{dx^\beta}{dt}}$$ How does this become $$L= \sqrt{1-a^2 (\frac{dx}{dt})^2}~?$$ I guess ...
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### Local symmetry and General Relativity

First I want to consider an example of 1D motion. Lagrange equation: $$\frac{d}{dt} \frac{\partial L}{\partial \dot x} - \frac{\partial L}{\partial x} = 0$$ If we transform $L \rightarrow L+a$ ...
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### The Einstein-Hilbert Action On-Shell

If one consider the Maxwell action as $$S=-\int \mathrm{d^{4}}x\! \ \frac{1}{4}F_{ab}F^{ab} \,$$ one find the usual Maxwell equation $$\partial_{a}F^{ab}=0$$ Then one can simply arrive the following ...
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### Minimal vs. Non-minimal coupling

What is the difference between Minimal vs. Non-minimal coupling in General Relativity? A brief introduction to Minimal Coupling in General Relativity could be useful too.
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### Intuition for actions written as integrals over spacetime

Right now I'm simply looking for an intuitive explaination of actions that integrate over a 4-volume element, $d^4x$ rather than a parameter say $\lambda$. More specifically I'm well versed in action ...
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### Energy-momentum tensor for dust

We all know that the energy-momentum tensor for dust is just $T^{\alpha\beta}=\rho_0v^\alpha v^\beta,$ where $\rho_0$ is the mass density in the dust's rest frame and $v^α$ is the dust's ...
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### What is the “momentum” referred to in the energy-momentum tensor

What is the "momentum" referred to in the energy momentum tensor from GR? Is it $m\dot{x}$ or is it the canonical momentum $\frac{d}{dt} \left(\frac{\partial L}{\partial \dot{x}}\right)$ Also, I ...
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### Curved spacetime point particle Lagrangian density

This is probably trivially related to the question: Action for a point particle in a curved spacetime , but am a bit unsure how to write it as a Lagrangian density. In curved spacetime the action is ...
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### Einstein action and the second derivatives

I have naive question about Einstein action for field-free case: $$S = -\frac{1}{16 \pi G}\int \sqrt{-g} d^{4}x g^{\mu \nu}R_{\mu \nu}.$$ It contains the second derivatives of metric. When we want ...
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### How to think of the harmonic oscillator equation in terms of “acceleration = gradient”

This is related to another question I just asked where I learned that the equation of motion of a harmonic oscillator is expressed as: $$\ddot{x}+kx=0$$ What little physics I grasp centers on ...
The action for the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory of gravity is $$\\S =\int d^4x\sqrt{-g} \; \left(\frac{\phi R - \omega\frac{\partial_a\phi\partial^a\phi}{\phi}}{16\pi} + ... 0answers 180 views ### Comparing Lagrangian in Special Relativity vs General Relativity for a weak gravitational field This is a sequel to this question. Who knows a difference between the Lagrangian in SR and GR for a weak gravitational field in non-relativistic case? What is the reason of this difference? 1answer 420 views ### Lagrangian for Euler Equations in general relativity The stress energy tensor for relativistic dust$$ T_{\mu\nu} = \rho v_\mu v_\nu $$follows from the action$$ S_M = -\int \rho c \sqrt{v_\mu v^\mu} \sqrt{ -g } d^4 x = -\int c \sqrt{p_\mu ...
In the derivation of the geodesic, one starts with the integral of the line element (arclength): $$L(C)=\int_{\tau_1}^{\tau_2}d\tau\sqrt{g_{\mu \nu}\dot{x}^{\mu} \dot{x}^{\nu}}$$ The integrand is ...