The quantitative study of how fluids (gases and liquids) move.

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How to model a rising helium balloon?

I'm trying to model the ascent of a helium filled weather balloon from 0km to 25km altitude. The plan is to eventually use a python script to calculate the time taken to reach 25km. However, I don't ...
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2answers
567 views

Do objects sink in ice?

The title explains it all. Do objects suspended in ice sink over time? You may remember the story of World War 2 planes that were found 260 ft under the ice which would be anachronistic with seasonal ...
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1answer
54 views

Viscous fluid flowing around obstacle: would it deflect earlier?

Consider a viscous fluid, flowing linearly (say, with velocity $\vec u = [1,0]$ everywhere). Then an obstacle is put in the flow. Would a highly viscous fluid start deflecting around the obstacle ...
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24 views

No-slip condition when one fluid flows through another

What sort of no-slip zone is in place when liquid water flows from a faucet through air at room temperature? Does the water drag a layer of air molecules along with it?
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121 views

Viscosity coefficients

I'm using the 2nd edition of "Transport Phenomena" by Bird and Stewart. I am having trouble with one of the equations: $$\tau_{ij} = \sum_k \sum_l \mu_{ijkl} \frac{\partial v_k}{\partial x_l} $$ ...
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1answer
60 views

Why viscosity is diffusive?

I'm studying fluid mechanics in more depth during my Ph. D. and there is something related with the diffusive term that has been bothering me for a long time. Looking at the convection diffusion ...
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1answer
122 views

How do I calculate pressure drop across a reduction in pipe diameter? [duplicate]

If reducing from one pipe size to another through a reducing fitting, say 6.25cm to 5cm, how do I calculate the pressure drop? Also, how does this impact a change in volumetric flow rate (or does it ...
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1answer
27 views

Equation of conservation of mass for isotropic fluid considering external forces [closed]

I have trouble doing the following problem: Consider a fluid isotropic in three dimensions such that one can ignore all dissipative forces effect, as would be the viscosity. By analyzing the flow ...
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1answer
95 views

Pascal's Principle and hydraulic lift

I am introducing myself to fluids through some physics textbooks. Most of them start with Pascal's principle.: If an external pressure is applied to a confined fluid, the pressure at every point ...
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40 views

How the pressure of a system changes in terms of density?

I am modeling a closed natural circulation loop, filled with water. Some parts of the loop are heated, some are cooled and other are assumed adiabatic. As an effect of heating and cooling the density ...
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2answers
120 views

Pressure versus Volume system problem

A rigid air tight container of volume 1.5 m$^3$ is filled with a gas of density 8 kg/m$^3$. The container has a density meter that allows us to watch the changes in density in the gas in the ...
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94 views

How much weight can a person carry to avoid being blown over by wind?

I wonder if there is a certain amount of weight that I could carry in a rolling bag to help prevent me from being knocked over by the wind. I have balance problems and some lack of muscle strength in ...
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2answers
86 views

What does k denote in this equation?

Recently, I was attempting to compare the rate of flow of different liquids using the formulas given below: $$P = \rho g h$$ $$ \frac{dh}{dt}\varpropto h$$ $$ \frac{dh}{dt} = -k h $$ $$ ...
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79 views

Physical interpretation of the change of diffusion term in navier stokes equations

In the Navier-Stokes Equations, there is one term accounting for convective flow and one term for diffusive flow. At high flow rates, the diffusive term becomes much smaller compared to convective ...
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48 views

Determining The Coefficient of Viscosity and Diffusivity in an Estuary?

I am curious and eager to discuss about the experience of determining viscosity and diffusivity coefficient for our coastal or estuary model. I myself, just start to use the range of: ...
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1answer
59 views

How to caculate the pressure of a fluid when there is no gravity

Well for example we put a ball filled with water, with a density of $1\cdot 10^3 kg/m^3$, in space. How to calculate the pressure the water is exposed to?
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58 views

Shape of the “flow head” in Laminar flow in pipe

Laminar flow is a streamlined steady flow with a uniform gradient of velocity across the diameter of the pipe. I am familiar with the elementary treatment of laminar flow, like basic velocity ...
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2answers
46 views

Estimating parameters to Falkenhagen equation for viscosity of solutes

In this answer to a question about viscosity of water in the presence of solutes, the Falkenhagen relation is given: $$\frac{\eta_s}{\eta_0}=1+A\sqrt{c}$$ where $\eta_s$ is the solution ...
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2answers
86 views

What is a good model for computing water dropping on a surface?

Before introducing my question I would like to outline the fact that I'm a coder, so I can be wrong when using some kind of terminology. What is a good model for computing the flow, the shape and all ...
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83 views

Dynamics of Honey in hot water: Honey accelerates like it is falling through air?

Here is a Video showing the honey accelerating in the hot water. As you can see, there are also dynamics. Since the water started stationary, I guess the dynamics arise because of convection flow. ...
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54 views

Which body position causes the least amount of negative acceleration? [closed]

Let's say you are in the air 500 meters above flat land and you have no parachute. Which pose - forming a sphere or spreading all extremities to make yourself as wide as possible or other - is the ...
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1answer
64 views

How can a fly be in the space of a roofless car, get out of the car space and get back in while the car is driving at the speed of 80mph? [closed]

I was driving in a cabriolet car at the speed of 80mph, while a fly flew in and out of the frame of the car. My question is, How can the fly leave the frame and get back in? Is it possible that it ...
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51 views

Finding the appropriate source term for 2D Pressure Driven Flow in a Square Channel

I'm trying to solve the equation: $$ \frac{\partial^2 v_z(x,y)}{\partial x^2} + \frac{\partial^2 v_z(x,y)}{\partial y^2} = \frac{\Delta P}{\mu \Delta X} $$ This flow is supposed to be flowing in a ...
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1answer
45 views

Convective derivative of oscillating fluid with bulk motion?

I have a fluid $u$, which comprises a zeroth order constant motion $u_0$ as well as a first order oscillatory motion $u_1$. The convective derivative is $$\frac{\partial u}{\partial t} ...
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60 views

Branching lemon drop “smoke rings”

This might be hard to ask, but here goes nothing. I recently poured a cup of water into a black coffee cup. There was a light source--not very bright--above the cup. Anyways, I was squeezing a ...
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131 views

Is there a better approximation of drag (other than quadratic drag)?

This is a student inquiry sparked by sheer curiosity. Wikipedia states the drag equation, $F = 1/2v^2pC_dA_c$. (p = mass density of fluid/gas, v = velocity, c_d = drag coefficient, a_c = cross ...
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100 views

where does the energy of water droplet go?

My experiment: I took a string (3 mm diameter and wet) and a water source (1 drops per 2 seconds). Then I attached the string to the water source. The string was then tied to ground Observation : ...
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81 views

calculating heating effect of coil submerged in hotwater tank

i would like to estimate the temperature increase of water passing through a heating coil submerged in a hotwater tank, i know the cold flow and temperature and the temperature in the tank, as well ...
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1answer
121 views

Slope of a channel

I have a trapezoidal channel like this: The question is to get the slope of the channel such that we have a Chézy coefficient of 64 $m^{1/2}/s$. Given: $B= 76\: \mathrm{m}$, $y = 10\: ...
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1answer
46 views

Laminar flow in low-permeability material. Which is faster, gas or a liquid?

I consider a simple low-permeability material $(k \sim 10^{-18}\;\text{m}^2)$. Now I either apply a gas (e.g. nitrogen) pressure or liquid (water) pressure of - let's say $10\;\text{MPa}$ - on one ...
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43 views

Nomenclature clarification concerning solitons

My experience with solitons is restricted to the classical setting, namely solutions to the quartic interaction $\phi^4$, the Sine-Gordon equation, and Korteweg–de Vries equations. I was explicit to ...
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1answer
60 views

Vortex shedding

So I was reading about vortex shedding, and got to know that it causes the building to resonate. Is there any way to use this resonance to generate electricity (maybe use quartz?) I am trying to make ...
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36 views

Collision of multiple fluid flows at a point [closed]

I would like to do an analysis when two or more fluid streams flowing from different direction with different velocity, meet at a point. What happen after the collision? Are there any related studies ...
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49 views

Why does the blade height goes on decreasing in a multi-stage axial flow compressor? [closed]

The axial compressors used in jet engines have their blade heights in decreasing order in the direction of the flow.
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1answer
44 views

Power of viscous friction on a falling sphere

I have derived a simple model of a rotameter using an homogeneous solid ball in a rigid cone where a fluid flows. I consider 4 forces: Weight, Buyancy, Viscous Friction and Drag. I have written my ...
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29 views

Vertical column of water for maintaining gas pressure in horizontal water tube?

I have an inverted T-Tube arrangement with the vertical tube of a height to add pressure to the continuously moving fluid of the horizontal tube. The purpose is to maintain dissolved gases in the ...
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29 views

Decay rate of overpressure for a nuclear blast (shockwave) over an urban area?

I have come across a very new idea for me concerning nuclear weapons effects, check this please. In brief, that person states that blast overpressure attenuates/decays by causing damage for each ...
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26 views

What is the magnitude of the sound that a Helmholtz Resonator attenuates?

I know that the shape of the Helmholtz Resonator, specifically its neck shape and the volume of its cavity, determine the resonance frequency of the resonator. Moreover, the resonance frequency is ...
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1answer
110 views

$\Delta T$, temperature units. How to use fahrenheit in this formula

To calculate the power in a fluid with a flow, the following formula is applied: $$P = \Delta T \rho c_p \times flow$$ $\Delta T$ can be entered as both Kelvin and Celsius. But what if I want to use ...
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1answer
64 views

What does the absence of hydrodynamic entrance effects do to the momentum conservation Equation?

I am trying to do a homework problem where we re-write the mass, momentum and energy conservation formulas for downward flow in a vertical pipe and it says "where all hydrodynamic entrance effects ...
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28 views

Is this explanation for the no-slip condition at a pipe wall correct?

The standard boundary condition for a fluid in contact with a surface is to enforce matching velocities at the interface. The explanation I was given is that contact forces between the wall and the ...
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57 views

Rotated glass with water

I think most of us know the experiment where you fill a glass with water, cover it and then turn upside down(holding the cover). You can read about it here I thought that it would be fun to do some ...
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2answers
84 views

Breaking ocean waves on other planets possible?

I have always wondered if there were an ocean on another planet with stronger or weaker gravity, would it be possible to have breaking waves?
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98 views

does the rate of change of height varies for different fluids?

I decided to experiment for the rate of flow of liquids (like water, oil, acid, etc) from a burette. I decided to use Torricelli's law $v=\sqrt{2gh}$. When experimenting, the time taken for a viscous ...
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1answer
2k views

Relation between pressure, velocity and area

In a nozzle, the exit velocity increases as per continuity equation $Av=const$ as given by Bernoulli equation (incompressible fluid). Pressure is inversely proportional to velocity, so we have lower ...
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1answer
76 views

gas pressure outside nozzle in vacuum

I'm currently trying to figure out the following in the simplest possible way: Say we have a nozzle in a vacuum environment. A gas of a certain pressure is emitted through the nozzle, which has a ...
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0answers
76 views

How does this help an aeroplane to fly? [duplicate]

I read it somewhere on the internet that wings of an aeroplane are designed in such a way, that they increase the velocity of air above the wings and so pressure above the plane becomes less than the ...
5
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1answer
107 views

Sailing against the wind. Is this a fair model?

I was ruminating the explanations about how boats can sail against the wind, and wondered if one can devise a simple mechanical model without hydrodynamics involved. Imagine a cart (in red in the ...
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1answer
63 views

Non-determinitric flow of water stream on vertical porcelain surface

I noticed several times while washing my hands that accumulated water when starts streaming vertically does not flow vertically in straight line on vertical porcelain surface under the force of ...
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2answers
88 views

Efflux speed of ideal fluid dependent on diameter?

I have a cylinder full of water with diameter $D$ with a round opening on the bottom with diameter $d$. The water is friction-free and incompressible. Now I need a relationship for the efflux speed ...