# Tagged Questions

The quantitative study of how fluids (gases and liquids) move.

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### Why are Navier-Stokes equations needed?

Can't we picture air or water molecules individually? Then, why are Navier-Stokes equations needed, after all? Can't we just aggregate individual ones? Or is it computationally difficult, or ...
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### Pump pressure required to fill water tower

I have a water pump at a distance of x meters from a water tower located h meters above the pump through a pipe with diameter d. I am not concerned with the exact value just want to make sure my pump ...
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### What is the pressure in a vertical pipe that has moving fluid through it?

I have a system like this When the valve is closed, pressure along any point along the thin tube may be found thru pgh. 1. What about when the valve is opened? 2. Does the top of the jar need to be ...
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### Euler equation of fluid dynamics

I'm trying to obtain Euler equation for a perfect fluid in laminar or stationary flow. A particle fluid is submitted at volume forces and surface force. The fist, in my case, is giving only by gravity ...
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### Rayleigh-Benard Convection

I found this nice paper about RB convection. However I am confused by what is going on page 6. In particular why we are suddenly using Helmholtz equation to find spatially periodic solutions. Aren't ...
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### Why does my natural whistle have a maximum volume

When I whistle, I find that I can vary the volume by pushing more or less air through my mouth at once. However, when I increase volume past a point, I start to hear a blend of rushing air and a ...
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### How far can water rise above the edge of a glass?

When you fill a glass with water, water forms a concave meniscus with constant contact angle $\theta$ (typically $\theta=20^\circ$ for tap water): Once you reach the top of the glass, the water-air ...
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### Does water have the same surface tension at same temperature but different volume?

I'm making an experiment and it is written in my older questions. Now, my question is - Does water have the same surface tension at same temperature but different volume?
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### Lotus effect dust removal

I have found hundreds of papers describing the contact angle of water droplet sitting on hydrophobic surface and the change between Wenzel Regime and the Cassie-Baxter regime. Now, as I understand ...
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### What caused Simon Faithfull's chair to fall appart?

There is an art/science video clip on youtube, by Simon Faithful, called Escape Vehicle no.6 (chair in space). It shows a simple steel office chair, tied to a weather balloon, ascending into the upper ...
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### What is the best tool for simulating Vacuum and Fluids together?

I require a software to simulate Fluid simulation with the capability of supporting vacuum simulation. My requirements are that all numbers must reflect their real counterparts almost exactly. For ...
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### How would I work this continuity problem?

I am trying to design a system for a project and I need some input on if this is right or not. I have $10 \frac{kg}{s}$ of fluid flowing through a pipe. It breaks up into $10$ 1 inch diameter pipes. ...
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### Calculational method for determining surface tensions from photograph of menisci?

How can I get from a photograph of a liquid surface to a value for the surface tension.
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### Why does water make a liquid film?

Cut a narrow slit in a thin sheet of opaque material. Immerse the sheet in a liquid, such as water. After removing the sheet from the liquid, you will see a liquid film in the slit. The question is: ...
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### Bernoulli's equation and reference frames

So I was thinking about this while driving home the other day. I've never been quite clear on why when you drive with the windows down air rushes into your car. I thought this might be explained by ...
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### What velocity must an aircraft achieve for its shock wave to transform to plasma?

A follow-up to After what speed air friction starts to heat up an object? I understand there may be technological limitations at present ... but, is it theoretically possible for a body to travel ...
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### Boussinesq approximation for the Navier Stokes' equation - discrepancy

In the Navier Stokes' equation: $\rho_0 \left( \frac{\partial v}{\partial t} + v \cdot \nabla v\right) = -\nabla p + \mu \nabla^2 v + \hat{f}$ I included the temperature variation of density as ...
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### Trying to link Eulerian and Lagrangian perturbations

I'm trying to make sense of the link between a (linear) Eulerian (i.e., at a given point) and Lagrangian (following a fluid element) perturbation. I will here express not only where I'm stuck, but ...
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### By how much will water resistance and upthrust slows down a fully submerged object?

Consider the following example: While running, I do work and I have a certain velocity and acceleration. When I'm in a pool (my feet are touching the bottom), I do the same work but, I have less ...
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### When playing the flute, does lip-hole aperture size affect air pressure in the mouth?

I apologize if this is too basic of a question for this forum, but when having arm-chair discussions about the fluid dynamics of flute playing, a friend has said: The lip-hole area together with ...
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### Why does central jet velocity of a flute air stream not include aperture size?

Some fellow flutists and I are pretending to be experts at fluid dynamics and reading Patricio Cuadra's thesis on the topic: On page 17, it says: The central speed of the jet $U_j$ at the channel ...
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### Particles scattering on fluids: breakdown of the effective continuum description

When does the macroscopic continuum description of a medium like a fluid break down? Say I'm interested in a scattering process of some particles with momentum $p$ and energy $E$ off a fluid of ...
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### Is surface of a solid a streamline?

In fluid dynamics, streamlines are defined as line where at each point flow velocity is tangential to the line. Is it correct to say surface of a solid a streamline? On the surface the velocity vector ...
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### If there is significant temperature difference between indoor air and outdoor air, will that significantly increase the rate of air exchange?

There would be heat diffusion, of course, but heat diffusion occurs even without the exchange of fluid parcels between each environment. We do know that cold air tends to be denser than warm air, and ...
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### Velocity required for Horizontal Rain

Related to my previous question - Change in appearance of liquid drop due to gravity... Ok, I think we all have noticed this practical phenomena (a kind of illusion though)... During rain (while ...
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### Finding an equation relating the mass of a blade of a wind turbine to its velocity

I'm writing up my physics coursework and I thought I'd try and find an equation described in the title. This is my attempt: Is it correct?
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### Conservation of energy in objects at terminal velocities

In vacuum, object free falling under gravity, the sum of Gravitational Potential Energy(GPE) and Kinetic Energy (KE) is a constant. The GPE is a decreasing side of a quadratic and KE is a increasing ...
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### Is flying really easier on smaller scales?

In the book Playing with Planets, the author makes the following argument, pertinent to flying robots of the future: As it is, an important law of physics says that smaller organisms fly much more ...
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### Is it possible to travel at precisely the speed of sound?

I've been talking to a friend, and he said that it's impossible to travel at exactly the same speed as the speed of sound is. He argued that it's only possible to break through the sound barrier using ...
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### Will the siphoning effect help a system pump water upwards if the water's entry and exit points are at the same height?

I am looking to pump water from a pool up to a roof for solar heating (black plastic tubing) and then back into the pool with the original source water. Does the gravitational force of the water ...
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### Do we have viscous force acting between two layers

Frictional force between solids operates even when they do not move with respect to each other. Do we have viscous force acting between two layers even if there is no relative motion?
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### Why does bad smell follow people (assuming they are not the source)?

When you are sitting in a room where there is a source of bad smell, such as somebody smoking or some other source of bad smell, it is often a solution to simply move to another spot where bad smell ...
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### Did Felix Baumgartner produce a sonic boom during his jump?

I really got to thinking about this. The speed of sound is measured at 761.2 MPH at sea level. But how does this number change as air density decreases? The lack of air density is what allowed his ...
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### Solving the Young-Laplace equation for arbitrary axisymmetric geometry

Say I have a non-ellipsoidal soap bubble and I want to numerically analyse the pressure in the inner lobe of this bubble here: The Young Laplace equation gives the pressure difference across a ...
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### The equation of a ferrofluid under a magnetic field?

What is the parametric equation guiding the geometry of a ferrofluid under a magnetic field? See also this Wikipedia page. From previous research, Maxwell's Equations and Navier-Stokes Equations were ...
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### What equation of state is needed for liquid states?

I'm familiar with the ideal gas law $$PV=nRT$$ but I don't think it applies to liquids like water. If I'm wrong, please correct me! If I'm right, then what equation of state applies to liquids such ...
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### Do communicating vessels work when water is moving?

I want to know if the water level equalize in communicating vessels, when in one of the vessels there is a vortex, or any other water movement, and if the level does equalize, what will be the level? ...
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I have some questions about this paper: Lagrangian/Hamiltonian formalism for description of Navier-Stokes fluids. R. J. Becker. Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 no. 14 (1987), pp. 1419-1422. After reading ...
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### Beer bottle leftovers pour quickly only after waiting?

Why is it that after pouring a delicious beer from a bottle, I can hold it upside down for several seconds without reward, but if I wait a bit, the remainder presumably settles at the bottom and ...
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### Mechanical effects of convective flow in steady-state stagnant film diffusion

When analysing diffusion problems in the context of the simplified film model, two limiting cases are ussually introduced during the solution of the differential chemical species mass balance ...
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### Why $\log \rho$ in the continuity equation?

I just saw the continuity equation, in a manuscript, written as $$\frac{\partial \log \rho }{\partial t} + \vec v \cdot \nabla \log \rho= - \nabla \cdot \vec v.$$ Now, just calculating the derivatives ...
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### atmospheric phenomenon? What causes condensation trails to converge?

This air plane just caught my eye. Two contrails apparently are flowing backward, slightly off-centered and then ultimately converge, giving the overall shape of a very narrow rhomboid parallelogram, ...
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### Validity of the Multi-Species Navier-Stokes Equations for real gases

I'm wondering what are the validity limits of Multi-Species Navier-Stokes equations. I'm aware of the limit for rarefied gases. But is there any new limit that arises in the context of real gases? I ...
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### Is supercritical CO$_2$ a newtonian fluid?

Is supercritical CO$_2$ a newtonian fluid? I can't seem to find any articles describing the stress-strain relationship for carbon-dioxide in a supercritical state (high temperature/pressure ...
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### Venturi in nozzle of water jet

I am trying to understand a waterjet system for maneuvering boats from a physics perspective. (See Marine Holland Parts if you are interested.) The system uses venturis in the nozzles. My question is ...
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### propeller flying physics for the layman

I'm starting a (quad?)copter build, and i can find plenty of knowledge about stabilizing the craft and things related to gyroscopy. but there's absolutely zero information on things that help me ...
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### Why water is not superfluid?

My question is in the title. I do not really understand why water is not a superfluid. Maybe I make a mistake but the fact that water is not suprfluid comes from the fact that the elementary ...
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### Earth-Moon orbiting each other after being engulfed by Red Giant

Recently some exoplanets were discovered which are thought to be the leftover cores of giant planets that had survived a star becoming a Red Giant and then shrinking back to a subdwarf. If giant ...