The quantitative study of how fluids (gases and liquids) move.

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Entropy and vacuums

If I have a vacuum (completely devoid of any particles; Q.M. effects aside), then turn a nozzle and let a gas freely expand into the vacuum, will I have increased the entropy of the vacuum? I get ...
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170 views

Continuity Equation in Differential Geometry

I'm looking for a derivation of the mass continuity that applies in general on symplectic manifolds. In particular the "the amount of change in the mass in a volume is just amount that flows in or ...
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2answers
715 views

Dynamic water pressure from flow and diameter

I have to test some fire hydrants and need to get the dynamic pressure. For that I know I can use a Pitot tube but, I don't have one. After Googling a lot, I found two formulas allowing to compute the ...
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35 views

Wall Shear Stress

I have the solution of a Navier-Stokes simulation with an incompressible, Newtonian fluid with laminar flow. Now I compute the wall shear stress (vector) as $$\tau_n = \mu (\nabla u) n,$$ where $\mu$ ...
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540 views

Solve unsteady state Bernoulli equation for flow in a pipe

I am an engineer studying an unsteady-state flow through a pipe. The Pipeline has been cleanly cut into two halves, without deforming the cylindrical form of the pipe, exposing the contents to ...
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1answer
38 views

How does capillary action work in tubes which are closed at the top?

In all textbooks the examples and descriptions use tubes which are open at both ends. Our teacher remarked that if it were closed at one end like a test tube (albeit a thin one) even then capillary ...
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12 views

Rankine Oval is oval shaped

I'm studying Rankine oval and I have a question. How do you prove the equation for its zero streamline curve is in fact oval shaped? Is there some family of oval shaped curves including Rankine Ovals? ...
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11 views

How much load does an aqueduct support?

Recently, I found out about /r/InfrastructurePorn, and I found a particularly interesting photo of the Gouwe Aqueduct in Gouda, NE: It seems like the bridge that is supporting the boat wouldn't be ...
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124 views

Must flow be supersonic for disturbances not to affect upstream?

I'm studying oil production and found a fact that puzzled me. It states that fluid flow downstream of the wellhead must be supercritical in order not to disturb the flow upstream of it. From ...
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248 views

Rayleigh-Taylor Instability dependence on acceleration direction

I'm trying to bolster my understanding of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and I've gotten stuck on the point of which fluid (more or less dense) is being accelerated into the other. Cases of uniform ...
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55 views

Explaining the shape of a raindrop and a drop of mercury

I saw on wikipedia that the shape of a raindrop is explained by using Laplace pressure. But why? Since the drop is in motion, we shouldn't be able to use an hydrostatic law, am I wrong? ...
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12k views

What is Convective acceleration of flow velocity?

I know that $\frac {dv}{dt}=a$ is acceleration, but: What is convective acceleration of a flow velocity? What is difference between $(v\cdot \nabla) v$ and $v\cdot (\nabla v)$?
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146 views

Nomenclature clarification concerning solitons

My experience with solitons is restricted to the classical setting, namely solutions to the quartic interaction $\phi^4$, the Sine-Gordon equation, and Korteweg–de Vries equations. I was explicit to ...
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25 views

How does a fluid force behave at different angles?

I have a mock exam problem that deals with fluid forces acting at different angles. Here are the scans: Based on the description of the systems, I know that in (a) and (c), F is going to equal the ...
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2answers
216 views

Viscosity for steam in the Reynolds number

In calculating the Reynolds number for a flow of steam in a pipe, this is the general formula I am trying to use: $$Re=\frac{\rho d v}{\mu}$$ with density $\rho$, pipe diameter $d$, flow steam $v$ ...
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1answer
29 views

How does the viscosity of a non Newtonian fluid (ooblek) affect its resistance to electricity?

I know the conductivity of water is based on whatever is dissolved into the solution, hence pure water does not conduct electricity. However, these ions in solution must also be free to move around. ...
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24 views

Efficient way to move water pumping vs circulation [closed]

I have a basic question about efficiency of pumping. If I have a well of 100 meters depth, but water filled till top, and I want to circulate the water. What will be most energy efficient. A) ...
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1answer
44 views

I want to increase pressure of water in a closed vessel [closed]

I am trying to make a high pressure water jet using DIY hand pump which pushes water into a sealed vessel with non-return valve at the inlet. I am planning to do it by first closing the valve to the ...
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8 views

Why is a controlled shear test compared to the natural flow?

Looking for the areas where contolled shear stress (CSS, where force is fixed while rate of deformation is measured) and controlled stress rate (CSR, where conversely the force is measured while ...
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114 views

How does a water-steam mixture behave?

Namely, if I mix a flow of steam that has density $\rho_s$, velocity $v_s$, and pressure $P_s$ with a flow of water that has pressure $P_w$, velocity $v_w$, and density $\rho_w$, how can I find the ...
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19 views

Phase diagrams and critical pressure

If a solid substance is pressurized past its critical pressure, what happens? Is the critical pressure only a factor when a substance is over the critical temperature also? On another note what makes ...
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731 views

Force required to move a fluid out of piston at depth

I have a cylinder filled with water in it at the bottom of the ocean. Say 100 meters down. In this cylinder is a piston that moves up and down. Its job is to squish the water out the bottom of the ...
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17 views

Formula relating Pressure and Radius of a fluid in a pipe?

Let's say I have a section of straight pipe whose radius varies along its length with some sort of ideal fluid flowing through it. Is there an equation I can use to calculate the pressure of a fluid ...
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34 views

Why does an ideal gas not consist of identical molecules? [closed]

since the mass , temperature , and number of particles are the same , shouldn't the molecules be the same so that the pressure of the gad is inversely proportional to the volume.
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65 views

Why do water waves with longer wavelengths travel faster?

When wind blows over the sea, it excites a range of wavelengths. Why do longer wavelengths travel faster?
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Why doesn't this flow rate formula work in SI units?

I have been using the formula below to calculate the flow coefficient of a nozzle: $$Q = C\frac{\pi d^2}{4}\sqrt{\frac{2P}{\rho}}$$ where $Q$ is flow rate in cc/s $C$ is the flow coefficient $d$ is ...
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23 views

effect of opening the barrier between a tube with one side pressurized and the other side a vacuum

What would happen when a tube with an air space pressurized to 500 atm by the water exerted at 5 km below the surface was opened into a vacuum chamber rising up 5 km to the surface? The bottom of the ...
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277 views

Sum of forces with liquid in rotation

It's not homework (I'm teacher). I would like to compute sum of forces on this study : The shape is symmetrical like that I'm sure the center of gravity is in the center of the shape. I compute ...
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14 views

Scale analysis for the vertical component of the Boussinesq equation to obtain a complete hydrostatic relation

This is actually an exam question which i have been trying to solve for my studies. Consider the Boussinesq vertical equation: \begin{align} \frac{\partial \widetilde{w}}{\partial t} = - ...
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37 views

Plane landing into a tunnel

Typical action movies cliché is landing a plane in a tunnel or even a flight in a tunnel. Let's drop any doubts about supreme heroic piloting skills of the characters etc. and focus on aerodynamics. ...
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589 views

How much more effective is it to stir in both directions?

I have been told that industrial mixing machines (say, for cake batter) switch directions periodically, first stirring in one direction, then the other, because this mixes the material more ...
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225 views

Kolmogorov/Energy spectrum for turbulent boundary layer

Previously, I have calculated energy spectrum for 3D isotropic turbulent flow data which is equally spaced in all three directions and then to compute the energy spectrum, one performs Fourier ...
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1answer
62 views

If a hole is drilled at the bottom of a vessel, why is the pressure of the liquid leaving the vessel equal to atmospheric pressure?

My question is similar to this one : Should the liquid come out of the tank if a hole is drilled in the vertical wall? , but I still don't understand why the pressure within a free jet of ...
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17 views

Which paramteres in the Weber number belong to the object and which to the fluid?

The Weber number (We) "can be thought of as a measure of the relative importance of the fluid's inertia compared to its surface tension" (Wikipedia): $$\mathrm{We} = \frac{\rho v^2 l}{\sigma}$$ So ...
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23 views

Difference between droplet and sphere?

So I was reading a section in a book(Advanced transport phenomena, Gary Leal), that was analyzing the equation of motion of a sphere, that is pushed by the action of an applied force F, toward a solid ...
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11 views

How to quantify the spreadness of beam of air molecules as they escape from a capillary to a vacuum?

Consider a tube from an oxygen cylinder attached into a vacuum chamber. When the cylinder is opened, the molecules escape out into vacuum chamber. What makes the molecules spread out when they escape ...
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33 views

Excess corn starch in a non-newtonian fluid

I'm currently performing a high school experiment regarding non-newtonian fluid. And as a further exploration, I am aiming to figure out whether excess corn starch in the solution will cause a ball to ...
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15 views

In a flowing fluid, why the particles are gathering together under critic distance and separating above this distance?

In a flowing fluid has an inner pressure which gives it some abilities. So this fluid is flowing from narrow gates, the speed of flow is increasing while the pressure of fluid is decreasing. If we ...
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24 views

Fluid dynamics: valve and pressure drop [closed]

I have a question regarding valves: Let's assume a district heating system where you want to control the mass flow in a sub-station with a valve. Is (in normal cases) the diameter of the valve ...
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1answer
254 views

Why does (potential) fluid flow bend around a solid surface in the flow?

Potential flow obeys Laplace's equation with certain boundary conditions (i.e. no fluid penetrates the solid body in flow, and far away from the body, the flow is uniform with a given velocity and ...
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156 views

What is the physical fundamentals of Pascal's law

Pascal's law or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure (also Pascal's Principle) is a principle in fluid mechanics that states that pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible ...
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129 views

Fluid speed and fluid density

How does fluid density affect fluid speed? Basically I am trying to figure out if, with all other quantities remaining constant, would an increase in fluid density cause the fluid speed to ...
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4answers
291 views

Computing the force generated by a sail on a boat

This is a follow up question to the question I asked yesterday: Problem understanding basic sail mechanics I am focusing purely on the Newtonian aspect of motion and I am computing this as ...
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1answer
492 views

Is a venturi pump feasible at very low pressure?

I need assistance (or experience feedback) in estimating if a Venturi pump would work at low pressure. A boiler under vacuum (10% atmosphere) will produce steam (at a given speed depending on the ...
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1answer
649 views

Liquid wave faster than sound in the above gas: possibility implications

I recently heard that tsunamis (meaning "harbour wave") can travel over 800 kilometres per hour (500 mph), not so far from the speed of sound in the air. May it happen, in general, that a wave in a ...
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4answers
2k views

Why airplanes fly: the final truth

The questions about the reasons the aircraft fly are frequent among scientist, since the high school until now, even if I work on the other side of fluid mysterious world (the Low Reynolds numbers ...
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1answer
3k views

Definition of Buoyancy Flux

I've seen in some papers the definition of buoyancy flux as follows $$B = g \frac{\rho_a-\rho_0}{\rho_0}Q$$ where $g$ is the gravity acceleration, $\rho_a$ is the density of the ambient fluid, ...
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60 views

How to survive a direct hit of a Tsunami?

It's probably a question too general for this forum, but I'm not sure. The other day, I was in the beach, near the sea, and a big wave came towards me. So, instead of running from the wave, I decided ...
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134 views

Equation of a water pump with a nozzle

If I have a small water pump with a flow f (L/s) and maximal pressure p (bar) and attach its output to a small tube having on the other end a nozzle with an area A (m^2). What is the equation that ...
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Working Out Shaft Torque in a Stirred Tank with a Cylindrical Cavern Formation (using a non Newtonian fluid)

Here is some background to the problem (in a stirred tank): "With yield stress non-Newtonian (viscoplastic) fluids, it is possible to generate an agitated volume around the impeller, defined as a ...