The quantitative study of how fluids (gases and liquids) move.

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Sum of forces with liquid in rotation

It's not homework (I'm teacher). I would like to compute sum of forces on this study : The shape is symmetrical like that I'm sure the center of gravity is in the center of the shape. I compute ...
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3answers
27 views

Application of Bernoullis identity for problem concerning hole in a container

Consider the following problem: We have a container of water with a hole on the side, and we want to determine the velocity of the stream coming out of the hole (at $S_2$): If we suppose $S_1>&...
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39 views

Prevention of fluid vortex formation

I've been looking for a way to prevent Vortex (whirlpool) formation in a pressurized vessel as it drains, but I am not having any luck finding the parameters at which vortex formation occurs. Is there ...
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2answers
40 views

Different locations of a pump in a tube

I'm confused about pumps in fluid dynamics. As far as I understand, the basic effect of a pump which deliver a power $\mathcal{P}$ can be described with modified bernoulli equation between a point $A$...
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52 views

Buoyancy and natural convection in a stratified water tank

I'm working on a simple calculation-model for a hot-water-storage. At the moment I'm stuck on implementing natural convection. To calculate the temperature I've implemented a simple 1D-model in ...
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1answer
35 views

Is the system derivative for mass, in the Reynolds transport theorem for mass, always zero?

The Reynolds transport theorem for mass is $$\frac{dm_{sys}}{dt} = \frac{dm_{cv}}{dt} - \dot{m_{in}} + \dot{m_{out}}$$ My question is the term $\frac{dm_{sys}}{dt}$ always zero. Since this is the ...
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1answer
126 views

How can we theoretically calculate the number of balloons needed to stop a bullet?

After watching this video, I am interested in proving it mathematically. The problem is that how can we apply the conservation of momentum here to find the velocity of the bullet while we don't know ...
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243 views

Kolmogorov/Energy spectrum for turbulent boundary layer

Previously, I have calculated energy spectrum for 3D isotropic turbulent flow data which is equally spaced in all three directions and then to compute the energy spectrum, one performs Fourier ...
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1answer
38 views

Attractive force between hose and floor when a pool is filled

I was filling a rubber pool for my baby using a hose. But I noticed that if I put the hose outlet directly with the floor there is an attractive force! This is strange, because the hose is throwing ...
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1answer
53 views

How cold air is less dense in one case and more dense in another case when compared with warm air?

There are two different and contradicting explanations given. Which one is correct? Explanation 1: Cold air is more denser than hot air because ,when cold air of some density, say 'd' is heated, the ...
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1answer
44 views

Inverted U manometer

I have some doubts on inverted U manometer. In the picture there is one U inverted manometer, the space above the liquid in the manometer is filled with air which can be admitted or expelled through ...
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0answers
38 views

How to make an equal flow rate in 4 glass tubes with different inner diameters?

I would like to ask a question regarding a flow rate project I've been working on that required pneumatic software to solve. Unfortunately, I don't have the software, and I don't know how to control ...
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34 views

History of Turbulence suggestions

I am looking for extensive historical accounts of turbulence that ideally is strong in math and physics (at least giving references). Any suggestions? The only book I found is "A Voyage Through ...
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67 views

If the pressure between the cross-sections of a pipe is equal, will $P_1$ and $P_2$ be cancelled out of Bernoulli's Equation?

a). Water is flowing through a pipe of two circular cross- sections area $A_1$ and $A_2$ lying horizontally as shown in figure below. The pressure difference between the cross-section $A_1$ and $A_2$ ...
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1answer
50 views

What happens to the flow rate when a water pump is pumping water through a tube that changes size

I'm going to apologize in advance if this is a rudimentary question. It's been 20 years since I took a fluid mechanics class. We are building a waterfall in my backyard. The water pump has a head ...
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38 views

why do microscopic cracks happen?

2 weeks ago i asked a question about " Gas permeation through solid metal? " i have got a very good answer here .but microscopic crack was mentioned in the answer. i searched in Internet but i didnt ...
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1answer
138 views

Ball Rotating in Place Under Waterfall

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Khf6koh3IO8 Can anyone help me explain this? It seems like the ball should shoot out from underneath. I have two main theories. 1) Bernoulli's Principle says that the ...
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1answer
32 views

Viscosity and mean free path

I have troubles understanding how to derive the formula for viscosity in terms of the mean free path $$\eta\sim \rho \lambda \bar v$$ where $\bar v$ is the average molecular velocity of the gas, $\...
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2answers
47 views

Can localized fluid perturbations be accelerated by pressure gradients?

I would like to know if there are any examples in fluid dynamics (or continuum dynamics) of small perturbations (or waves, solitons, or other "localized" solutions of the fluid) being accelerated in ...
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7answers
44k views

How can two seas not mix?

How can two seas not mix? I think this is commonly known and the explanation everyone gives is "because they have different densities". What I get is that they eventually will mix, but this process ...
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2answers
37 views

Conditions of validity of basic fluid equations

I easily get confused about the conditions of validity of basic fluid equations. I list the conditions for these equations to hold true, as I could understand them. $\rho v S=\mathrm{constant}$: ...
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2answers
282 views

Liquid column “recoils” in a sealed cylinder when hit by a piston — is it possible?

Consider a cylinder filled partially with a liquid (e.g. water). The cylinder is sealed, and is at held at room temperature (e.g 298K). At equilibrium (or when no external disturbance is imparted to ...
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6answers
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Why is oil a better lubricant than water?

How come mineral oil is a better lubricant than water, even though water has a lower viscosity? When two surfaces slide over each other with a gap filled with a fluid, the different layers of the ...
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1answer
41 views

What's the minimum time scale for a candle to be lit in order for it to establish a steady state?

My Understanding When a candle is lit initially, it goes through a few stages (see, e.g. this explanation from the National Candle Association): Wick burns. Crusted wax on wick melts, evaporates ...
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1answer
96 views

Lagrangian density for Lorentz force of continuous charge distribution in external field?

It's frequently an exercise to derive the Lorentz force law for a particle with charge $q$ in an external electromagnetic field given by the following Lagrangian: $$L = -mc^2\sqrt{1-\frac{\dot{r}^2}{...
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204 views

What is the physical fundamentals of Pascal's law

Pascal's law or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure (also Pascal's Principle) is a principle in fluid mechanics that states that pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible ...
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226 views

How to calculate fluid(oil / hydrocarbon) loss under pressure

I'm trying to calculate the amount of fluid that would flow through an area dependant on the amount of pressure that there is. I'd also like to know the rate at which it would flow. Essentially I ...
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3answers
64 views

Space Rocket Ionizing Its Path To Decrease Fuel Consumption [closed]

A beam(maybe multiple beams from ground crossing at, or just some very high alternating potential, something like focused haarp) on tip of rocket targeting at path of it, ionizing just the closest ...
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3answers
2k views

How much heat from a fire actually warms your home?

A fire in a hearth disperses heat to, I guess, three places: the bricks of the chimney out the hearth (where the person tending the fire is standing) out the chimney, above the house How would you ...
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3answers
2k views

Why does the lake surface appear darker in some areas?

What causes the surface of the lake to appear darker in some places? Firstly, I know that it's not fishes that cause it. Secondly, the dark surfaces move from time to time and thus are not ...
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3answers
49 views

Tank draining derivation: is it correct to use Bernoulli and continuity equations?

I'm confused about a classical exercise on tank draining, which asks to find the time requested for empty the tank. I'll put here the derivation I found on textbook and on the web, which I'm not ok ...
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1answer
234 views

Application of Stoke's Law

I was looking at Stoke's law and it says that you use it to calculate the drag force on a sphere passing through a fluid. Can i also use this equation to calculate the drag force on a car going ...
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150 views

Flow through a rifled pipe

In turbulent flow the friction is inertial for the most part: the chaotic flow causes the fluid in the faster moving center to interchange randomly with the fluid near the edge. This eventually allows ...
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51 views

Bent capillary tube

What would happen if I bend a capillary tube and use it as shown in figure? 1.Will the water(or any other adhesive liquid) level remain same as before bending? 2.or it will come up till end? 3.Or ...
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2answers
51 views

Conversion of pressure energy into kinetic energy

So we have Bernoulli's equation which tells you about the change in different types of energy when fluid flows from one point to another. I can understand the conversion between kinetic and potential ...
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2answers
76 views

Non-dimensionalizing incompressible Navier-Stokes

I have a question about non-dimensionalization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. My understanding is that the purpose of non-dimensionalization is to "collapse" solutions onto one ...
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3answers
561 views

Silicone tube with three holes, flow rate, pressure

I have a silicone tube -- a saline solution flows in from one end, and then flows out of three holes of equal diameter and equal distance from each other that are along the side of the tube. What can ...
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1answer
329 views

Fluid dynamics tsunami

I have been given a energy head (pressure) in meters for a given tsunami on land. If the tsunami hits a wall 1 meter by 1 meter, is it possible to calculate the height it will reach. I am thinking it ...
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1answer
40 views

On the boundary condition of solid boundaries for an enclosed, non moving fluid

First and foremost, I might say horribly wrong things. Feel free to correct any inconsistencies in the following post. Let's assume an incompressible, viscous, newtonian fluid that is not moving and ...
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Ultra-cold gas giant atmospheres

In the troposphere, which has the bulk of the atmospheric mass, it's colder at higher altitudes due to adiabatic lapse. Gas giants have several different chemicals that condense into cloud decks at ...
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3answers
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Why does Bernoulli's equation only apply to flow along a streamline that is in viscid, incompressible, steady, irrotational?

I am learning about hydrofoil on this website. In a later video I watched, I learned that in the process of deriving Bernoulli's equation, $$constant=P/d+gh+1/2v^2$$ has to multiplied through by ...
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27 views

Implementing fixed-temperature, solid-wall boundary conditions

I wish to simulate the behaviour of a fluid along one dimension, where the right boundary is transmissive and the left boundary is a solid wall at a fixed temperature. Temperature is not one of my ...
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1answer
45 views

Predict liquid film thickness outside a cylinder, under the influence of a) external gas flow and b) heating of the cylinder

I tried to post this question on Computational Science SE, but I was really unsure about the most appropriate SE site. The question didn't attract a lot of attention, and since Physics SE was my ...
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1answer
159 views

What is the total velocity/force on a particle in fluid?

I am now facing a fluid-particle interaction problem. I would like to simulate particle motion in a fluid. I do know the external force acting on a particle (dielectrophoretic force in this case) ...
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1answer
611 views

Pipe in a flowing river problem

I'm working on a certain problem in fluid mechanics, which isn't really my strongest area. The problem is as follows: Curved pipe is partially submerged in a flowing river so that one end is pointing ...
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1answer
31 views

How to estimate a drag of flow reversing cylinder?

I am assuming a turbulent flow and a full reversal of the flow (in the picture the arrows are at non-straight angle but please consider the skew as negligible). Assuming we are talking about regular ...
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1answer
292 views

Maximum hole size to stop a fluid passing through a solid

In a previous question, the following is answered in a general sense: Assume I have a inverse cone which holds 200ml water. I am going to cut the tip of the cone to create a small hole. How to ...
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Meaning of a Dirac delta speed in 1d shallow-water equations

A 1d thin layer of a fluid of constant density in hydrostatic balance can be modeled by shallow-water equations: $$\begin{align*}\partial_tu+\partial_x\left(v+\frac{u^2}{2}\right)&=0,\\ \...
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1answer
37 views

The relationship between height of water and the rotational speed inside a cup

When I stir the water inside a cup with a speed $v$ ( using a stick), I find that a vortex will be formed inside the cup, with the middle part of the water at the lowest point ( with the height $h_0$),...
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What are the dynamics of the “break the surface tension with a drop of soap” experiment?

There's a common experiment exemplified in the first few seconds of this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsksFbFZeeU You put some food coloring in the center of a plate of milk, then put a ...