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-2
votes
1answer
566 views

$\phi ^4$ theory explaining [closed]

In $φ^4$ theory we often write the Lagrangian as $$\mathcal{L}=\frac{1}{2}\partial^\mu \phi \partial_\mu \phi -\frac{m^2}{2}\phi^2 -\frac{\lambda}{4!}\phi^4 \tag {1}$$ If I want to write from the ...
-3
votes
1answer
299 views

Creation and Annihilation operator [closed]

In this page I want to know, why the equation (1.32) introduced creation and annihilation operator. Please elaborate.