for questions about design, process, data, or analysis of experiments and observations.

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2
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1answer
29 views

Is circular masking a laser beam an acceptable way to get the beam diameter you require?

I am wondering what are the down sides to just masking a laser to get the beam diameter you require? For example if you have a collimated eliptical beam of say 2mm width and 4mm height, but you ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Do we regularly measure and update our physical constants (By using the LHC)?

This question is motivated by sheer curiosity. I certainly do not expect that the free parameters we use in the standard model have changed in value since we started measuring them with a "modern" ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Is there a resonance within the earth, separate from the Schuman resonance?

In a very recent biography of Nikola Tesla by Bernard Carlson, the author explains that Tesla measured the resonant frequency of the earth using his invention - the amplifying transmitter. Tesla came ...
3
votes
2answers
149 views

What does the $I$-$V$ curve in josephson junction mean?

According to the $I$-$V$ curve for Josephson junction tunneling for S-I-S (superconductor-insulator-superconductor), Do we have any tunneling current for $0< V\leq V_c$? If yes, then why don't ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

How was the neutron's spin measured?

In 2012 it was asked, How to measure the spin of a neutral particle. I'm not sure that the answer "Neutron spin can be measured in a Stern Gerlach setup." was really carried out. So what for ...
0
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2answers
118 views

Is the intuition of “absolute simultaneity” necessarily wrong?

I read about Einstein’s theories of relativity with all the interesting stuff like time dilation, mass increase and whatnot. And also about the relativity or conventionality of simultaneity. The ...
0
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0answers
12 views

What's the difference between two types of diaphragms?

What's the principal difference between aperture iris diaphragm and field iris diaphragm?
1
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1answer
121 views

Upper limit to electric charge confinement?

The following questions are not intended for conventional capacitors (which stores excess charge on the outside surface), rather a type of hypothetical capacitor which is designed to confine charge by ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Is there a formula/relationship between $q$, $m$, $c$, $\Delta T$ and $t$ (time)?

I am currently doing an experiment where I am burning methanol to test for the heat of combustion. To test this, I am heating 100g of water and raising it by 20 degrees Celsius before extinguishing ...
18
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5answers
1k views

How can I determine whether the mass of an object is evenly distributed?

How can I determine whether the mass of an object is evenly distributed without doing any permanent damage? Suppose I got all the typical lab equipment. I guess I can calculate its center of mass and ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Recreating an image from a photometer or similar light-detecting device?

I'm thinking if it is possible to recreate an image from data from this kind of device. It is known analog signals theoretically have infinite resolution, but since we use them in discrete systems ...
1
vote
1answer
144 views

Error calculation for experimental data

I have the list of experimental values: $$\{w_i \pm \Delta w_i\},$$ where $w_j$ is a mean value and $\Delta w_i$ is an error. I want to calculate the second list $\{a_i \pm \Delta a_i\}$ according to ...
4
votes
1answer
36 views

What causes this IR emission in UV 365nm LED?

I've just got access to spectrometer and measuring spectrum of everything. But when I took a look at 365nm UV led from chinese UV flashlight I got something really strange - it had some IR at exactly ...
2
votes
2answers
97 views

How many of the Standard Model free parameters are mutually independent: (all of them)?

My knowledge of the standard model is very limited so please let me spell out my assumptions first (and please let me know when I have mangled concepts, terminology or I am plainly just out of my ...
2
votes
2answers
219 views

Free parameters in the Standard Model

From my understanding of the standard model, I understand that there are 19 or 20 free parameters that we need to put in by hand as, and I'm guessing here, there is as yet no theoretical basis for ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Estimate Uncertainties in Rietveld Refinement

I have the output of an x-ray diffraction experiment made on a thin film. Here I report the output of the experiment (I analyzed those data using powdercell and coloured regions have been excluded ...
-3
votes
3answers
48 views

Does Size affect Distance covered at constant speed? [closed]

How does size of an object affects its speed? Suppose if two objects of different sizes (very different indeed) moves at speed of say 100 mph for an hour, will the object greater in size covers the ...
11
votes
1answer
387 views

Quasi 1D insulators with strong spin-orbital interaction

We know that the spin-1 chain realizes the Haldane phase which is an example of symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases (ie short-range entangled phases with symmetry). The Haldane phase is ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

Measuring the speed of light and defining the metre - absolute or relative?

If the metre is now defined as the distance light travels in vacuum in 1⁄299,792,458th of a second and the speed of light is accepted to be ...
20
votes
1answer
2k views

How did Rømer measure the speed of light by observing Jupiter's moons, centuries ago?

I am interested in the practical method and I like to discover if it is cheap enough to be done as an experiment in a high school.
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Light speed measured by observing Jupiter moons [duplicate]

The famous discovery that the light has speed measures the times of the immersion and emergence of Io, one of Jupiter's moons. However, I still can't comprehend this. Even when the Earth is further ...
4
votes
2answers
309 views

Why is a washing machine unable to spin-dry a duvet?

Background story: I put my duvet (synthetic filling) into a washing machine, and the machine was unable to spin-dry it. My mom told me: "It's because it is full of air". I was not satisfied with the ...
4
votes
0answers
62 views

How can I precisely measure the intensity of the Hydrogen Alpha (Balmer) line at low intensities?

I assume that I will need some kind of very precise filtering, but how is that accomplished? After that, photon counting at worst, but I am expecting millions of photons per second. The background is ...
4
votes
0answers
50 views

How can the effects of temperature be accounted for in-situ electrical resistance corrosion monitoring?

In reading the Berkeley Lab's article Rust Never Sleeps, where research is underway investigating the use of iron oxide rust as a photovoltaic, they state: Rust – iron oxide – is a poor conductor ...
4
votes
1answer
32 views

What energy will the LHC use for pA collisions in Run 2?

Part of the LHC's Run 2 (which just recently started) will be dedicated to proton-ion collisions, but I haven't been able to find any firm information about what energy those collisions will run at. ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Are there any experimental data for light bending angle? [duplicate]

The gravitational lensing formula is given by equation $a=4M/r$. Is there any experimental data for this equation. I am trying to plot a curve for this equation and the real experimental data and ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

How is the influence of the ambient nitrogen gas in pulsed laser ablation calculated?

I've been using the Nd:YAG(1064nm) laser for laser ablation in the atmospheric condition for a year and this year I'm trying to conduct it in the chamber, where the chamber is filled with nitrogen ...
4
votes
2answers
130 views

What experiment would disprove loop quantum gravity?

Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum space-time that attempts to describe the interconnection between general relativity and quantum mechanics. It's main postulate is the granularity of ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

How was hydrogen gas (H) obtained by spectroscopists? Why is there more H than H2 in space?

Introductory quantum mechanics lessons talk about emission and absorption spectra for the hydrogen gas, and then give you an explanation as if this gas were pure $H$ atoms, and not the $H_2$ molecule ...
0
votes
1answer
14 views

Would an electroscope work if it were not in a glass container?

I'm reading about the gold-leaf electroscope and all the sources I've read show that the gold leaves are placed in a glass container. Is there something special about the glass, or would any container ...
4
votes
1answer
77 views

Are there any attempts to directly detect dark energy?

Instead of relying on distant supernovas for tell tale sign that most galaxies are receding at faster rates away from each other, are there any experiments in the past decades or near future that can ...
11
votes
1answer
284 views

Statistical analysis of data in Physics

Analysis of data is integral in bridging the gap between theory and experiment. How much do the results of the analysis depend upon the choice between Bayesian and frequentist methods? For instance, ...
0
votes
2answers
97 views

What kinds of behavioural anomalies can a zero-field-cooled (ZFC) / field-cooled (FC) split indicate?

If a material shows a spiltting in the ZFC and FC curves, is it necessarily superparamagnetic, or could there be any other reason for the irreversibility? I have heard spin glasses also show ZFC-FC ...
4
votes
6answers
4k views

How to guess the correct fitting function to some data?

Imagine we are plotting some date points $\left(x_i,f(x_i)\right)$ that we obtained experimentally, and that we want to know what $f(x)$ is. The way to do this is to use some software and try to fit ...
9
votes
4answers
684 views

Is double-slit experiment dependent on rate at which electrons are fired at slit?

I am a mathematician and I am studying string theory. For this purpose I studied quantum theory. After reading Feynman's book in which he described the double-slit experiment (Young's experiment) I ...
1
vote
1answer
327 views

Questions about MTW's “thousand” tests of the Einstein principle

In Misner, Thorne, Wheeler (henceforth written as "MTW"), "Gravitation", Box 16.4, there's an experimental setup construction (or method) presented by which "Each geodesic clock is constructed and ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Why do neutrino oscillations imply nonzero neutrino masses?

Neutrinos can pass from one family to another (that is, change in flavor) in a process known as neutrino oscillation. The oscillation between the different families occurs randomly, and the likelihood ...
5
votes
1answer
76 views

Do metric theories with torsion contradict solar system observations?

Obviously, the answer to this question can be "maybe, if you make the torsion tensor small enough", but my question is, given some "typical" size to the torsion tensor, do the spin-orbit couplings ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

What are the longest half-lives we can detect experimentally? What stops us going further? Are we trying to?

Xenon 136, apparently, has a half-life of 2.11×1021 years. This strikes me as a humongously long time to run an experiment, clocking in at about 11 orders of magnitude longer than the age of the ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

Observations in the cathode ray tube experiement

1.One of the observations I learned was that the glass tube begins to glow with a brilliant green light. Many websites I read through refer to a fluorescent material. However, as shown in the above ...
0
votes
5answers
200 views

Single mode fibers

Is it possible to focus white light into a single mode optical fiber? I thought no because in order to focus it should be a solution to the Helmholtz equation but I am not too sure about it. Also ...
2
votes
2answers
100 views

Reference frequency

In my experiment, I have to obtain a relation between magnetic field of a solenoid and the applied Vp-p. The setup is as follows. http://www.teachspin.com/instruments/faraday/ Does my choice of ...
3
votes
1answer
128 views

Motion in a Paul trap: $2n^{\text{th}}$ harmonic with larger amplitude than $n$th harmonic

Using a Paul trap, we captured the motion of a light charged particle (based on a rotating potential applied by AC current). Our rotational frequency was 50 Hz, and so when used FFT on the data, we ...
4
votes
2answers
118 views

Is fluorescence from a single atom/ion visible with the naked eye (e.g. in a strongly coupled trap or cavity)

I remember sitting in on a conference talk by a person (possibly Rainer Blatt) doing research with trapped ions (or single atoms strongly coupled to light in an optical cavity), and the person showed ...
0
votes
1answer
180 views

Orifice Jet Flow experiment

I am writing up a report on Orifice jet flow experiment in which I am required to find coefficient of flow velocity, $C_v$, and the Coefficient of discharge, $C_d$. There are couple of things that I ...
2
votes
1answer
422 views

Why are mass flow rates found using Venturi meter and pitot tube different?

Regarding an experiment to find the mass flow rate of a fluid (air) using a venturi meter and a pitot tube: What could be the cause of a variance in results obtained using the 2 instruments mentioned? ...
0
votes
2answers
21 views

Ozone elimination

I have a potential problem with airflow through a high voltage capacitively coupled RF discharge (in a tube) producing ozone. How can I remove ozone from the airflow? The use of liquids is not ...
3
votes
2answers
221 views

Fiber optics with broadband, incoherent light

I wonder if someone could help clarify waveguiding with broadband, incoherent light please. If we take a telecomms fiber, which is single-moded above ~1.4 μm and couple a laser beam in, we assume ...
3
votes
1answer
138 views

Is this the correct way to I combine multiple interdependant pressure readings?

I want to measure the density in different layers of a suspension. To do this I want to place pressure sensors at different heights. Let's assume that the sensors are not by orders of magnitude more ...
1
vote
1answer
423 views

How can one explain the Kelvin Water drop experiment without assuming the container to already possess a positive charge?

Kelvin Water Dropper experiment refers to the electrostatic generator invented by Lord Kelvin, which uses falling water to generate a voltage by electrostatic induction occurring between ...