Energy is a quantity which gives an overview of the amount of work doable by the system.

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Building free energy directly from lagrangian

Energy can be built from lagrangian when considering the symmetry of time $(\frac{\partial L}{\partial t}=0)$. Free energy is a generalization of energy when the system exchanges heat with the ...
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77 views

Calculating Quantum number from initial conditions

I have solved the particle in a box problem to get energy eigenstates and wave vectors: $$E_{n}=\frac{\hbar^{2} k^2}{2m} ,\hspace{1cm} k_{n}=\frac{\pi n}{L}$$ And now I am trying to figure out how ...
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49 views

Energy of an EM Wave and its temperature and amplitude

I'm trying to understand why classical physics fails to explain black body radiation. I'm confused. According to Boltzmann, energy calculation for em wave is based on temperature. According to ...
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1answer
42 views

Spacetime and the conservation laws

I'm reading Peter Atkins' book, Galileo's Finger, and in the chapter on energy, he makes the points that the conservation of momentum stems from the shape of space (that it's smooth and not lumpy) and ...
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7answers
835 views

How does heat actually stay kept in the carbon molecules in the atmosphere? [duplicate]

We have all learned that the earth is getting heat up because of the CO2 and CO molecules absorbing heat. However, how is heat actually kept in those molecules. When photons heat them up, their ...
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1answer
105 views

Aside from Noether's theorem, what other concepts would explain energy conservation?

Energy is defined more in the mathematical sense, and tends to show true with observations in the physical world. But why is energy conserved aside from "Noether's theorem"? In a closed system that ...
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256 views

Will a water-cooled system heat up a room less than an air-cooled system?

Recently - motivated by the recent heat where we live - an acquaintance argued that a water cooled computer will not heat up the room as much as an air cooled computer will. His reasoning was that the ...
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1answer
46 views

Power delivered by a plug

Ok so i know that (in the UK) the voltage of a mains supply is 230v. But when we plug a item e.g. a tv in to it what determines how much power is drawn from this supply. I presume it is the current ...
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23 views

Thermodynamics of binary symmetric channels

I am reading this very interesting paper: http://m.iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/41/40/402002/pdf/1751-8121_41_40_402002.pdf about thermodynamics of channels in information theory. More generally, ...
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123 views

Ground state of a quantum mechanical system

When looking back at my courses of quantum mechanics, I noticed that assumptions about the ground state of a quantum mechanical system where rather vague and unprecise. It is always assumed that a ...
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1answer
28 views

is it possible to change the energy of a waveform like radio wave & turn it into microwave?

In the electromagnetic spectrum, the differences between all waveforms are the "frequency" & energy of the waveform. We are able to modify both of these parameters. So, is it possible to change ...
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1answer
68 views

What would happen in a collision of an antimatter singularty and a matter singularity? [duplicate]

Would energy be released if a black hole made out of antimatter and another of matter were to collide?
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1answer
83 views

Does negative energy density (i.e. weak energy condition violation) create closed timelike curves?

I remember reading something about Stephen Hawking denying the fact you can't make CTC's (Closed Timelike Curves) without weak energy condition violation. If this is true, where do the light cones ...
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820 views

Of all the electrical energy used in a home, is there any portion that won't eventually become thermal energy in the home?

Considering all of the appliances that the average home uses--microwaves, light bulbs, dishwashers, refrigerators--is it safe to say that all of the electrical energy in a home will be converted to ...
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1answer
170 views

Storing kinetic energy instead of potential energy - practically possible?

One of the big problems today considering energy is its storage (e.g. batteries are not that efficient, very expensive and polluting). Energy is classically mostly stored as some kind of potential (in ...
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4answers
279 views

Bouncing ball time problem

I'm studying a problem and I encountered a strange problem: When a ball bounces how much time does the ball spend while touching the floor? To be more clear I suppose that when a ball bounces ...
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4answers
347 views

What is the correct term to describe matter converting into energy?

Matter and energy are related; one can convert into the other. What is it called when this happens? For example, solids melt/liquefy into liquid, and liquid vaporizes into gas. Gas condenses into ...
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55 views

Energy of a system

I'm considering a ring of mass $m$ sliding along a cardioid with equation $r=a(1+\cos\theta)$. We let the angle between the downward vertical and the radius vector be $\theta$. The ring is attached to ...
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1answer
67 views

Observation of light bending spacetime [duplicate]

Has radiation or energy bending spacetime ever been observed? If not, is it likely that it ever will, assuming current technology? Note: This is not a question of space bending light, but of light ...
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235 views

Speed of gravity

Consider two objects presented in the figure below. Objects have equal masses and are separated by a distance of 60 light seconds. Assume that we move left object by 3 light seconds to the left in ...
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3answers
1k views

Is it more efficient to stack two Peltier modules or to set them side by side?

Is it more efficient to stack two Peltier modules or to set them side by side? And why? I have a small box that I want to cool down about 20 K below ambient -- cold, but not below freezing. (I want ...
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1answer
49 views

What's wrong with this simple derivation of energy flux in a photon gas?

In a photon gas, we know that pressure, $P$, and energy density, $u$, are related by: $$P=\frac{u}{3}$$ We also know from relativity that the momentum of a photon is $$p=\frac{E}{c}$$ Finally, the ...
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4answers
227 views

Do magnets redshift light?

Do magnets redshift light? Suppose we have an extremely powerful magnet (say the size of the Sun) and we have a smaller paramagnetic material above it (say. Titanium Brick which is ...
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27 views

Why does quantum zero point energy contribute negative mass to strings?

A string which doesn't have any kind of vibrations will have mass whose square is negative due to quantum zero point energy. But why does it contribute negative rather than positive mass to strings?
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1answer
157 views

Does the Alcubierre drive use negative energy to compress space infront of it?

The contraction in most images looks like a gravity well. Is it that you use negative energy to BOTH contract and expand space or positive and negative to contract (positive energy) and then expand ...
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4answers
512 views

What does the work on a current carrying wire in a Magnetic Field?

We consider that the force acting on a current carrying wire placed in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the length of the wire is given by $IBl$. If the wire moves by a distance $x$ in a ...
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447 views

Definition of force, kinetic energy and momentum

I've edited the post. Q1 and Q4 are the important ones but I didn't delete Q2 and Q3 since some older answers would not make sense anymore. To begin with, the formula of the kinetic energy $T$ is ...
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1answer
144 views

Unstable states and imaginary (complex) energy?

I came across the notion of complex energy while studying instanton method to study the unstable state. Unstable states are those which have energy with an imaginary part. But as we know Hamiltonian ...
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1answer
51 views

How do you calculate the energy output if you know the volts, amps and time? [closed]

How do you calculate the energy output if you know the volts, amps and time?
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1answer
54 views

How would one compute the angle of deflection, in a relativistic collision - underspecified system?

Consider the simplistic case of two identical mass particles colliding elastically with the second particle initially stationary and the first particle travelling with energy $E$. By conservation of ...
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4answers
2k views

Is it possible to create matter? [duplicate]

Is it possible to create matter? In a recent discussion I had, it was suggested that with enough energy in the future, "particles" could be created. It seems like this shouldn't be possible due to ...
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1answer
38 views

Is it possible to create a solar cell in home? [closed]

I'm not really sure that this is the place to ask this question, but anyway. I'm curious is it possible to create a solar cell (not panel with 2$ cells from ebay) in home. If not why and if yes how. ...
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2answers
57 views

Mass,Energy,Matter

In $E=mc^2$ what type of energy is $E$? For instance, you can find the kinetic energy of an electron by using $\frac{1}{2}mv^2$ but you can also find the energy from $E=mc^2$. How are those two ...
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37 views

Applying conservation of energy to any system?

How would the conservation of energy be applied in any system? Can we always be certain that every system will always obey COE? How can we be certain without measuring the system? Input & Output? ...
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Hamiltonian (temperature?) and frame of reference

So we can define a particle by defining its kinetic and potential energy, knowing that we can get a wavefunction describing a particle. But the kinetic energy involves motion, and motion can be ...
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317 views

What does it mean to “convert energy into time”?

In a recent article about creating electron-positron pairs by colliding photons in a laboratory, Andrei Seryi, director of the John Adams Institute at Oxford University, was quoted to said: It's ...
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1answer
739 views

What is the difference between a pulse and a wave?

I wanted to ask what is the difference between a pulse and a wave. According to the definitions of them , they are almost the same. In the websites I looked at , the difference between them was ...
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32 views

Energy stored in a battery?

I want to calculate the energy lost from a battery to heat, and the energy stored in a battery. Are these formula's correct? $ E_b$ = $I$$V$ x $t$ $ E_H$ = $I$$R$$^2$ x $t$ $E_b$ = energy stored in ...
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Extract particular ions from an ionized gas

Is it possible to extract any particular ion ( either positive or negative ) from ionized gas ( or plasma ) without spending any ...
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Could energy be stored into (not extracted from) the quantum zero point field (like a battery)?

In order to explain the question clearly, I will make a short introduction. In 1962, Josephson predicted that for a sufficiently thin insulating layer, it should be possible for Cooper pairs to ...
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Why do solar panels not have focusing mirrors?

Most of the solar panels that I have seen do not have any mirrors, etc., but usually solar cookers have mirrors. What is the reason for solar panels not having focusing mirrors?
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Are there examples of “loss-less” Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)?

When I think of a Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process, I typically imagine the initial excitation of an absorbing chromophore with a photon followed by the subsequent emission of a lower ...
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57 views

Kinetic energy of a mass rotating about two axes

I'm working on a question where I have to find an equation for the kinetic energy of a mass being rotated by a fold-able arm. The equation for $m_1$ is obvious, however, the equation I derived for ...
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3answers
220 views

Do ionisation of atoms release photons?

I was reading through my text book about Fluorescence. It said "inside a fluorescent bulb, the mecury atoms collide with each other and with electrons get excited and ionised. During de-excitation, ...
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35 views

What is energy? [duplicate]

What exactly is energy (in terms a non-physicist/non-mathematician can understand)? I've been researching this topic, and it seems that energy is not a real physical state, i.e. it is only a scalar ...
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3answers
94 views

Why does a $1/2$ appear in this simple capacitor equation?

The maximum energy stored by a capacitor is when it's (theoretically) fully charged or just before it reaches dielectric breakdown, if you will. It seems, then, that the maximum energy ($E$) $=QV$ ...
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212 views

$E=mc^2$ resembles kinetic energy formula?

The simplest equation expressing mass–energy equivalence is the famous $E=mc^2$ where $c$ represents the speed of light. Compare this with $E_K = \frac{1}{2}mv^2$. Since $E=mc^2$ can be applied to ...
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44 views

How to calculate the amount of energy in joules/s that gas oven uses?

I know there may be missing information, but my question is really simple and yet I haven't found an answer to it. To make things easy, let's assume we have a $40×40×40$ cm oven that we want to keep ...
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1answer
178 views

Why is there no upper-bound on power-efficiency of Hydro-turbines?

We have Betz's law, an upper bound on power efficiency, for wind-turbines. But there is no theoretical upper limit on hydro-turbines, Why this is so? Is it mainly due to the incompressibility of ...
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43 views

Energy in nuclear decays

After a nuclear decay is it a necessity that the total energy of the products is more than the energy of the original particle before decaying? (NB: by 'energy' I don't intend to include mass-energy ...