# Tagged Questions

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### Thermal emission cathode electron velocity distribution

I can't find any experimental data (or theoretical expression) on what is the velocity (or energy) distribution of thermal emission cathode electrons emmited from the cathode at approximately 1300K ...
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### How to combat the black-body temperature of an object?

I'm trying to model the temperature of a large spacecraft for a space colony simulation game I'm working on. In another question, I checked my calculations for the steady-state black-body temperature ...
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### What's wrong with this temperature-in-space calculation?

I'm trying to calculate the steady-state temperature of a body in space, but my numbers are coming up much too small. For example, for a 1-meter cube, I'm getting a temperature of 194 K (or -81 C). ...
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### How to calculate the heat transfer rate between the liquid and the gas?

Let water (liquid) be in a chamber (with no heat transfer to the walls). The gas is the residual space above the liquid, meaning that the contact surface is the surface of the water. Given the gas ...
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### How to measure the energy consumption class of a home appliance? [closed]

Some of you may be familiar with the EU energy consumption classes for domestic appliances (or equivalents in other areas). Let's say we have a domestic appliance which was made before the energy ...
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### Making fire using a filled water bottle

I have seen videos where a fire was started using a water bottle filled with water. I guess the bottle acts like a convex lens that converges light to a focal point to start a fire. But why does water ...
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### Relationship between temperature and energy

What is the definition of temperature in relation to energy? I'm mostly interested in general dimensional terms. Is temperature the kinetic energy per mass? Or kinetic energy per volume?
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### How much work will a human do to lift a weight?

I saw a pretty simple homework question here that asked how much work it takes to lift a 200 kg weight, and while the math for a basic answer is simple the weightlifter in me instead wanted to ...
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### Derivation of Van der Waal's Equation from Helmholtz Free Energy

From the following equation $$f(T,v) = f_{id}(T,v) - RT \ln\bigg(1-\frac{b}{v}\bigg)-\frac{a}{v}$$ how do I derive Van der Waal's equation. In the equation above, $f$ and $f_{id}$ are the Helmholtz ...
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### Energy comparison, evaporate water vs compress air, same mass

I would like to compare the energy requirements of the 2 following tasks: Total energy to evaporate 1 litre of water at normal atmospheric pressure at normal temperature? Total energy to compress ...
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### Where is the potential energy due to internal interactions in total energy?

In thermodynamics the total energy of a system consists of kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole, potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields, and energy ...
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### Why does blowing on hot coffee cool it down?

And will it cool off faster if you blow across the top of the cup or directly into the coffee? Does it have to do with the fact that when you blow across the top of the cup the velocity of the air ...
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In page 15, Chapter 1 (Laws of Thermodynamics) of the book "An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure" by Nobel laureate S. Chandrasekhar, it is mentioned (in context of total energy of two ...
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### what property of steam makes it the preferable motive fluid in jet ejectors? why not air or nitrogen?

I want to know what properties of steam make it the fluid of choice in steam turbines jet ejectors. I want to understand the mechanism of energy conversion in these equipment and hence understand ...
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### Why isn't water running faster hotter?

I was running the washing up water this morning, and started to think about why the cold tap isn't hot, and why the water doesn't get hotter the faster it is flowing (if anything, the cold tap gets ...
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### How badly could someone be injured by concentrated sunlight?

Recently-ish, I stumbled across an interesting short story (by way of Science Fiction & Fantasy Stack Exchange) where a soccer referee is apparently incinerated by concentrated sunlight. Where ...
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### Building free energy directly from Lagrangian

Energy can be built from Lagrangian when considering the symmetry of time $(\frac{\partial L}{\partial t}=0)$. Free energy is a generalization of energy when the system exchanges heat with the ...
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### How does heat actually stay kept in the carbon molecules in the atmosphere? [duplicate]

We have all learned that the earth is getting heat up because of the CO2 and CO molecules absorbing heat. However, how is heat actually kept in those molecules. When photons heat them up, their ...
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### Will a water-cooled system heat up a room less than an air-cooled system?

Recently - motivated by the recent heat where we live - an acquaintance argued that a water cooled computer will not heat up the room as much as an air cooled computer will. His reasoning was that the ...
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### Thermodynamics of binary symmetric channels

I am reading this very interesting paper: http://m.iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/41/40/402002/pdf/1751-8121_41_40_402002.pdf about thermodynamics of channels in information theory. More generally, ...
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### Storing kinetic energy instead of potential energy - practically possible?

One of the big problems today considering energy is its storage (e.g. batteries are not that efficient, very expensive and polluting). Energy is classically mostly stored as some kind of potential (in ...
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### Is it more efficient to stack two Peltier modules or to set them side by side?

Is it more efficient to stack two Peltier modules or to set them side by side? And why? I have a small box that I want to cool down about 20 K below ambient -- cold, but not below freezing. (I want ...
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### Hamiltonian (temperature?) and frame of reference

So we can define a particle by defining its kinetic and potential energy, knowing that we can get a wavefunction describing a particle. But the kinetic energy involves motion, and motion can be ...
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### Does thermal energy change within a chamber depending on what's in it, where it is, what it is?

I have noticed that some people will say that, when you put more mass in an oven, it takes longer for both to cook than if just were one. Some others will say that timings are the same. Assume we ...
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### Is energy released during change of state?

When a substance changes state from solid to liquid, the temperature of the substance remains the same and the heat energy from the external source is converted to potential energy within the ...
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### Why is a vacuum cleaner not as good heater as an electric radiator?

I've read this question and answer: How efficient is an electric heater? , but still don't understand. If I have an electric radiator it heats the room with 1000 Watts of power. And I feel the room's ...