Electroweak stands for the unification of the electromagnetism and the weak force. The unification energy scale is around 100~200 GeV, the mass scale of the Higgs boson. It is widely accepted to be formulated as a quantum field theory with gauge symmetries of U(1) symmetry in electromagnet forces ...

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What theory unifies the electroweak and the strong forces? [closed]

As the title itself suggests, here's my question: What theory unifies the electroweak and the strong forces?
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92 views

Why doesn't the photon have mass? The Higgs mechanism and pre-electroweak epoch

1) When electroweak separation occurred, 'why' wasn't the photon 'given' mass like the W and Z bosons? i.e why don't photos interact with the higg's field? 2a) How well is the higg's mechanism ...
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Lepto-genesis and electroweak theory

Is there any term in standard electroweak theory that breaks CP-symmetry and thus explains lepto-genesis?
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51 views

Glashow-Weinberg-Salam mass terms

At the end of spontaneous symmetry breaking I get these mass terms: $$W_{\mu}^{\pm}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\bigl(W_{\mu}^{1} \mp i W_{\mu}^{2} \bigr )$$ $$\mathcal{L}_{mass}=\frac{1}{2} g^2 \frac{v^2}{4} ...
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Higgs Mechanism

In Higgs mechanism, we take the combination of LH $SU(2)$ doublet and RH singlet along with Higgs doublet so that the overall weak hypercharge and weak isospin is zero to be $SU(2) \times U(1)$ ...
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70 views

Invariance under charge conjugation… Or not?

I have read some paper which says that the electroweak Lagrangian includes these terms like $\bar{\psi} \gamma_a\gamma_5\psi$ and $\bar{\psi} \gamma_a \psi$. They violate charge conjugation symmetry. ...
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About Paschos-Wolfenstein relation (Weinberg angle measuring)

There is Paschos-Wolfenstein relation: $$ \tag 1 \frac{\sigma^{NC}_{\nu_{\mu}} - \sigma^{NC}_{\bar{\nu}_{\mu}}}{\sigma^{CC}_{\nu_{\mu}} - \sigma^{CC}_{\bar{\nu}_{\mu}}} = \frac{1}{2} - ...
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57 views

Weak interaction violate charge conjugate

How can we show that the weak interaction violates the charge conjugation symmetry?
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70 views

Electroweak interaction: From $W^{1}_{\mu},W^{2}_{\mu},W^{3}_{\mu},B_{\mu}$ to $W^{\pm},Z_{\mu},A_{\mu}$

EDIT: Additional question at the end I am trying to illuminate how the "unphysical" gauge bosons $W^{1}_{\mu},W^{2}_{\mu},W^{3}_{\mu},B_{\mu}$ will be the "physical" $W^{\pm},Z_{\mu},A_{\mu}$ when ...
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Without Electroweak symmetry breaking [closed]

How would the present universe be different from one if there was no electroweak symmetry breaking?
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51 views

Isotropic neutrino-lepton scattering

I'm a physics student and I'm attending an introductory course of particle physics. My professor stated that, in center of mass frame, the $\nu_\mu e^- \to \nu_\mu e^-$ elastic scattering has an ...
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Why didn't electroweak symmetry breaking happen earlier than it did?

I've read that electroweak symmetry breaking occurred "at a picosecond or so" after the Big Bang (in a source I found). I can't help wondering why it took so long to get started. For instance, was ...
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Semileptonic decays of the $B_c$ meson

I am struggling with calculating the exclusive semileptonic $B_c^+\rightarrow J/\psi l^+\nu_l$ decay. I learnt that the amplitude is given by a product of the leptonic current $L^{\mu}$ and the ...
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656 views

Is there a “difference” between photons that act as virtual particles and photons that act as the quanta of EM radiation?

I) I know that virtual-photons are known to be the force-carriers for the Electromagnetic force, and that they are called "virtual" because the Energy-Time-inequality version of the Heisenberg ...
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142 views

Derivation of neutrino oscillation phase factor

As we know, the neutrino $\nu_{\alpha}$ with flavor $\alpha=e,\mu,\tau$ is a linear combination of mass eigenstates: $$ |\nu_{\alpha}\rangle=\sum_iU_{\alpha i}|\nu_i\rangle,\quad i=1,2,3 $$ where the ...
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Coupling constant in electroweak theory

Electroweak theory has two coupling constants before and after Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (SSB) each one for $SU(2)_L$ and $U(1)_Y$, though they are connected by Weinberg angle after SSB. My ...
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128 views

What is the parity of a $W^{-}$ boson?

What is the parity eigenvalue of the $W^{\pm}$ boson, or is it even an eigenstate? I have not found any source that discusses this. I have seen some lists of particles with their parity eigenvalues, ...
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31 views

Behavior of Pion-Mediated Nuclear Force before Electroweak Symmetry Breaking?

When Chiral Symmetry was exact, as it was before EWSB due to the lack of mass terms for quarks, would the residual strong force have infinite range? Related to this, does the Negative Beta Function ...
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Force Carrier in Fermion Generations?

Assuming that before Electroweak Symmetry Breaking all particles of a generation were identical, is it possible that they could be related to some kind of symmetry that is unbroken at higher energies, ...
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176 views

No monopoles in the Weinberg-Salam model

I'm reading Chapter 10.4 on the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles in Ryder's Quantum Field Theory. On page 412 he explains why magnetic monopoles cannot appear in the Weinberg-Salam model. I'm I right by ...
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170 views

Phase factors under rotations of strong and weak isospin

The strong isospin raising operator changes a $d$ quark into a $u$: $$ \tau_+ \big|d\big> = \big|u\big> $$ However, for antiquarks, there is an additional phase factor: $$ \tau_+ \big|\bar ...
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Very short decay: A bare quark?

I keep reading the same phrase about the very short life time of the top quark: Because the t-quark decays on a shorter than the characteristic QCD interaction-time it cannot hadronize. ...
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677 views

Why is the Symmetry Group for the Electroweak force SU(2)xU(1) and not U(2)

Let me first say that I'm a layman who's trying to understand group theory and gauge theory, so excuse me if my question doesn't make sense. Before symmetry breaking, the Electroweak force has 4 ...
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208 views

Majorana Mass For Neutrinos In Standard Model

Neutrinos can't be given Dirac masses because there is no $SU(2)_L$ singlet right handed neutrinos in the standard model. But can neutrinos be given Majorana masses in the standard model? EDIT: Why ...
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107 views

Noether Charge Operators In Electroweak Theory

In electroweak theory, for the first generation of leptons, in the doublet $$\psi_L=\begin{pmatrix} \nu_{eL}\\ e_L \end{pmatrix}$$ we assign a non-abelian charge $I=\frac{1}{2}$. Is this a Noether ...
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61 views

Isospin and weak Isospin

What is the difference between isospin and weak Isospin? What is the difference between hypercharge and weak hypercharge?
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Are there analogs to resistance, inductance, capacitance, and memristance connecting the weak force to electromagnetism?

A question was asked over at EE.SE recently which I tried to answer, but much of my answer was speculative. I'm hoping someone here can help my ignorance. In electronics design, there are four ...
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156 views

Why are the Z boson and photon different?

If I understand right the Z boson and photon are both a mix of the same two bosons, the W_3 and the B boson of weak isospin. If the Z boson and photon are both made of the same bosons, then they ...
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108 views

Off-shell corrections to massive vector boson propagator in polarization form

As an exercise for myself, I have been working on rewriting the massive vector boson propagator (unitary gauge). I have run into a problem interpreting some of the terms that stick around when the ...
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203 views

CP violation from the Electroweak SU(2)$_{weak,flavor}$ by $\int \theta F \wedge F $

Question: Why there is NO Charge-Parity (CP) violation from a potential Theta term in the electroweak SU(2)$_{weak,flavor}$ sector by $\theta_{electroweak} \int F \wedge F$? (ps. an explicit ...
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230 views

Is Higgs mechanism necessary in QCD?

As we known, we introduce Higgs mechanism into Standard model to explain mass of Gauge boson, lepton and neutrino(maybe?). Higgs mechanism is necessary for electroweak theory because gauge symmetry ...
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361 views

How do we know we've unified two interactions?

What is the precise definition of unification of fields (in classical and quantum mechanics)? In general, does unification of a field mean that we can write both of them at both sides of an equation ...
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What's the most precise test of electroweak unification in the standard model?

As I understood, there is a coincidence of the weak coupling constant $g$ calculated in two different ways: 1) The muon lifetime $\tau_{\mu}$ is related to $g$ by the formula $(m_{\mu} c^2)^5 ...
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157 views

Conservation of Energy and CP violation

In classical mechanics there is Noether's theorem: If a system has a certain symmetry there is a related conserved quantity. Energy conservation is a result of a system being time invariant. This is ...
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193 views

Is the Higgs mechanism needed for Quantum Field Theory?

The NY Times article on Firewalls today has the following paragraph: Quantum field theory is how the world works [quoting a physicist]. It had a major triumph just a year ago, when the Higgs ...
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329 views

What led to the electroweak and strong forces splitting?

Is the reason for the split believed to be spontaneous symmetry breaking? If so, did SSB occur because the Universe was cooling rapidly from extremely high temperatures?
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$\left(H^\dagger H\right)^2$ is invariant under $U(1)\times SU(2)$?

Is it true that $\left(H^\dagger H\right)^2$ is invariant under $U\left(1\right) \times SU\left(2\right)$ where $H$ is the Higgs field $(1,2,1/2)$? Does this invariance imply that its hypercharge ...
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220 views

'Validity' of QED/QCD/Electroweak interaction

I am currently attending a course on Quantum Field Theory and I got into thinking how valid these theories are. As the theory attempts to describe reality only far above the Planck (length) scale, ...
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95 views

If $SU(2)_{L} \times U(1)_{Y}$ breaks to $U(1)_{em}$ when a non-zero mass for the Higgs boson is chosen, why do we still have weak interactions?

As I understand it, when we say that the $SU(2)_{L} \times U(1)_{Y}$ is broken via the Higgs mechanism, this is because the symmetry acts on the Higgs mass in a way that would change it's value. If we ...
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146 views

Higgs boson mass and electroweak energy scale

Is it a coincidence that the mass of the Higgs boson is exactly half the electroweak energy scale?
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340 views

What breaks the symmetry between the electromagnetic and weak nuclear force?

I know the electromagnetic force is mediated by a photon and the weak nuclear force is mediated by two massive bosons. Are there any other insights into why the masses are so different?
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175 views

Do any good theories exist on why the weak interaction is so profoundly chiral?

I find the profound asymmetry in the sensitivity of left and right chiral particles to be one of the most remarkable analytical observations captured in the Standard Model. Yet for some, I've not ...
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223 views

Weak isospin and types of weak charge

My understanding is that QCD has three color charges that are conserved as a result of global SU(3) invariance. What about SU(2) weak? Does it have two types of charges? What I'm getting at is: U(1) ...
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Is the search for a Simple-group-based Electro-Weak theory over?

Just wondering: We know that, in its current form of the $SU(2)_L\times U(1)$, the electroweak theroy rides a wave of huge success. However, is it not possible that the correct simple group ...
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93 views

CP-violation in weak and strong sectors

There is a possible CP-violating term in the strong sector of the standard model proportional to $\theta_\text{QCD}$. In the absence of this term, the strong interactions are CP-invariant. In the ...
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Hamiltonian of the charged current in SM (related to the lorentz invariance)

recently when I was studying the scatterings which involves a vector boson (like W boson) as an intermediate particle, I saw that the propagator is not Lorentz invariant, I read that there is another ...
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117 views

Why does the electron energy distribution from muon decay peak near the kinematic maximum?

I'm trying to understand why when you have a muon decay event, the energy of the electron peaks near the maximum kinematically allowed value. Is there an intuitive explanation for why this is the case ...
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Jarlskog Invariant and its mathematical origin

CP violation is present in the weak interactions if There are no degeneracies in the up-quark/down-quark matrices The Jarlskog invariant $J=Im(V_{us} V_{cb} V_{ub}^* V_{cs}^*)$ is nonvanishing ...
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178 views

How to show the oblique parameters S, T, and U are coefficients of d=6 operators

In Morii, Lim, Mukherjee, The Physics of the Standard Model and Beyond. 2004, ch. 8, they claim that the Peskin–Takeuchi oblique parameters S, T and U are in fact Wilson coefficients of certain ...
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What is the rate of B violation expected in the standard model during high energy collisions?

In a recent question Can colliders detect B violation? I asked about detecting B violation in collisions. Here I am interested in the theory aspect. (I asked both questions originally in the same ...