Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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Why does electic charge symbols $+$ and $-$ are the same as the mathematical symbols? [on hold]

Electron is negatively charged and it is shown by $-$ symbol. Protons are positively charged an it is shown by $+$ symbol. Why does that symbols used for specifying 2 different type of charges? That ...
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0answers
14 views

Exact expression for the coefficient in Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) formula?

In most representations of the BG formula, there is a coefficient (usually left vague as an experimental parameter, but sometimes written out "analytically") in front of the integral: $$\rho=\rho_0 +A ...
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0answers
17 views

Speed of Electron delta orbital function [on hold]

Is there a function that determines the delta in speed of electrons in subsequent orbitals? If so, is it the same for all elements or does it differ because of relativistic effects? Would an electron ...
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0answers
12 views

Fermi Level difference effect on thermionic emission in an open-circuit

The circumstances in which I am asking this: I have two materials, copper and cesium, in which the surface of the two are contacting. The Fermi Energy value for copper is 7.0eV and for cesium it is ...
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1answer
15 views

How will open-circuit voltage affect the Fermi Level Difference

The circumstances of my question consists of this: I have two materials, copper and cesium, and they are sandwiched together with a layer of cesium in the middle. It is connected only on a single side ...
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1answer
43 views

Reflection of an Electron

When a mechanical wave goes from one material to an other, some fraction of it returns back. Same thing with light (massless), but what happens with an electron? When the "wave function" changes ...
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2answers
100 views

Why are electrons alike but photons not?

Perhaps this is a misconception, but why are electrons alike and photons not? Given two photons, they may differ by having different frequencies (energies). Given two electrons, there are just two ...
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1answer
22 views

variation of electrostatic potential on moving radially outwards from the nucleus of an atom

I was wondering how would the electrostatic potential change on moving radially outwards from the nucleus in an atom, considering the effect of the electron clouds around it.
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0answers
36 views

Can pair production be used to explain the EM Drive? [closed]

My understanding of the EM Drive: LOTS of energy and a little light is input into the system. A tiny amount of force is then exerted out of the system. Can this system be explained simply through ...
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2answers
71 views

Quantum electron and field interactions

What is the proper way to consider the electric field generated by an electron wavefunction governed by the Schrodinger equation? Can you get a result that would match observation, or is this a ...
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1answer
30 views

Why is Fermi-Dirac type of distribution used in semiconductors?

We assume that distribution of electrons follows Fermi-Dirac distribution / statistics in semiconductor model which will help to find the concentrations of electron and holes and the relationship ...
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0answers
20 views

What makes electrons behave like particles or waves at different times? [duplicate]

I am quite puzzled about the theory that electrons or light often behave as particles and sometimes as waves. So, I wanted to know more about this phenomena and what happens when and why.
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0answers
15 views

Do Anodes Emit Virtual Photons Representing Their Positive Electrostatic Potential

I understand the electrons in circuit travel down the path of least resistance, however are electrons attracted by the emission of virtual photons emitted by a source with relatively low electron ...
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3answers
234 views

Electron as a standing wave and its stability

1. When it was an era of classical mechanics we used to believe in the Bohr's atomic model. It interpreted electrons as particles (although I couldn't understand how come Bohr who interpreted ...
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0answers
27 views

How does Quantum tunneling conserve energy? [duplicate]

How does Quantum tunneling conserve energy? Take a simple example. An electron in hydrogen leaves the single proton it was bound to and escapes without being excited by and interaction. It tunneled ...
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1answer
56 views

Can a photon excite an electron via the uncertainty principle?

An electron is trapped in an infinite well potential with a width of $\Delta x$. A photon of wavelength $\lambda $ < $\Delta x$ is fired at the electron and misses or rather they don't interact. ...
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18 views

Is the electron-hole pair a 1D quantum oscillator or 3D oscillator

I'm trying to use fluctuation dissipation theorem to describe spontaneous photon emission process by electron-hole recombination in semiconductor material. I notice that all the references using such ...
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1answer
58 views

How can i only shine/shoot one proton/electron per second? [duplicate]

I would like to test out the two slit experiment but only one electron or proton at a time.
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1answer
30 views

How is it that the voltage wave along a circuit is a tenth of the speed of light?

I have heard that the voltage wave (pushing the electrons) along a circuit is a tenth of the speed of light. Can someone please explain with an illustration how it is possible?
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1answer
79 views
+50

Prove that Laughlin's 3-electron states are a complete set of states

In R. B. Laughlin's 1983 Physical Review B article, Quantized motion of three two-dimensional electrons in a strong magnetic field, Laughlin separates out the center of mass motion of the electrons, ...
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1answer
28 views

how can $r=\frac{1}{n^{\frac13}}$ be used to calculate the mean separation between electrons?

Can $r=\frac{1}{n^{\frac13}}$ be used to calculate mean separation of electrons suppose that Na which has BCC crystalline structure, each atom donate 1 electron to form metallic bonding As it's BCC ...
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3answers
518 views

What is the wave in an electron? [duplicate]

For Photons, their 'waves' are oscillating electromagnetic fields. From what I've heard, electrons are also some kind of wave. So what 'field' is exactly oscillating for electrons, which makes them a ...
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0answers
33 views

Conduction band in solid material

In an any solid material like metal or nonmetal, the atoms are closely placed. There are two important band in metals and nonmetals called the conduction band, and the valence band. We know that ...
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1answer
48 views

Is it possible to decrease the mass of the object?

It is known that the Higgs boson gives mass to elementary particles. Also known that if manipulate with the Higgs field and decrease mass of particles then atoms starts to decay and the object will be ...
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2answers
1k views

Why don't electrons collaspe into black holes? [duplicate]

An electron has a mass of $9.10938291(40) \times 10^{−31} kg$. It also has a volume of $0 m^3$. This would imply it has infinite density. Shouldn't that make it collapse into a black hole? Why doesn't ...
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1answer
39 views

Do electrons emit radiation due to gravity [duplicate]

Do electrons accelerating in the presence of a gravitational field radiate due to this acceleration?
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4answers
140 views

How to explain what an electron is to someone new to physics? [closed]

I've got asked by someone who just graduated school and is about to start studying physics, what exactly is an electron, if it is not "a small ball rotating around the core of an atom". I couldn't ...
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1answer
30 views

How are resistivity and tunneling related?

If we consider a sandwich with three nanometric layers: conductor-insulator-conductor and apply voltage (lower than breakdown voltage) from both sides tunneling will occur. Is tunneling dependent on ...
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3answers
133 views

Why aren't electrons waves by “default”?

I was reading "The holographic universe" by Michael Talbot and it said that most scientists believe, and there is proof of the fact that an electron is only a particle when we are observing it. Now, ...
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0answers
16 views

is there any element or material that ionized when pressure is applied to it?

I want to know if there is any material, that produce free electrons and ions when it undergoes to high pressure.
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1answer
67 views

What are the distributions of electron speeds (a) in a star? (b) in a planet?

Ideally I would like to have an x-y graph of (x) speed relative to centre of mass of the body (star or planet) against (y) the number or percentage of electrons having that speed at a given moment in ...
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0answers
54 views

How it is predicted, that a moving charge has to have a magnetic field?

This question appears after this comment: Even electric charges without intrinsic magnetic dipoles moments produce magnetic fields when they move. My respons: All electric charges (electron, ...
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0answers
26 views

Are differences between elements besides the number of valence electrons negligible in forming matter and giving certain properties?

We were talking about life complexity, I don't know almost anything about physics, he told me that differences between elements beside the number of valence electrons are negligible and elements with ...
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0answers
43 views

Is this a good explanation of electron mobility to the layman?

I'm writing an informative paper on graphene for my writing class (layman-oriented), and was describing electron mobility in very simplified terms. Let me know if anything is mistaken, badly ...
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1answer
24 views

How fast can a fluorescent lamp flicker

Using electronic ballasts, the current frequency is boosted up to 60 kHz in some models. Does the fluorescent lamp continue to flicker at that frequency or does it produce continuous light? In this ...
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1answer
28 views

How are charges formed in clouds during lightning?

How are charges formed in clouds that are responsible for lightning?
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1answer
198 views

Are the electrons at the centre of the Sun degenerate or not?

Trying to find an answer to this question, I came across two different methods of determining whether electrons at the center of the sun are degenerate or not. The first method, used here, calculates ...
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1answer
35 views

Energy and momentum of a relativistic electron

The question is to find the magnitude, $p$ of the electron's momentum in the unit of MeV/$c$, given that the kinetic energy of the electron is 2.53 MeV. The answer provided by the book says, ...
2
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0answers
35 views

Why Electron Does Not Radiate In Bohr Orbits? [duplicate]

Maxwell said that charged particles radiate when are in accelarating motion. I understand that $nλ=2πr$ must be fulfilled in order to create a sinusoidal standing wave and to satisfy the probability ...
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2answers
53 views

Does a free electron, one that's not either in an atom or a wire, have an associated wave-function?

Would a free electron, one that's not either in an atom or moving through a wire, but moving through empty space on its own, have an associated wave-function? Or, is an electron described as a ...
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1answer
6 views

Number of Atoms in a State with a Constant Time T with Decay

A state of energy E1 with a lifetime of T1 decays into the state of energy E2. The state of E2 then decays with a lifetime of T2 into the state of E3. It is known T1 = 2T2. Initially all of the atoms ...
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2answers
37 views

Relationship between Fermi Energy and Average Energy

Electrons are in a one dimensional box of length 2L. What is the relationship between Ef, the fermi energy and E, the average energy? The answer is Ef/3 I looked up the formula for the relationship: ...
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2answers
58 views

How long does it take for an excited electron to return to ground state?

During a mock Cambridge interview, one of the questions was about how small a computer could theoretically be.The way I approached it was in terms of what something must be to be considered a ...
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0answers
24 views

Collision between electrons & nucleus [duplicate]

I am new with physics and I have a confusion that since electron and nucleus has opposite charges then why they do not collide with each other inside an atom?
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2answers
67 views

Resonate frequency of an object?

Below is a paragraph taken from the web site, physicsclassroom.com: It is often useful to think of these electrons as being attached to the atoms by springs. The electrons and their attached ...
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0answers
29 views

What is the frequency associated to the orbitals within an atom?

I was told that there's a vibrational frequency associated to the orbitals within an atoms, but it is a frequency related not to a classical vibration. What Hz frequencies would these be?
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1answer
21 views

Is $\kappa_e$ caused by charge-carrier transport or electron transport?

$\kappa$ usually symbolises thermal conductivity, a material's ability to conduct heat. $\kappa$ can be expressed with other partial thermal conductivities: $\kappa=\kappa_e+\kappa_{ph}+...$ where ...
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0answers
23 views

What is the equation to calculate the strength and radius of an electromagnetic pulse?

With this interesting answer on the blast force of a uniformly charged electron sphere, came another interesting question. What would be the strength and blast radius of an EMP launched from such a ...
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1answer
37 views

Why did scientists use a zinc-sulfide coated screen to detect the alpha, beta, and gamma radiation?

How does a zinc-sulfide coated screen work, and how does it manage to detect high-frequency radiation, electrons, and helium? Could it be possible that a delta ray managed to somehow slip past ...
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2answers
46 views

What do moles and moles of various subatomic particles gathered together look like?

I wonder whether it is even possible to find the answer. If it is impossible to find out, why? Do moles of neutrons basically look like a neutron star? If so, what does one look like? How about ...