The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (6)

0
votes
2answers
3k views

Landau Levels and Magnetic length

I am looking into Landau Levels and keep coming across a magnetic length defined as follows for a 2D system: $l_B=\sqrt{\frac{\hbar c}{e B}}$ I have seen numerous sources say this is: $l_B\approx ...
1
vote
0answers
811 views

Hysteresis Curve and how to implement it using Preisach model or other models

As a homework I need to draw a hysteresis curve (preferably an interactive one) using Matlab or any other programming language. The problem is I have trouble finding a good algorithm to do so. I need ...
3
votes
1answer
822 views

What does “optical conductivity” mean?

Does it just mean "AC electric conductivity"? If so, why have a special name for it, and why mention optical specifically? The wikipedia page on it is very sparse. This (warning, PDF) document just ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

Electric field and magnetic field question here?

Are the energy of the electric field and the energy of the magnetic field concentrated on their sources OR are they scattered in the environment where the fields arent zero? Can you base your answer ...
-1
votes
1answer
283 views

Application of Displacement Current

I'm reasonably happy with the derivation and results of displacement current, however, I'd like to be aware of a few practical applications of this idea. So far, the only one I'm aware of is when ...
3
votes
2answers
115 views

What is $\epsilon_\infty$ in this equation and why can it be neglected in the IR?

I'm reading this paper (warning, PDF) and they mention that the complex permittivity $\epsilon$ and complex conductivity $\sigma$ are related through the equation $$\epsilon - \epsilon_\infty = (4\pi ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Could a strong AC electric field adversely affect the capacity of a lithium battery?

I run some battery powered test equipment in close proximity (~10cm) to a conductor carrying 25kV (50Hz AC). I find the battery life is much shorter than expected, having checked the current ...
3
votes
1answer
134 views

Solving non-linear ODE for divalent solution at a 1-D surface boudary

I am trying to solve the following equation for a positively charged plane with charge density $\sigma$ at $z = 0$. $$ \phi''(z)=-\frac{e}{\epsilon \epsilon_0} \big(z_+n_{+} e^{-\beta z_+ e\phi}-z_{...
42
votes
7answers
22k views

Does electricity flow on the surface of a wire or in the interior?

I was having a conversation with my father and father-in-law, both of whom are in electric related work, and we came to a point where none of us knew how to proceed. I was under the impression that ...
4
votes
1answer
421 views

DC current in ideal conductor and skin effect?

I know that the skin depth derived for AC current goes as $$\delta \propto \sqrt{\frac{1}{\omega \sigma}}$$ where $\omega$ is the angular frequency of the field and $\sigma$ is the conductivty. Now: ...
3
votes
2answers
101 views

Associated Legendre Integer Giving Full Asimuthal Range and Physical Interpretation of $l(l+1)$

In separating the Laplacian in spherical coordinates, one arrives at the associated Legendre equation (ALE). Write the ALE as $$\frac{1}{\sin \theta} \frac{\partial }{\partial \theta}(\sin \theta \...
0
votes
2answers
159 views

Inductor's energy

I have some knowledge about LC circuits, like I know Maxwell's equations, the differential equations of circuit oscillator and so on. I am armed with equations to solve physical problems involving ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

How is “Band Intensity” related to absorption coefficient

I am interested in the linear absorption of 762nm light near a transition of molecular oxygen. I need to find some experimental numbers that will tell us how far the 762nm light will propagate before ...
0
votes
1answer
189 views

Transverse part of a current

I am reading Many particle physics (3rd edition by Mahan). On page 51, there is a current of the form $$\vec{j}(\vec{r})=\vec{J}_0e^{i\vec{k}\cdot\vec{r}}$$, the transverse part of it is: $$\vec{j}_t=-...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Would two Neodymium magnets stick together with twice the power?

Assume I use a coil to create B-flux and put ONE Neodymium cylinder magnet (1" diameter & 0.25" thick) close to the flux, it would create 10 lbs of force. Does that mean that putting TWO cylinder ...
3
votes
1answer
323 views

Understanding Poynting's Theorem intuitively

I understand that, broadly speaking, Poynting's theorem is a statement of conservation of energy. Energy density of a volume of current and charge decreases proportionally to work done on charges ...
1
vote
1answer
105 views

Calculate energy from vacuum electromagnetic-field action

I'm reading Rubakov's "Classical Theory of Gauge Fields", and I'm having a little bit of trouble with problem 7, p 15: Using an expression of the type $E = \int d^{3} x \frac{\delta L}{\delta \dot{...
0
votes
0answers
180 views

Determining the path of a particle in a velocity selector

I am wondering how you can determine the path of a particle in a velocity selector provided its velocity doesn't equal $ \frac{E}{B} $. I understand that the equation is derived from this force ...
1
vote
2answers
325 views

Faraday's law and “infinite induction”

I may have confused after thinking too much about Faraday's law. If an emf is induced in a circuit due to some changing magnetic field, the induced current will be in a direction such that the "...
2
votes
1answer
227 views

Walter Lewin's lecture on Faraday's law

In Walter Lewin's lecture on Faraday's law, he does a demonstration with a solenoid where he shows that current is induced in a loop that surrounds the solenoid as the magnetic flux is changing. He ...
0
votes
3answers
506 views

Is there work done when two current carrying wires are attracted?

When a current carrying wire attracts(or repels) another wire, the wire moves under the action of a force. Also, it is obvious that the work done is due to force of "magnetic field" on "moving ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

The Energy involved in the work done here?

When a wire that has current $I$ flowing within it and its in a magnetic field, the wire experience the Lorentz force, and that force moved the wire over a certain distance $x$(no matter how small), ...
3
votes
4answers
3k views

Charged particle between two parallel likely charged plates, is it affected by the plates?

Imagine two parallel conductive plates. Charge up both to have the same amount of positive charge. Then put positive test particle between the two. The Coulomb's law is an inverse square law, so one ...
6
votes
1answer
310 views

Reconciling total internal reflection and the evanescent Wave

I understand that light is guided in a dielectric waveguide via total internal reflection. My question is regarding the origin of power contained in the evanescent field traveling along the direction ...
1
vote
0answers
609 views

Cubic Gaussian Surface For Evaluating Electric Flux

i'm working through some problem sets about Gauss' law and all the examples I have come across so far require the use of a spherical gaussian surface for a point charge, so that it is possible to say ...
0
votes
1answer
919 views

Lorentz transformation of electromagnetic 4-potential

I'm looking for the exact correspondence between Lorentz transfer four vector and the four vector of scalar and vector potential $A^\mu = (\phi(t,\vec{x}),\vec{A}(t,\vec{x}))^{T}$. Does $ct=A(t), ...
5
votes
3answers
583 views

Acceleration of electric charges and radiation

According to classical electromagnetic theory, accelerated charges should emit radiation and lose energy. The reason given in my book why atoms don't emit radiation (say, when the atom moves along a ...
0
votes
2answers
126 views

How can I apply Conservation of Energy in electromagnetism?

How can I apply C.O.E to a system that applies magnetic & electric fields at the same time to do work, and convert energy from one form to another? Let assume we have a conductor that moves ...
3
votes
2answers
593 views

Uncertainty of permittivity of vacuum [duplicate]

Question: The value of permittivity of vacuum, $\epsilon_0$, is given with absolutely no uncertainty in NIST Why is this the case? More details: The permeability of vacuum can be given by $$\...
0
votes
1answer
141 views

Electric Magnetic potential and Lorentz transform [closed]

I have heard that the scalar potential and the magnetic vector potential in the electromagnetic four potential become the four vector by the Lorentz transform. Thereafter, the Lorentz transform leads ...
4
votes
1answer
782 views

Calculating the electrostatic energy per unit length of a cylindrical shell surrounded by a coaxial cable

Suppose an infinitely long cylindrical shell of radius $a$ carries a surface charge density $\sigma_0$ and is surrounded by a coaxial cable of inner radius $b$ and outer radius $c$ with uniform charge ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Energy in an electromagnetic wave

A radio antenna creates EM waves through switching the polarization in the antenna at a certain frequency. I assume the the energy of the photons produced in this process amount to E=hf for each ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

How can current be a smooth curve?

The following is a graph of the current across some circuit element: Note how the current is treated like a smooth continuous function. Even in the analysis of things (i.e. analysis of the ...
0
votes
1answer
317 views

How are magnetic and electric fields transmitted?

This may be a duplicate, but how are (ideally) constant E- and B-/H-fields transmitted thru space? In this situation I like think of EM radiation as a note from a particle informing the universe of a ...
5
votes
2answers
710 views

Which solution to the electromagnetic wave equation is the most accurate model of monochromatic light?

When a photon is modeled as a monochromatic electromagnetic wave its electric and magnetic components are usually taken to be sine waves (for example here http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/...
1
vote
3answers
773 views

Protons and Electrons Occupying the Same Space

When it comes to atoms electrons can't fall into the nucleus, which besides the off hand uncertainty explanation, I'm not sure which force prevents them from falling into the nucleus. I thought I ...
2
votes
1answer
267 views

Shielding RFID with aluminium foil

I've been playing around with some contactless bank cards and an RFID reader app on my phone. As expected, if I wrap the card in foil, the reader no longer detects it. But I was surprised to find that ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

How is this the graph of induced emf against angle for a rotating coil in a magnetic field?

So a coil is rotating in a magnetic field, and at $\theta=0$ the coil is perpendicular to the field lines. At $\theta=90$ the coil is parallel to the field lines. The the angle, theta, is the angle ...
5
votes
2answers
476 views

Why isn't there a potential difference across a disconnected diode?

I know this question sounds silly, as if there was a potential difference a current would be created when the terminals are connected together and this would mean energy has come from somewhere. The ...
7
votes
1answer
232 views

Why does Einstein say contradictions arise from treating the EM field as lines of force?

EDIT - I have included the context of the quote I am interested in, as people seem to be as baffled by Einstein's quote as I am: In a 1920 address Einstein says this: Think of waves on the ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Why does the induced EMF oppose the change in magnetic flux? Lenz's Law question

Can anyone explain to me why the induced magnetic field will oppose the change in magnetic flux? Is it an energy thing? I know that the induced emf is $$ emf= - \frac{d\phi}{dt} $$ but my book doesn'...
1
vote
0answers
101 views

Proving two forms of atom-field interaction perturbation Hamiltonian are equivalent

In the presence of an electromagnetic field in the dipole-approximation (${\boldsymbol A} = {\boldsymbol A}(0,t)$) we have the two forms $$H_{{\boldsymbol d}\cdot {\boldsymbol E}} = - q {\boldsymbol ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Electromagnetism and the principle of relativity

I'm reading the book "Fundamental Physics 2: Electromagnetism" by Alonso and Finn. I understand everything up to the point where everything is "unified". The following example is given in the book: ...
7
votes
2answers
8k views

Why is the divergence of a magnetic field equal to zero?

We know due to Maxwell's equations that: $$\vec{\nabla} \cdot \vec{B}=0$$ But if we get far from the magnetic field, shouldn't it be weaker? Shouldn't the divergence of the field be positive? If ...
0
votes
0answers
85 views

Deduce magnetic field based on electric field

I'm learning Maxwell's electromagnetic equations and i can't wrap my head around this problem: Given the volume $x\in [0,1], y\in [0,1], z\in [0,1]$, electric field $\vec E(x,y,z,t)$ and material ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Is polarization of a wave just a description of its motion in three dimensions?

Since a polarization of the wave is described by complex numbers, we can try to give that mathematical formalism geometrical meaning. With having two different axes, one imaginary and other real, it ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

What is the resolution to this apparent contradiction?

Momentum is defined as $$p = \gamma m_0 v$$ And here is another law $$E^2=(m_0c^2)^2+(pc)^2$$ And this website says the energy of a red photon is $1.9074 eV$. Also, light has a rest mass of $0$. The ...
4
votes
1answer
152 views

Lorentz force in rotating frame

This is the common problem of a charged particle moving in a static electric and magnetic field. Say $\textbf{E}=(E_x,0,0)$ and $\textbf{B}=(0,0,B_z)$. In the inertial frame of reference, the ...
2
votes
1answer
299 views

Sign convention for EMF

When we define the field generate by EMF, why there is not negative sign in $\mathcal{E} = \oint \vec{E} \cdot d\vec{l}$? Usually we talk about potential, there should be a negative sign, right?
0
votes
0answers
33 views

When a pole of magnet comes near another pole possessing the same charge does it generate electricity?

That's all there is to it. Well... I was daydreaming about making gloves that had the ability to shock people when you punched them. I thought how it would be better if they didn't need a battery and ...