The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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4answers
1k views

How is wireless communication possible?

Like all my questions, I fear this will be very naive, because my physics background is very limited. Please bear with me. I think of the electromagnetic field as a section of a vector bundle over ...
9
votes
1answer
926 views

Why is there a photon every millimeter on earth coming from a star millions of light years away?

I've been having this confusing thought for so long now it would be amazing if someone could answer me. Imagine this asterisk * . As you see, from the center point, lines go outwards, just like a ...
3
votes
1answer
470 views

Is there a simple model explaining Faraday effect?

I find magneto-optical effects fascinating, and especially the Faraday effect. But most sources only give a phenomenological description, while I want a deeper explanation of its mechanism. Is there a ...
0
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1answer
691 views

Are silicone polymers transparent to infrared light?

I know that silicon and even black plastic bags are transparent to infrared light. What about light-colored silicone polymers (take white or green colors)? Are they transparent to infrared light too? ...
4
votes
3answers
348 views

What is the missing proportionality constant in the magnetic levitation formula?

The formula for magnetic levitation is $$ B \frac{dB}{dz} = \frac{ \rho g }{\chi} $$ but as always, I have a hard time figuring the units in SI. The left hand side is $\mathrm{T^2 /m}$, while $\chi$ ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Darwin term and Zitterbewegung

I've noticed that in the discussion of the fine structure of Hydrogen atom standard QM texts claim that the Darwin term, which corrects energy of $\ell=0$ (or $s$-) states only, is related to the ...
2
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3answers
4k views

Does the 'mAh' rating of a battery have something to do with its power?

I'm curious about the 'mAh' of a battery: how can this impact the power of the battery? I've done some research on the internet, and most of the articles I found explain about the 'amount of charge ...
-1
votes
2answers
113 views

What could be some applications for a highly compressed magnetic field?

If you had a powerful electromagnet in the shape of a hollow sphere in which the top and bottom halves are the opposing poles, what can the magnetic filed at the center of the sphere be used for?
1
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1answer
307 views

Would someone who is only interested in string theory benefit from working out the problems in Jackson electrodynamics?

This is a soft question. I'm not sure if it is appropriate for this site. Would someone who is only interested in string theory benefit from working out the problems in Jackson electrodynamics? I ...
7
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1answer
294 views

Can I integrate out the fermion field that is not gapped?

This piece of argument has been repeated again and again by experts, that is Since the fermions are gapped, then I can integrate it out. but I have no idea of what will happen if the fermions ...
2
votes
3answers
362 views

What makes Poynting's theorem consistent for a charge moving in a static electric field?

Poynting's theorem is given by $$\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\int_{v}Udv + \oint_{A}\vec S\cdot \vec {dA} +\int_{v}\vec E\cdot\vec J dv =0 $$ Where, the total electromagnetic energy inside the ...
1
vote
1answer
317 views

Calculating the direction of the force acting on a source of magnetic field

I do not know how to calculate the direction, or unit vector of the force that appear between two magnetic field sources. For example, let's assume I mean a current-carrying-wire by 'source of ...
6
votes
3answers
854 views

Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Flux Quantization in superconductors

Why is the magnetic flux not quantized in a standard Aharonov-Bohm (infinite) solenoid setup, whereas in a superconductor setting, flux is quantized?
2
votes
2answers
363 views

Origin of Electromagnetic Interactions between Molecules

What is the origin of electromagnetic interaction between molecules? Anyway, it should have some relation with atoms. Also, These electromagnetic interactions are playing a major role in different ...
3
votes
2answers
371 views

On Aharonov–Bohm effect

Aharonov–Bohm effect in brief is due to some singularities in space. In books it's infinite solenoid most of the time, which makes some regions of space not simply connected. What intrigues me is the ...
1
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3answers
107 views

Currents and magnets

I've watched this video on YouTube by Sixty Symbols entitled "Currents and Magnets". In the video, the professor demonstrates the expansion of a wire due to current heating it up and he also ...
3
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0answers
2k views

how does accelerating charge produce Electromagnetic radiation? [closed]

Suppose an electron is accelerating along $x-$axis. How does it produce electromagnetic radiation? Which of Maxwell's equation comes in play and how do I derive the wave equation from it? For ...
3
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0answers
107 views

The force exerted by a ~10 Tesla magnet on a C13 isotope?

How much force would a ~10 Tesla magnet exert on a weakly magnetic C13 isotope? If I made a molecule of diamond with $N$ C13 atoms, how large would $N$ need to be for me to pull on it with something ...
1
vote
1answer
399 views

What is discontinuity in Vector Fields

I am reading David J. Griffiths and have a problem understanding the concept of discontinuity for E-field. The E-field has apparently to components. (How does he decompose the vector field into the ...
6
votes
1answer
114 views

What causes a spark to move along rods that are not parallel?

I took my son to a science museum where they had a gadget that many of us probably saw in movies involving a mad scientist. The gadget had two metal rods about two inches apart at the bottom. The rods ...
6
votes
2answers
540 views

What law of electro-magnetics explains this?

I took my son to a science museum where they had a solenoid oriented vertically with a plastic cylinder passing through the solenoid. An employee dropped an aluminum ring over the top of the cylinder ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Deriving Lagrangian density for electromagnetic field

In considering the (special) relativistic EM field, I understand that assuming a Lagrangian density of the form $$\mathcal{L} =-\frac{1}{4}F_{\mu\nu}F^{\mu\nu} + \frac{1}{c}j_\mu A^\mu$$ and ...
1
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1answer
824 views

Calculating capacitance of integral PCB components

I posted this question originally with Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange but nobody seems to know the answer. So I thought a physicist might find the question more approachable. Formulas for ...
5
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3answers
414 views

Negative Mass and gravitation

Since Newtonian gravity is analogous to electrostatics shouldn't there be something called negative mass? Also, a moving charge generates electric field, but why doesn't a moving mass generate some ...
4
votes
1answer
7k views

Relation between Electric and magnetic fields

I've read that both the electric and magnetic field vectors are perpendicular to each other in an electromagnetic wave. Passing steady current through a straight conductor shows some magnetic flux ...
2
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1answer
172 views

How does one prove:$\nabla(\vec{\mu_m}\cdot\vec{B})\cdot\vec{dr}=0$?

Work done by a magnetic force(even over an infinitesimally short displacement)=0 Net Force on a current loop in an external magnetic field is given by: $$\vec{F}=\nabla(\vec{\mu_m } \cdot \vec{B})$$ ...
1
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2answers
763 views

Using Lorentz Invariance of Charge To Calculate Current Density

I'm attempting a problem from Zwiebach: A First Course in String Theory and am completely stuck. Could anyone give me a hint? The problem is as follows. Consider $S$, $S'$ two Lorentz frames with ...
1
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5answers
515 views

Electro-gravitation - is it real?

I came across an article claiming that if you charge two plates, one positive and one negative, and fasten them together (assuming they are insulated from each other), they will float in the air. I ...
1
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1answer
453 views

Non-conservative Electric Field

I was watching this video from Walter Lewin and while watching these two videos, I noticed there is a "contradiction" in what he is doing. All links direct you exactly to where he begins, so you don't ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

How do electrons know which path to take in a circuit?

The current is maximum through those segments of a circuit that offer the least resistance. But how do electrons know beforehand that which path will resist their drift the least?
2
votes
2answers
146 views

Could you make a bar of metal glow by forcing the charge density on the surface to oscillate?

Since light is just a changing electromagnetic wave through space, could you create light by changing a charge density at a certain frequency?
0
votes
1answer
524 views

How could two current flow in the opposite direction?

Could someone explain what the green underlined part means? It doesn't make sense to me. It says the current (induced) flows CCW (that means towards the right). Then it says it flows to the left?
0
votes
1answer
630 views

Calculating the magnetic flux density of a thin, flat conductor

I am currently preparing for a physics exam and I have troubles understanding how to solve the following exercise: A current that has the constant current density $\vec{j}$ flows through a thin, ...
0
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2answers
1k views

Positive emf? What does positive emf mean?

Could someone please explain to me why we want to take the "magnitude" of the emf?
0
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0answers
105 views

What would the universe be like if Electroweak symmetry were unbroken? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What happens to matter in a standard model with zero Higgs VEV? What if the Higgs did not have a "Mexican hat" potential and the therefore it's vacuum expectation value ...
2
votes
2answers
514 views

Demonstrate magnets adhere to conservation of energy pursuant to the laws of thermodynamics

I am looking for a way to demonstrate that magnets adhere to the laws of thermodynamics, in particular the requirement that energy in a closed system be conserved. To adhere to the requirement that ...
2
votes
3answers
324 views

Electrial Conductivity of Thin Metal Films

What is the best way to find specific/electric conductivity which is dependent of very thin film thickness?
2
votes
1answer
407 views

why is advanced radiation absent?

the Lienard-Wiechert green functions have future and past null cones of radiation. Maxwell equations allow for a continuous range of mixtures between the retarded and advanced components, but we have ...
2
votes
1answer
256 views

Does the expression of the orbital magnetic dipole moment have $c$?

The orbital magnetic dipole moment of a particle with mass $m$ and charge $q$ can be shown to be related to the orbital angular momentum through the equation $$\displaystyle ...
1
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1answer
2k views

Computing the Poynting vector?

Approaching the following problem: A plane monochromatic electromagnetic wave with wavelength $\lambda = 2.0 cm$, propagates through a vacuum. Its magnetic field is described by $ > \vec{B} = ...
0
votes
2answers
430 views

Advice on classes: Theoretical Mechanics vs E&M II

So I'm having a tough time deciding between courses next semester. I'm a rising 3rd year undergrad math major whose goal is to get a solid understanding of theoretical physics through advanced math ...
2
votes
2answers
312 views

Interactions Between the poles of the same magnet

Suppose a bar magnet like so : [(+m)----------------(-m)] Do the two individual poles interact with each other ? If yes then how do you explain it if no then ...
1
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1answer
501 views

Gauss Law for Magnetism,Non Instantaneous Field Propagation

Is the magnetic force instantaneous? And, are all field lines established simultaneously? Otherwise, for example, the field line marked 'L' will take longer time to propagate than the ones above it, ...
1
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1answer
51 views

Is the stress finite at the centre of a spherical continuous charge distribution?

At the centre of a spherical continuous charge distribution with no external electric fields, the electric field is zero from symmetry arguments. But does the stress at the centre remain finite?
2
votes
1answer
88 views

In electro-optic material, what is happening to the structure of the material for the index of refraction to change?

I apologize if electro-optic material is not the correct word. As I understand it, when an electric field is applied to an electro-optic material, the index of refraction changes in proportion to the ...
2
votes
2answers
139 views

What is the history behind the factors of 3 in the classification of electromagnetic radiation?

What is the history behind the factors of 3 in the classification of electromagnetic radiation? See e.g. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_spectrum#By_frequency Is this (just) inherited from the ...
3
votes
2answers
89 views

limits on a gauss box of light

Consider a wall defined by $w(x,y,z) = \Theta(x-L)$ which is nonzero in the infinite semi-space of $x \ge L$, as well as a coherent planar standing EM wave travelling in the $z$ plane given by its ...
5
votes
5answers
3k views

What voltages are used to “safely” shock someone (as in a carnival game)

I've had this debate with some coworks. What voltage (rough order of magnitute) is used to safely shock people? "Safe" is a vague term, but as an example, there are arcade games where you hold onto ...
6
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2answers
2k views

How do mirrors work?

My physics professor explained to me that electromagnetic waves are consisted of two components - electric and magnetic - which cause each other. Which part of the mirror actually reflects the wave? ...
4
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2answers
441 views

About an electrostatics integral and a delta-function kernel

I'm having trouble with an integral and I would like some pointers on how to "take" it: $$ \int \limits_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{3\gamma a^{2}d^{3}\mathbf r}{4 \pi \left( r^{2} + ...