The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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51 views

Why does a magnetic field raise the ground state energy of an electrical particle?

I heard a statement that the ground state energy of a electrical particle in a magnetic field is larger than its ground state energy without the magnetic field. I just heard this statement. This ...
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2answers
270 views

What was Feynman's “much better way of presenting the electrodynamics” — which did **not** appear in the Feynman lectures?

Does anyone know what Feynman was referring to in this interview which appears at the beginning of The Feynman Tips on Physics? Note that he is referring to something that did not appear in the ...
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1answer
110 views

How does the magnetic field get induced in car's tire?

I was amazed to see how my car's tire started attracting the nuts and bolts, how in the world did it induce the magnetic field? Never heard of such phenomena!!!
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1answer
37 views

What is the significance of the difference in the eigenvalue equations of Bloch functions for electrons vs photons?

any text on photonic crystals will highlight the almost perfect analogy between electrons in a periodic potential and photons in a periodic dielectric. The analogies are: $$V(\vec r + \vec R) = ...
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1answer
64 views

Can electromagnetic waves be interpreted as a collection of infinite coupled oscillators?

I recently learned, for the first time, that the behavior of waves can be derived by treating them as an infinite set of coupled oscillators. This makes sense for waves whose medium is matter; it's ...
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1answer
45 views

Waveguides Transmission Mode Determination

How do I know if I have TE, TM, or TEM rectangular conductive waveguide? For instance, I am doing a lab where we want maximum magnetic field in the waveguide, does that mean we want the TE because ...
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1answer
56 views

Why is the magnetic field proportional to distance?

It's extremely difficult to create a magnetic field that can influence objects 1 m away, and somewhat impossible at 10 m away... Why is that? Why is the magnetic field heavily dependent on distance? ...
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1answer
144 views

Electric field from current without Maxwell's law of induction

A long, straight wire carries a current that decreases linearly with time. What is the direction of the induced electric field outside the wire? I would interpret this as follows: A current induces ...
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2answers
106 views

How to Generate a Strong Electromagnetic Field?

I'm working on a project and I need help generating a strong magnetic field over an air gap with the lowest material weight that could be achieved. I have tried to use permanent magnets but its not ...
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0answers
46 views

Finding the induced EMF on a bar - Faraday's law

I have a couple of questions about the following problem: A conducting bar of length L moves with velocity v, in a rectangular region with a uniform and stationary magnetic field B_1. Near the bar, ...
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0answers
67 views

Dispersion relation for TE and TM waves in general anisotropic medium

I want to calculate the dispersion relation (the relation between $\bf k$ and permittivity and permeability tensors and $\omega$) for a TE and a TM wave with wave vector $\mathbf k=k_x\mathbf {\hat ...
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0answers
54 views

About Divergence in polar coordinates

I've got a conductor in a cylinder shape who is rotating with angular velocity $\omega$ around its axis, that correspond to the $z$ azis I want to calculate the electric field and the density of ...
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1answer
347 views

Magnetic field in a cylinder with an off-axis hole

Take a long cylinder of radius $ a$. It has a long cylindrical hole of radius $b$ parallel to the cylinder axis. The distance between the two axes is $d$. If the cylinder has a uniform current density ...
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1answer
79 views

What will happen if the charge do not exist? [closed]

It is just a naive idea, and I want some discussions to help me think deeper. I don't know the reason of indispensability of charge, maybe some physical laws guarantee that the charge must be exist. ...
0
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1answer
57 views

Understanding Counter - EMF?

When an coil rotor is moving around a magnetic field there is -V induced to resist the input V. Let's take an example, a 12 V DC motor induces -10V, and the actual running voltage is 2V. If there ...
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5answers
276 views

Inside a conductor?

My textbook says the field inside a conductor must be zero in order for the system to be equilibrium and therefore there must be no excess charge inside. Their proof: 1) Place a gaussian surface ...
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5answers
329 views

How would charge distribute if electrons were balls?

In a conductor, any excess charge will distribute itself evenly over the surface of the conductor. Because of quantum mechanics, this is possible with small charges (i.e. 1e). But if electrons were ...
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1answer
72 views

Ampere's Law and Wires?

For a current carrying wire, the magnetic field $B$ is given by: $$B = \frac{u_oI}{2\pi r}$$ Is this only valid for a cylindrical wire?
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1answer
55 views

Ampere's Law and Circulation?

The net circulation should be zero if the net current is zero. However, I don't see how the circulation in the Amperian loop above can be zero. All the lines interact the loop only once and all ...
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0answers
22 views

Detailed balance formulation in solar cells?

Hello I wanted to know where does the integral of following picture come from and what are the alternatives in it? How and where can i find information i need to know to understand this text? thank ...
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2answers
104 views

How to derive the Aharanov-Bohm effect result?

In the derivations of the Aharonov-Bohm phase, it is directly mentioned that due to the introduction of the vector potential $A$, an extra phase is introduced into the wavefunction for case $A\neq0$ ...
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2answers
88 views

Conversion of Moving coil galvanometer to ammeter

A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter by connecting a low resistance (called shunt resistance) in parallel to the galvanometer. Firstly, why do we need to connect the resistance? If a ...
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1answer
58 views

Ampere's Law and net current?

If the current through a closed Amperian curve is zero, the net circulation around the closed curve should be zero. In the image, above the entire field is perpendicular to the Amperian curve when ...
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1answer
64 views

Ampere's Circuital Law

I'm having trouble understanding the surface used for Ampere's Circuital Law. In classes, we've been using simple circular or rectangular loops. Is the surface supposed to be area of the circle or the ...
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0answers
50 views

What if the surface charge on a conductor is positive?

This site says that if the field at the surface at the conductor has a parallel component, then the surface charge will move, which is impossible if the conductor is at equilibrium. But I learnt ...
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1answer
37 views

Finding charge (electromagnetism course) [duplicate]

I'm a maths undergrad taking a course on electromagnetism, I've drawn a diagram to represent this following question, but I'm having a bit of trouble approaching it: "Two tiny balls of mass m = 0:1 g ...
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0answers
66 views

How to achieve Gigavolts?

I was searching the internet when I found this article http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.1764, about achieving high voltage and power to ignite thermonuclear reaction by inertial confinement, the plan was to ...
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2answers
102 views

Are metals more heavy due to the Earth's magnetic field?

Non-metal objects are attracted to the Earth due to gravity. So the weight of non-metal objects can be only dependent on their mass. On the other hand metals can be attracted to the Earth's magnetic ...
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1answer
58 views

How do wind turbines cause lightning?

I saw this paper about Lightning discharges produced by wind turbines More lightning strikes wind turbines than comparable non-moving structures. What would be the physical cause of this? Does it ...
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0answers
66 views

Absolute permittivity and permeability of free space

I'm reading about the propagation of EM waves in vacuum. We define the wave equation using two constants: $\epsilon_0$ and $\mu_0$. Of course they are absolute permittivity and absolute permeability ...
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3answers
99 views

How to derive the expression for the electric field in terms of the potential?

How can I derive that $$\vec{E}=-\vec{\nabla}\phi-\frac{\partial \vec{A}}{\partial t}$$ where $\phi$ is the scalar potential and $\vec{A}$ the vector potential?
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1answer
47 views

What does non magnetic and nonconducting mean in reflection and transmission of waves?

So, we were ask to consider the Fresnel Equations for parallel and perpendicular waves (with index of refractions). Then, we are ask to prove some equations in which "... for nonmagnetic ...
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0answers
40 views

How to interpret Lenz's law in STR?

By the Lenz's law, when a charged particle goes through a coil it generates a magnetic field. This field generates a current in the coil, slowing down the particle. But by Special Relativity (STR), ...
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1answer
65 views

Does the 1-D poisson's equation have monotonic potentials if $\rho=\rho(\phi(z))$?

I am solving the 1-D poisson equation: $$\frac{d^2 \phi}{dz^2}=-4\pi\rho(\phi)$$ with the additional requirement that $\rho(\phi(z=0))=0$. If I start by multiplying each side by $\frac{d\phi}{d z}$ ...
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3answers
125 views

Conservation of energy in electromagnetism?

How is energy conserved in electromagnetism? Is it hinted only from Lenz's law or from Maxwell? Also, if a solenoid's flow of current produces a magnetic field, and from the magnetic field forces are ...
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1answer
44 views

Speed of different em radiation in a medium

Does all frequency of light travel with the same speed in a particular material like glass? Since by cauchy's relation refractive index change with wavelength which implies the speed also changes. ...
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2answers
107 views

Temperature and resistance?

Why does resistivity increase with temperature? The explanations I have heard so far are that increasing temperature increases vibrations in the lattice structure resulting in the number of ...
3
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2answers
62 views

Top angular speed of electric motor

I recently came across a question asking the following: If a motor is switched on, it quickly reaches a top speed. Why does it not just go faster and faster and faster? I thought it might be ...
3
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2answers
95 views

Can the $\vec H$-field have non-zero divergence? Does an $\vec H$-field monopole exist?

We know that, $\vec \nabla \cdot \vec B=0$ but $\vec \nabla \cdot \vec H\neq 0$, if $\vec \nabla \cdot \vec M \neq 0$. Does it mean that, in those cases $\vec H$-field has poles although $\vec ...
3
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1answer
194 views

Magnetic field due to electron in Hydrogen?

We can calculate the current density $\mathbf{j}$ of the electron in Hydrogen, and it is given by: $$ j_\phi=-e\frac{\hbar m}{\mu r\sin\theta}\left|\psi_{nlm}\left(r,\theta,\phi\right)\right|^2 $$ ...
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0answers
42 views

Physical distribution of salt anions and cations during electrophoresis

If I have a volume of $L$ liters of salt water at a concentration of $\approx N$ mM NaCl and I pour it into an electrophoretic apparatus (like this one: ). Once we turn the apparatus on, and set the ...
2
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1answer
106 views

Derivation of Ampère's force law

$$\vec{F}_\text{mag} = \frac{\mu_0 I_1 I_2}{4\pi } \oint\oint\frac{\mathrm{d}\vec{l}_1\times(\mathrm{d}\vec{l}_2\times\hat{r})}{r^2}$$ Is there any derivation for Ampère's force law or is it just ...
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1answer
46 views

how electrophoretic display like E ink retains particles on top of capsule without power?

how electronic ink display retains the particles on top of micro capsule when charge on electrode is released or when device is powered off? Doesnt that make particles loose on the dielectric fluid ...
0
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1answer
43 views

Difference between Cotton Mouton effect and inverse Cotton Mouton effect

The Cotton mouton effect is observed when a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave passes through a dielectric medium and a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the direction of propagation of ...
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1answer
122 views

Electric field in wire's cross section?

 $\Delta V_{ABCDA} = - \int_A^A \vec{E} \dot{}d\vec{l}$ The requirement that the round-trip potential difference be zero means that $E_1$ and $E_2$ have to be equal. Therefore the electric ...
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1answer
72 views

How much power would a space craft's magnetic shield require? [closed]

I've read over the decades that a magnetic shield might protect a spacecraft from cosmic radiation. Its a fascinating idea that might only be theory or science fiction at the moment. In regards to ...
1
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1answer
50 views

electromagnetic induction. Does charge matter?

Just wondering. I know a negative electric charge moving though a coil will induce a voltage in the coil. My question is, would a positive charge, say an ion beam, moving though a coil also induce a ...
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1answer
201 views

What is the conclusion from Aharonov-Bohm Effect?

What is the conclusion that we can draw from the Aharonov-Bohm effect? Does it simply suggest that the vector potential has measurable effects? Does it mean that it is a real observable in quantum ...
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1answer
65 views

Ferromagnet induced current?

A ferromagnet is attracted to a solenoid's magnetic field. I understand that now the ferromagnet produced a magnetic field, from that process is there an induced $EMF$? Can ferromagnets that are not ...
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2answers
238 views

Is the Maxwell Stress Tensor Coordinate Dependent?

I am wondering if the Maxwell stress tensor, defined as $$T_{ij} = \epsilon_0 (E_iE_j-\frac{1}{2}\delta_{ij}E^2) + \frac{1}{\mu_0}(B_iB_j-\frac{1}{2}\delta_{ij}B^2) $$ is coordinate dependent. I ...