The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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824 views

Two electron beams exert different forces on each other depending on frame of reference?

I am sure there is a simple explanation for my confusion, but I am a little puzzled: We are dealing with two parallel electron cannons that each produces a straight beam of electrons. They are placed ...
2
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1answer
379 views

What limits the maximum sustainable surface charge density of a sphere in space?

Suppose I charge a sphere and leave it in vacuum for 10 years. After that time, I want its surface charge density to be in the order of 10^5C/m^2. Would that be possible? Would it depend on the ...
2
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1answer
479 views

Electrodynamics and the Lagrangian density

Could anyone tell me what equations can I obtain from the Lagrangian density $${\cal L}(\phi,\,\,\phi_{,i},\,\,A_i, \dot A_i,\,\,A_{i,j})~=~\frac{1}{2}|\dot A+\nabla\phi|^2-\frac{1}{2}|\nabla \times ...
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2answers
80 views

Obtaining electric field of an uniformly charged sphere surface without using gauss law [closed]

How can i obtain the electric field due to a uniformly charged sphere surface without using gauss law on a point outside the sphere, im stuck not knowing what infinitesimal surface i shall consider so ...
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5answers
533 views

What is divergence?

What is divergence? I was learning about Maxwells equations and don't understand the divergence part of it. Can someone give an intuition of what divergence is in relation to maxwells equation. To ...
1
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1answer
156 views

Relationship between material and fringes behind an edge

The double-slit experiment shows fringes on a screen. Closing one of the slits there is still an interference pattern on the screen behind the slit. Making the slit wider we still see fringes between ...
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1answer
1k views

Would two Neodymium magnets stick together with twice the power?

Assume I use a coil to create B-flux and put ONE Neodymium cylinder magnet (1" diameter & 0.25" thick) close to the flux, it would create 10 lbs of force. Does that mean that putting TWO cylinder ...
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3answers
4k views

Prove EM Waves Are Transverse In Nature

Why we say that EM waves are transverse in nature? I have seen some proofs regarding my question but they all calculate flux through imaginary cube. Here is My REAL problem that I can't here imagine ...
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1answer
549 views

Gauge theory in classical electromagnetism

I understand gauge theory as the theory of continuous transformation group which keeps Lagrangian (or dynamics) invariant. So some integral invariants could be found. In terms of classical ...
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2answers
418 views

What is an “inclined magnetic field”?

What is meant by an "inclined magnetic field"? How is it different from the usual magnetic field?
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1answer
187 views

Do electromagnetic fields gravitate?

It's well known that electromagnetic fields contains energy but do they gravitate ? When we talk about the composition of the universe it's now accepted that the 74 % is dark energy , the 22 % is ...
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4answers
2k views

Do We Need Maxwell's Equations Since They Fail to Account for An Experimental Fact at Least in One Occasion?

This question is an outgrowth of What is the difference between electric potential, potential difference (PD), voltage and electromotive force (EMF)? where @sb1 mentioned Faraday's law. However, ...
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4answers
696 views

Coulomb's Law in the presence of a strong gravitational field

I was under the impression that the $1/r^2$ falloff of various forces were because of the way the area of a expanding sphere scales. But that strict $1/r^2$ falloff would only be globally true in a ...
13
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1answer
4k views

Can you magnetize iron with a hammer?

We know that a piece of ferromagnet, such as iron, can be magnetized by putting in a strong magnetic field to get domains parallel to the field grow. I also remember from pop. culture and MacGyver ...
7
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2answers
307 views

Time dilation only on electromagnetic force?

We've seen by experiment that the speed of light c appears to be constant for each observer (leading to all well-known consequences of relativity). I'm wondering if this appearance of constancy of c ...
7
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1answer
2k views

What are the characteristics of the magnetic field surrounding a human brain?

The human brain is said to produce a magnetic field resulting from the action potentials released inside the brain. What's the nature of such a field in terms of size and strength, and what is the ...
6
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3answers
793 views

Lorentz force in Dirac theory and its classical limit

It is well known that in Dirac theory the time derivative of $P_i=p_i+A_i$ operator (where $p_i=∂/∂_i$, $A_i$ - EM field vector potential) is an analogue of the Lorentz force: $\frac{dP_i}{dt} = ...
6
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2answers
484 views

What's a good reference for the electrodynamics of moving media?

The answer to a previous question suggests that a moving, permanently magnetized material has an effective electric polarization $\vec{v}\times\vec{M}$. This is easy to check in the case of ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Is the force carrier of the magnetism in a common household magnet a photon?

As I have understood it, the Standard Model includes particles that carry the different forces, e.g. the electromagnetic (EM) force, the gravitational (G) force. When talking about EM fields such as ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Magnetic field insulators

I was wondering if there is any way to stop the magnetic field, without having the insulator turned into magnet. Let me present this as a simple case, there is a magnet to the left and a piece of iron ...
5
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1answer
566 views

Physics of donut magnets levitating vertically on a pencil?

When you put identical donut magnets on a pencil horizontally, the magnets all repel from each other in a way that creates equal spacing between each magnet. However, spacing is not equal when the ...
4
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2answers
4k views

Does changing the electric / magnetic field cause self-reinforcing induction of the other?

I understand that changing electric field produces magnetic field and changing magnetic field produces electric field. Are these produced magnetic and electric field produced due to one defined to be ...
4
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1answer
375 views

Coulomb interaction as virtual particles exchange?

I've been reading about virtual particle exchanges in physics books and in Physics SA posts, where a particle interpretation of gravity and Coulomb interaction is established. The Feynman Diagram ...
4
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1answer
2k views

What are the limits of applicability of Coulomb's Law?

Coulomb's law is formally parallel to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, which is known to give way to General Relativity for very large masses. Does Coulomb's Law have any similar limits of ...
4
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1answer
261 views

Naive Question About Batteries

I do apologize for the ignorance that I'm sure is imbedded in this question, but I'd like to understand the exact point at which the following argument goes wrong: 1) A battery (let's say an ...
4
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1answer
7k views

How to debunk 'The Electric Universe'? [closed]

My father is a generally intelligent person, however he has latched onto a theory which I believe to be completely incorrect. He doesn't believe in gravity, but rather subscribes to an 'Electrical ...
3
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3answers
221 views

Ampere's law and external currents

In Ampere's law the current outside the curve taken is not included in the expression. Does this mean that only the currents crossing the area bounded by the curve taken contribute to the magnetic ...
3
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2answers
1k views

Why doesn't the magnetic field polarize when polarizing light?

If the magnetic field doesn't polarize does it follow the electric field path of propagation? or does it vanish?
3
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0answers
137 views

Can the two electromagnetic field tensors be combined into a more general tensor?

Given the electromagnetic field tensor $$\begin{align} F_{\mu\nu} = \begin{pmatrix} 0 & -E_{x} & -E_{y} & -E_{z} \\ E_{x} & 0 & B_{z} & -B_{y} \\ E_{y} & -B_{z} & 0 ...
3
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2answers
219 views

Geodesic for Electromagnetic forces

Considering the fact that electrons tend to take the maximum conductance path to flow from A to B. This is justified by saying that $\vec{E}$ is larger in conductors. But once similarly it was thought ...
3
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2answers
326 views

Coincidence, purposeful definition, or something else in formulas for energy

In the small amount of physics that I have learned thus far, there seems to be a (possibly superficial pattern) that I have been wondering about. The formula for the kinetic energy of a moving ...
3
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3answers
9k views

The relation between permittivity and conductivity

I am able to measure relative permittivity $\varepsilon_r$ of a fluid, and I want to calculate conductivity of same fluid. Can anyone suggest me how to do this? I found one formula to calculate ...
3
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3answers
2k views

formula for transparency of very thin film of metal

Is there formula that gives transparency of very thin film of given metal (tens of nanometers) to the visible light/light of given wavelength ? Which properties of metals are needed for the formula ? ...
3
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3answers
708 views

Does the wavelength always decrease in a medium?

I was studying a GRE Physics Test problem where optical light with a wavelength of 500 nm travels through a gas with refractive index $n$. If we look at the equations for wave motion and index ...
2
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2answers
125 views

Is the wobbly rope depiction of a radio wave inherently wrong? And how do vectors of parallel waves align with each other?

I don't have a scientific education, yet I'm scientifically curious. Among other things, I'm struggling to understand the nature of electromagnetic waves. What I have recently realized is that the ...
2
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3answers
188 views

Are magnetism and electricity the same thing? [closed]

I have read at certain place electricity and magnetism are the same thing, bit in reality we see both have different properties.
2
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4answers
392 views

Why does a magnetic field go anticlockwise of the direction of current?

Why never clockwise? How does it 'know' to go anticlockwise?
2
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2answers
354 views

Why is the Luminiferous aether theory wrong? [closed]

I saw on this page about the constant speed of light that there are two ways of interpreting this constant speed: General relativity The Luminiferous aether theory I understand why the theory of ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

What is the sum of the electrons' magnetic moments in a wire?

Electrons have magnetic dipole moment. This magnetic moment will be influenced in an electric field in case the electron get moved non-parallel to the current. The magnetic moments will be more or ...
2
votes
2answers
211 views

Why is this not a violation of parity invarance for EM

I read that Wu's experiment illustrates that parity violation is possible for weak processes. In that experiment, when Co-60 undergoes beta decay, the emitted electrons come out opposite to the ...
2
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3answers
1k views

Why does charge accumulate at points?

This is a very trivial question, but I can't seem to reason it out, again, as to why charges gather at points and edges.
2
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2answers
319 views

Transmission Line, TEM wave, transverse Laplacian operator (electromagnetic)

Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (1961) by R. F. Harrington, ISBN 07-026745-6, p. 63, he discusses TEM mode in a transmission line. The wave travels in the z direction. He defines the transverse ...
2
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3answers
6k views

Can a light be bent by a magnetic field?

I'm struck with two competing ideas on the question in the title. Listing #1: http://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=2009 Q: "How far can a magnetic field bend light?" A: "Unfortunately, ...
2
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0answers
214 views

Where can I find a complete list of metamaterials up to today?

Where might I find a list of all the metamaterials up-to-date?
2
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2answers
495 views

Software for simulating 3D Newtonian dynamics of simple geometric objects (with force fields)

I'm looking for something short of a molecular dynamics package, where I can build up simple geometric shapes with flexible linkages/etc and simulate the consequences of electrostatic repulsion ...
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2answers
112 views

Conducting rod moving through magnetic field

If a conducting rod moves through a magnetic field which way do its electrons move? In my revision guide it shows the following picture (more or less, but the following is my drawing of it -- I ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Is the electron's magnetic dipole moment influenced by the measurement method?

The electric charge of an electron at rest is a constant value and is not influenced by the measurement instrument. The measurement instrument by itself can give more or less accurate result, but does ...
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3answers
419 views

The propagation of electric field

In case of a charged particle which is travelling at a uniform velocity, the electric field due to it at a given point doesn't change instantaneously . The reason for this delay in change of electric ...
1
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1answer
191 views

Maxwell's equation for non inertial observer

Applying Maxwell's equation we can prove that light will move at the speed of light for every inertial frame, is it true as well for non-inertial frames? How light moves slowly near a black hole??
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2answers
168 views

Are there new concepts for the explanation of the wave-particle duality?

Whenever we can observe photons immediate, they are particles. That includes that photons have a inner structure with periodically varying electric and magnetic fields. The EM field of a radio antenna ...