# Tagged Questions

The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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### Maximum electric field in a circle

I have a question as follows: "Show that $E_x$ on the axis of a ring charge of radius $a$ has its maximum value at $x = \pm a /\sqrt{2}$. Sketch $E_x$ versus x for both positivve and negative ...
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### Is there any relationship between Gravity and Electromagnetism? [duplicate]

We all know that the universe is governed by four Fundamental Forces which are The strong force , The weak force , The electromagnetic force and The gravitational force . Now, is there any ...
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### Why is there no (time derivative of charge density) in the $B$ field in Jefimenko's equations?

I was going through Griffiths chapter on potentials and fields just to brush up on a few old things. He gets to Jefimenko's equations by this general path: Maxwell's equations Introduce scalar and ...
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### How to calculate flux density in a toroidal CT that has an electrical line pass through the center?

I have seen the Biot–Savart equation, but I don't know how to apply it. Does the conductor length need to be considered finite and equal to the core length, or will the calculation be for a conductor ...
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### Local gauge invariance and fields

I have one question about local gauge invariance of the spinor and scalar theories. For the scalar complex field with lagrangian $L_{0}$ requirement of local gauge invariance leads us to the ...
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### $E\times B$ drift of a single particle in vacuum with unifiorm $E$ and $B$

The force on a charged particle in electric field $E$ and magnetic field $B$ is given by: $$m \dot{v} = q ( E + v \times B)$$ Then, the $E \times B$ drift velocity $v_E$ ...
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### Could you use earth's magnetic field to build a hover skateboard? [closed]

In "Back to the Future" they use levitating anti-gravo skateboards without wheels which will be difficult to build, because there is no theory on how anti-gravity could be created. A possible ...
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### Effects of magnetic fields on our bodies [duplicate]

I worked 20years in a very high magnetic field at an Aluminum foundry. I'm now in my 50's and I don't know or am I aware of any negative effects from this. Is there anything I should be on the look ...
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### Conceptually, why does an electric field not require a charge flowing through it?

My son has been asking me a lot about electromagnetism and so I got to read up on it.One of the interesting and hard to grasp (for me at least) concepts is that an electric field will exist even when ...
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### Why are magnetic field lines perpendicular to the surface of a ferromagnetic material?

It is known that magnetic field lines become nearly perpendicular to the surface of a ferromagnetic material. The quantitative proof which uses the boundary condition requires that magnetization at ...
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### What is the interpretation of the Chern-Simons electromagnetic spin density?

Hans de Vries (who happens to be a no-longer-active physics.SE user) has an online book (referenced below) in which ch. 6 is a presentation of an object he calls the Chern-Simons current, ...
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### A dielectric table is being inserted between a plate capacitor and $\triangle U<0$ how to deduce the table is attracted to the plates?

I am practicing for an exam in my Physics $2$ course. One of a previews exam questions described a plate capacitor and asked to calculate the initial energy $U_{0}$, then a dielectric table was ...
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### Help making a solenoid engine [closed]

I am currently working on a school project and my aim is to build an electric motor using DC. I am looking at a design similar to this: Solenoid Engine and I have built majority of it however I am ...
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### Why does electric field intensity $E$ can be uniquely determined by its divergence and curl? [duplicate]

My question is, the number of following equations $$\nabla\cdot E=\frac{\rho}{\varepsilon}$$ $$\nabla\times E=-\frac{\partial B}{\partial t}$$ is 4 while the number of unknown variables ...
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### What does E/M field look like when I close a circuit?

Suppose that we have a charged capacitor with two pins: $C_+$ and $C_-$. Suppose that we have a long wire with fixed geometry, that is already connected to the pin C+. Let the ...
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### On the atomic level how do permanent magnets work? [duplicate]

How do magnets work on the atomic level? Is there current inside the magnet?
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### Is there a better alternative to assuming $a=0$ and then calculating acceleration? (Exam question: radiated energy after Coulomb scattering)

My classmates and I are having some debate about how to solve this problem which came up on one of our comprehensive exams. A full, step-by-step solution is not needed, an outline is enough. A ...
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### The magnetic field of a magnetic monopole

Let us define the magnetic field $$\vec{B} = g\frac{\vec{r}}{r^3}$$ for some constant $g$. How can we show that the divergence of this field correspond to the charge distribution of a single magnetic ...
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### What causes electron to orbit the nucleus in an atom? [closed]

What causes the electron to orbit the nucleus? Which is the force that causes it to do so? Is it related to the Electro - Magnetic force? .
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### How is momentum conserved when a magnet attracts a metal?

Suppose your have any magnetic object and no external force acts upon it, and the object comes near a metal which causes an impulse (think that will happen). However, the magnetic force is internal to ...
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### Calculate Magnetic Flux Density between Two Disc Magnets

If I have two disc-shaped magnets (radius r=0.05m, width w=0.03m, Remanance Br=1.06 T) separated by a distance d, how can I calculate the magnetic flux density somewhere between them? I found this ...
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### Is it possible to have a magnet which looks like a hollow cylinder and who's north is interior and south is exterior? [duplicate]

Is it possible to have a magnet which looks like a hollow cylinder and who's north is interior and south is exterior? What then happens as the cylinder gets longer? Would that affect the strength of ...
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### Why are magnetic fields only produced by moving charges? [duplicate]

Why do charged particles only produce magnetic fields while in motion?
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### What different approximations yield Gravitoelectromagnetism and Weak Field Einstein Equations?

This question is inspired by this answer, which cites Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a valid approximation to the Einstein Field Equations (EFE). The wonted presentation of gravitational waves is ...
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### Conceptual way of understanding what material 'does' at critical angle

I would like a conceptual way of understanding how a material behaves at the critical angle. So why does it all reflect? I can see why it reflects in the maths, but conceptually, it doesn't make ...
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### 2 ways to generate electromagnetic wave

According to Maxwell's equations, accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. According to Quantum physics, heating causes electromagnetic radiation too. These 2 radiations, are they ...
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### Unpolarized light vs. randomly rotating polarized light?

I am confused with physical picture about unpolarized light. Is unpolarized light very fast rotating polarized light? or co-existing state of two orthogonal polarization? (or something else?) If ...
538 views

### Cause of electromagnetic induction?

The rate of change of magnetic flux through a surface (open) is related with the line integral over the closed loop binding the selected surface by one of the Maxwell's equation. But that means even ...
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### Angular momentum contained in E&M fields

I am trying to do this question as a prep for my quals and find my solution too simplistic. I fear I am missing something important. "Iron atoms (atomic mass 56) contain two free electron spins that ...
3k views

### Does alternating current (AC) require a complete circuit?

This popular question about "whether an AC circuit with one end grounded to Earth and the other end grounded to Mars would work (ignoring resistance/inductance of the wire)" was recently asked on the ...
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### Can a magnet magnetise an object with greater strength than it possesses?

Trivial thought ... Materials may be broadly superconductive, diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic. An object is magnetized by repetitive motion of a magnetic field across it's surface Say a ...
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### Physical and dynamical components the four potential

I have a question regarding the four-potential and its gauge symmetry. We have a gauge freedom: $A_{\mu} \rightarrow A_{\mu} + \partial_{\mu}\chi$ Such a transformation does not alter the EM field. ...
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### what are the main factors holding back magnetic energy storage systems?

Perhaps is it the magnet's own magnetic field that causes it to lose its superconductive state? It seems as though these systems could become incredible energy dense.
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### Consistency of equation with special relativity?

The following is the equation which, I want to know, if it is valid in relativistic domain. Consider two equal charges moving in same direction with velocity $v$ and charge $q$ at a separation of ...
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### What are correlated magnetic moments?

My book has the following sentence and I don't understand what correlation or lack of correlation means: At high temperature the magnetic moments of adjacent atoms are uncorrelated (to maximize ...
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### No magnetic dipole moment for photon

Electrically neutral particles such as neutrinos can have nonvanishing magnetic dipole moments. Spin-1 particles, e.g., deuterium nuclei, can also have dipole moments. Googling seems to show that the ...
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### What is the intensity of this light?

I am struggling with a derivation that calculates the cross sections for Mie scattering and since the incident light is considered to be a x-polarized plane wave I thought that we would have I_i = ...
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### Is it possible to levitate a toy maglev train using only permanent magnets as long as the train stays in motion?

I am fascinated with magnets, and specifically the idea of magnetic levitation. I recently purchased a Levitron toy maglev train and have enjoyed finding the perfect sweet spot at which it levitates, ...
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### Definition of complex permittivity

I'm not sure if this is the appropriate forum for my question as I actually am studying this as part of electrical engineering and I don't actually study physics. Nonetheless, I shall ask and if need ...