The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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332 views

Derivation of Lagrangian density for an infinite classical dielectric in interaction with the EM field

I am tasked with reading and reproducing all the steps in J.J. Hopfield's 1958 paper "Theory of the Contribution of Excitons to the Complex Dielectric Constant of Crystals". Embarrassingly I am stuck ...
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0answers
123 views

Lenz's Law and Eddy Currents

You can determine the direction of eddy currents according to Lenz's law. E.g. If a metal sheet is losing flux into the page, it will experience induced eddy currents in a clockwise direction to ...
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1answer
1k views

Axial forces on a solenoid windings

I understand that the windings in a solenoid experience a Lorentz force $\mathbf{f} = \mathbf{J} \times \mathbf{B}$, which tend to cause an outward pressure where $\mathbf{B}$ is directed along the ...
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3answers
3k views

1 Tesla electromagnet?

Is it possible to create a powerful electromagnet at home? With use of a ferromagnet it seems so... Using the following formula: $B(Tesla)= k\mu_0nI$. I understand some ferromagnet's like iron could ...
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4answers
1k views

Is voltage important when creating a magnetic field?

Would a DC circuit that has a high current and low voltage have a powerful magnetic field? I'm trying to create a powerful solenoid. In order to create a powerful magnetic field, I'm focusing more on ...
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2answers
848 views

Does a conductor of total charge zero placed in a uniform external electric field experience net force?

The question I have in mind is: If we place a conductor (arbitrary shape) of total charge zero in a uniform external electric field $\textbf{E}_0$, does it experience any net force? Why (not)? Now I ...
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1answer
185 views

Do electromagnetic fields gravitate?

It's well known that electromagnetic fields contains energy but do they gravitate ? When we talk about the composition of the universe it's now accepted that the 74 % is dark energy , the 22 % is ...
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1answer
146 views

Does there exist electric field around all the substances?

A system of two equal and opposite charges separated by a certain distance is called an electric dipole. Electric dipole moment ($p$) is defined as the product of either charge ($q$) and the ...
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1answer
419 views

Why Inox Steel doesn't interact with magnets?

My dad has a HUGE magnet on his workshop. I love magnets, and when I saw it, I asked him what it was for. His reply was: "I don't know why, but inox steel bolts don't get attracted to it, so I use ...
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0answers
265 views

Help Understanding Equation for Characteristic Time of Induced Magnetic Field

I am reading this book, the part in particular about Eddy-current separation starting at Page 246, in it there is an equation for calculating the "characteristic time with which the induced magnetic ...
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1answer
251 views

Why does a light wave invert at a boundary with greater index of refraction?

Is there a reason why a EM wave reflects invertedly when it meets a boundary point with a greater index of refraction. In the case of ropes, if remember correctly, the reason why it inverts is to ...
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0answers
393 views

1-dimension radiation problem [closed]

A positive charge $q$ is fired head-on at a distant positive charge $Q$ ( which is held stationary ), with an initial velocity $v_{0}$. It comes in, decelerates to $v=0$, and returns out to ...
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2answers
98 views

Does zero change in magnetic flux always imply zero emf induced?

If you have a uniform B field, with a finite piece of wire inside it. Assuming the B field spans all space and the wire cannot leave the field. Are you able to create an emf by moving the wire ? I ...
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2answers
162 views

Classical electrodynamics formulated in terms of forces

The Newton's law of universal gravitation is described in terms of a force, which is produced by an action at a distance. It also can be described using the concept of a field, and that would be an ...
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0answers
178 views

What is the more fundamental quantity? The electromagnetic field F or the potential A?

Read somewhere that potential is a more fundamental quantity than EM field because if the latter is more fundamental then gauge transformation will reduce to nothing more than a mathematical trick. I ...
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1answer
421 views

Is there a Hamiltonian for the (classical) electromagnetic field? If so, how can it be derived from the Lagrangian?

The classical Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field is $$\mathcal{L} = -\frac{1}{4\mu_0} F^{\mu \nu} F_{\mu \nu} - J^\mu A_\mu.$$ Is there also a Hamiltonian? If so, how to derive it? I know how ...
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0answers
105 views

$E$ and $B$ fields in Axial Gauge

I am trying to compute the $\vec{E}$ and $\vec{B}$ fields in the Axial gauge ($n \cdot \vec{A}=0$) where $n^2=1$, but I'm having trouble seeing the usefulness/how it simplifies the equations.
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76 views

Boundary Condition for Generating Evanescent Waves

I'm reading through Novotny and Hecht's book on Nano-Optics (Principles of Nano-Optics), and I've come across a subtlety in the boundary conditions for evanescent wave generation (via total internal ...
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2answers
933 views

Why is a paramagnetic material attracted into a magnetic field?

I want to start by saying I've seen this topic: Attraction and repulsion of Magnetic materials and its supposed duplicates and it hasn't helped me very much. In the book Introduction to ...
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1answer
669 views

Physical Interpretation of Poynting Vector

I'm looking for a physical interpretation of the Poynting Vector. I understand that it should be thought of as an energy flow due to the electromagnetic field, but would I be correct in saying that in ...
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1answer
113 views

Why is an optical magnon with k=0 not an eigenenergy state?

I found in a paper the following explanation. Unfortunately, I can't understand it. Can anyone help me on this? In the limit of equal spins an optical magnon with k=0 gets an acoustical one at the ...
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2answers
921 views

Circularly polarized light incident at Brewster's Angle

If a perfectly circularly polarized wave of light is incident on a dielectric medium (coming from air) at Brewster's Angle, what will the polarization state of the transmitted wave be? I am aware ...
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1answer
495 views

Electric potential difference from electric field of isolated spherical conductor

I'm wondering if my train of thought is correct. Say you have Point $A$ which is $A$ distance away from the center of an isolated spherical conductor, and Point $B$ which is $B$ distance away from the ...
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1answer
111 views

$\hat{\imath}$ component of force exerted on an electron by a magnetic field?

The magnetic field over a certain range is given by $\vec{B} = B_x\hat{\imath} + B_y\hat{\jmath}$, where $B_x= 4\: \mathrm{T}$ and $B_y= 2\: \mathrm{T}$. An electron moves into the field with a ...
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2answers
766 views

The Goos Hanchen shift mechanism

When the light is totally reflected in the interface between dense and less-dense medium, we know that the reflected beam will shift a little. Currently I have known the reflection coef r, will be a ...
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1answer
791 views

Detecting EM radiation using android app

I wrote a simple android app that shows the magnetic field(using the magnetic field sensor in the phone) in the current location. When I place a two inch steel screw on the top of the phone (which ...
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3answers
155 views

What is supposition of equilibrium? How do Rayleigh, Jean know the electromagnetic wave in equilibrium behave?

In a cavity of dimension L, the wave must give zero amplitude at the wall, means wave equation has zero amplitude. Why? Answer from hyperphysics "since a non-zero value would dissipate energy and ...
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0answers
81 views

Lasers can demagnetize ferromagnets?

How is it possible to demagnetize a magnet with a laser? Source: http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/pubbin/news_seite?nid=13657&sprache=en&typoid And the paper: ...
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5answers
2k views

How would I explain Ohm's Law in terms of Electrical Fields and Force?

In terms of current, resistance, and voltage, it's easy: Ohm's Law is the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance of a circuit. Boom, simple as that. How could I put this in terms of $E$ ...
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2answers
58 views

Speed of Magnetic Signal over Large Distance [duplicate]

If I had a very strong magnet on Earth and a very sensitive compass on Mars (just using planets to illustrate large distance), how long would the compass take to notice if I turned the magnet 180deg? ...
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2answers
405 views

Is there a good experiment to demonstrate Gauss's Law for Magnetism?

I'm trying to come up with a simple experiment that can demonstrate the properties of Gauss's Law for Magnetism. I am aware that it is a mathematical representation of the fact that magnetic ...
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2answers
559 views

A difference between Plane Wave and Collimated?

Collimation is clearly in reference to ray($\vec{k}_{xy}$ vector) orientation unlike waterfront continuity( $\phi_{xy}$ phase shift) described by plane-wave. Not to say that one is not directly ...
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1answer
54 views

which induced current produce due to magnetic field?

please i want to ask when induced current produced by changing magnetic field according to faraday's law is this current DC or AC current ?
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1answer
303 views

Vector potential $A$ on a 2-sphere $S^2$ of radius $R$ with some points removed

I am preparing myself for an exam and I got stuck with the following problem. If I wanted to calculate the vector potential $A$ on a sphere (not off or in), where some points are removed, how would I ...
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1answer
887 views

how can electromagnetic waves reach a cell phone in faraday cage?

is there any way to make electromagnetic waves reach a cell phone in faraday cage although conductor surround cell phone everywhere , can we pass current through conductor to make charges move as a ...
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2answers
96 views

In a strong field, how long would it take for domains to align?

How fast is the rate of "switch" for the domains to align with an exterior field? Possibly in milliseconds? I assume it won't take much time since domains are very small, and they only turn from a ...
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2answers
72 views

Determination of a unique electric and magnetic field produced by a point charge

Let's suppose I have a point charge moving arbitrarily in space. As far I know, Maxwell's equations don't determine a unique electric and magnetic field, they only determine a family of electric and ...
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1answer
209 views

Magnetic Dipole: How to plug into Maxwell's equations?

I read Magnetic Dipole point source in computational electro-magnetic literatures where it is used as exciting source. But I do not know how to plug this source into Maxwell's equations. Does it go ...
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1answer
98 views

$D$ and $H$ in macroscopic Maxwell's equation: auxiliary or constitutive?

I'm not a physicist. I want to understand the macroscopic Maxwell's equations. But after reading Wikipedia and other Googled stuffs, I got very confused. In particular, $D$ and $H$ have two different ...
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2answers
423 views

What is the mechanism by which magnetic fields do work?

I've seen some conflicted answers to this question in texts and on the web, in the case of a dipole, for example. Do magnetic fields do work directly, or is it their induced electric fields that do ...
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1answer
238 views

Electron double slit experiment and the electric field

In the electron double slit experiment, why is it not, in principle, possible to know which slit the electron went through by the electron's effect on the surrounding EM field? As the electron ...
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2answers
2k views

How is bound charge and free charge possible?

I am studying Introduction to Electrodynamics by Griffiths and I came along a concept I cannot seem to understand properly. The concept of free charge AND bound charge. I do not understand how we can ...
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1answer
2k views

Current induced from a magnet moving through a solenoid?

If we had a magnet we move it towards a solenoid a half sine wave current is induced when we make it move back, the other half is induced, inducing an AC current in the solenoid. What if the magnet ...
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2answers
174 views

What is the area in Faraday's law if we have only a piece of metal moving in a magnetic field?

If a piece of metal of length $l$ is moving with a speed $v$ in a region where there is a uniform magnetic field $B$ perpendicular to it, there will be a potential difference across its terminals ...
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1answer
47 views

Su­per­lu­mi­nal in­ter­ac­tions

The fact that photons emitted from an electric-dipole active atom cannot be spatially localized better than to the near-field zone of the atom is seen as the origin of genuine superluminality. ...
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1answer
99 views

How do virtual-photons curve in a magetic field?

From what I understand photons only move in straight lines unless reflected or refracted (other than influences from gravitational fields and their usual wavelike movement). And since they are a ...
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2answers
4k views

Does a Faraday cage block all magnetic field frequencies lower than x?

Where x is a function of the dimension of its holes. I mean, if I build a faraday cage able to shield magnetic field at 100kHz, will it we able to shield also all frequencies lower than 100kHz, such ...
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3answers
248 views

Does the magnitude of an electrical field change with frequency?

I am trying to model the frequency response of a force (dielectrophoresis) that is based on gradient of an electric field. One of the components is the CM factor which has a frequency component, but ...
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1answer
67 views

Current Source that produces transverse electromagnetic field

Given only $y$ component of Electromagnetic Field $\vec{E}$, $$E_y = \begin{cases} E_0\cos(\omega z/c - \omega t), & \mbox{ z > 0} \\ E_0\cos(\omega z/c + \omega t), & \mbox{z < 0} ...
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1answer
90 views

Calculating $dB/dt$ from velocity

I have recently carried out an experiment to verify Faradays law for a falling magnet. My starting point was to keep both the area of the coil and the number of turns constant whilst changing the ...