The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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Understanding fields and their correlation to forces

I seem to be confused between the concept of a "force", and a field. Now let's assume there is a magnetic field of $1$ $\mathrm{Tesla}$, what does that mean in relation to force? Finally, if field is ...
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24 views

Would electron degenerate matter be a good x-ray reflector?

I do not know much about x-ray physics or degenerate matter, but I have the intuitive feeling that the high electron density and what must be some crazy band structures in electron degenerate matter ...
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2answers
89 views

How can you use magnets to rotate a shaft, which in turn powers a generator? [duplicate]

I recently was given the task to create power using magnets, I would think that if I were to put some same poled magnets together, and they were facing the same poled magnets, they would repel and ...
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1answer
69 views

What does the electric field caused by a charged cylinder look like?

I am talking about a cylinder with a large enough radius:length ration that it cannot just be treated as a line. I would think that the electric field lines come out the curved and flat surfaces ...
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35 views

Saturation of an iron core?

Lets assume we have a 1 kg iron core, and a 100 kg iron core. Now saturation is defined as how much that core can absorb the magnetic field, since they are different sizes, don't they saturate at ...
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51 views

How do magnetic objects exhibit attraction/repulsion across empty space?

Magnets will attract or repel over a distance before physically touching each other. What makes this effect possible? My best guess is that the forces generated by the angular momentum of the ...
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2answers
145 views

Why don't black holes form from forces other than gravity?

Gravity is the weakest of the fundamental forces, so what is so special about gravity that it can form an inescapably strong field while a force like the EM force cannot? It seems to me that if there ...
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22 views

Conduction and propagation

What is the difference between conduction of electric wave in conductor and propagation of electromagnetic wave in dielectric? Why propagation term is used for dielectric and conduction for ...
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6answers
754 views

A paradox to Lenz's law

I have read that in simple words, Lenz's law states that: The direction of current induced in a conductor is in such a fashion, that it opposes its cause. This validates law of conservation of ...
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61 views

Force from solenoid

I'd like to approximate the force from a solenoid, or at the very least find a formula which is proportional to the force so that I can experimentally find the constant for my particular case. ...
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1answer
109 views

How can electrons move along the conductive wire? ( seems to be a paradox )

Tangential components of the electric field across an interface between two media, with no impressed magnetic current densities along the boundary of the interface, are continuous. So: $ n \times (E_2 ...
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27 views

Why does surface charge not move?

If you have a wire with current flowing through it, and the current flowing the wrong way (not parallel to the wire) surface charge will buildup, generating a field to force the current to flow the ...
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106 views

Is it possible to detect fake Tungsten aka Wolfram gold bars with a strong magnet?

Tungsten aka Wolfram is paramagnetic so it is weakly attracted to magnets. A guy devised the following to test for Tungsten in gold bars: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foELQ7T8_90 But he is using ...
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458 views

How can KVL & KCL be derived from Maxwell equations?

How can KVL (Kirchhoff's Voltage Law) & KCL (Kirchhoff's Current law) be derived from Maxwell equations in lumped circuits?(Lumped network : if $d$is the largest dimension of the network and ...
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68 views

Is it possible to see light intensity fluctuate?

Solutions to Maxwell's equations shows that the $\vec{E}$ and $\vec{H}$ component are of the same phase, which means they go to maximum and zero together, therefore the intensity of the ...
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41 views

Application of wavelets in computational electromagnetics

I am a first-year graduate student (electrical eng.); wavelets is one of the courses that I am taking presently. As part of the course, I plan to explore application of wavelets in computational ...
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2answers
59 views

In calculating resistivity of skin do I use the body's surface area?

Most of the resistance of the human body comes from the skin, as the interior of the body contains aqueous solutions that are good electrical conductors. For dry skin, the resistance between a ...
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3answers
145 views

Why are free electrons free?

This is what I understand so far: in a conductor, the ions have a weak pull on the valence electrons. So when an electric field is applied, the free electrons are able to easily move about. Makes ...
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171 views

What are the limits of validity for the magnetic field of a solenoid?

1) The field outside a solenoid is approximated to be zero, because of opposites points "cancelling out". Does this approximation of the field being almost zero become worse as the diameter of the ...
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43 views

How do inductors produce current?

This is how I understand batteries and capacitors. The terminals produce an electric field which causes the electrons to move in random directions. The surface charge builds up causing new electric ...
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4answers
186 views

What is Electromotive force (EMF)? How is it related to potential difference?

What is Electromotive force (EMF)? How is it related to potential difference? Is it the creation of potential difference in any conductor??Is it a process?Why is it called force?
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41 views

Energy in a Solenoid?

Consider a circuit consisting of a battery, a resistor and a solenoid inductor. Then, the emf $\mathcal{E}$, is defined as: $$\mathcal{E} = L\frac{di}{dt} + iR$$ Multiplying both sides by ...
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3answers
70 views

Inductance of a solenoid?

My textbook is using Faraday's law to explain the self inductance that happens in a solenoid with changing current. According to Wikipedia, Faraday's Law is: The induced electromotive force in ...
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1answer
51 views

What happens when you pass a current through a coil made of a ferromagnetic substance?

I know when you pass a current through a length of copper coil or a solenoid, there is the induction of a magnetic flux. But what of the coil made of the ferromagnetic material, the permanent type ...
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95 views

Huggins Displacement Theory and Retrocausality

I was looking at the Wikipedia entries on Time Travel and the Grandfather paradox and noticed a paragraph on the so-called Huggins Displacement Theory. I haven't been able to find the source although ...
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7answers
487 views

Metallic and glass sphere of same size released at a height

This question was in my exam today : A metallic and glass sphere of same size were dropped at same height. Which sphere would hit the ground first and why? I have thought about several things and ...
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3answers
51 views

What is Conductance?

What is conductance? I am being said that conductance is inverse of resistance?I do know that resistance is the opposition to the flow of current but do not get conductance? I do know that:it is ...
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43 views

Kirchoff Loop and current

The pic of the circuit/problem: I got the problem right, but i want to make sure my reasoning is correct for the current left of the 2.1 V battery. Its the same current as $I_1$ because the ...
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3answers
152 views

Question about units of mass, $M = (L^{3})(T^{-2})$?

In section 5 of the "Preliminary: On the measurement of quantities" chapter (page 3) in "A treatise on electricity and magnetism" Maxwell uses, total length, $s=mt^{2}/{2r^{2}}$to show that ...
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35 views

How does electric current generate thermal energy?

How does free electrons moving through a wire cause random vibrational motion of the positive ions?
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19 views

Wave equation in the case of non-monochromatic light

monochromatic light refers to electromagnetic radiation of a single frequency, $\omega$ The wave equation in this case turns into the well known helmholtz equation.. How about for non-monochromatic ...
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74 views

Definition of Ampere

On Wikipedia it says: This force is used in the formal definition of the ampere, which states that it is "the constant current that will produce an attractive force of $2 × 10–7$ newton per metre ...
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2answers
94 views

Intuition behind Faraday's Law?

Faraday's Law seems more like an observation than an explanation. Sure, a changing magnetic current causes emf, but why? How does a changing magnetic field cause electrons to move in the direction of ...
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11 views

multiple frequency trapped power signal

is there any possibility to generate a waveform that consists of multiple power signals with different frequencies such that these signals travel together like they constitute [to form a ...
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56 views

Deriving and gaining intuition for the equation for the index of refraction $n = \sqrt{\mu_r\epsilon_r}$

I've come across the equation in the title. It relates the index of refraction of a substance to the square root of the product of the relative permittivity and the relative permeability at whatever ...
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76 views

Why does a solenoid's field look like this?

My book gives the above diagram but doesn't provide an explanation why the field looks like that. It simply says that the fields mostly cancel leaving the field above. Could someone walk me through ...
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3answers
122 views

How does electricity flow?

The terminals of the batteries set up an electric field in the wire. Surface charges build up to ensure the field is perpendicular to the wire. This allows the electrons to move through the wire. But ...
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253 views

Batteries and voltage?

The voltage of a battery gives you the difference in potential energy 1C of charge would have at the positive terminal vs the negative terminal. If I connect a wire to both terminals, the battery ...
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46 views

Why are free electrons always moving?

Electrons move when a field acts on them. If the electrons move towards the field, they cancel out the field when enough electrons build up. Shouldn't the free electrons stop moving eventually and ...
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37 views

Electric field of a capacitor in dielectric medium with weird size

I have been learning gauss's law in capacitor recently, recently I come up with this problem that I couldn't solve myself. If we have a capacitor,and a dielectric medium with half the volume between ...
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2answers
56 views

Work producing current = energy stored in the magnetic field?

It is stated that "the formula for the energy stored in the magnetic field is: $$E = \left(\frac{1}{2}\right)(LI)^2$$ and the energy stored in the magnetic field is equal to the work done to produce ...
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22 views

How does displacement current come about? [duplicate]

I know that displacement current is due to time-varying electric field and its not an electric current. But then, is it charge that is actually being displaced?
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24 views

Far Field Diffraction of EM waves: what does the zero frequency signify?

If you have a system of independently radiating electrons/point-charges, the far field distribution of the EM waves can be approximated by the fraunhoffer diffraction integral, or simply by the ...
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81 views

Electomagnetic Field Quantization

From Quantum Field Theory by Franz Mandl and Graham Shaw page 4. When we are expanding the vector potential as a Fourier series; $\renewcommand{\vec}[1]{\mathbf{#1}}\vec{A}(\vec{x},t) = ...
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40 views

Different phase in capacitively coupled RLC circuits

I was trying to work with some data for a lab report I'm writing about capacitively coupled RLC circuits. The setup is pretty simple and looks like that: Where $C^{'}$ is the coupling capacitance. ...
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3answers
134 views

Which angle should it be?

in the formula $$dB = \frac{\mu_0l ~|dl \times r|}{4 \pi r^3} $$ and the image where dl is in y-z plane and dB is in x-y plane. the ring conductor is in y-z plane carrying current I in ...
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65 views

Terminology for line integral of magnetic field

One of the quantities appearing in the integral form of Maxwell's Equations is the line integral of the magnetic field around a closed loop. (The relevant equation states that this is equal to the ...
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2answers
79 views

Suppose a light wave with wavelength 3m. What happens if one tries to contain that wave within a 1m container?

Suppose a light wave with wavelength 3m. What happens if one tries to contain that wave within a 1m container? If I'm going about this entirely the wrong way or have wrong conceptions about light ...
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1answer
66 views

Proving Ampere's Circuital Law

How to prove Ampere's Circuital Law in case of any conductor. My text gives the proof of only the special case when the conductor is long and straight. I am trying to prove it, but haven't been ...
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72 views

Why is no EMF being induced in this ring passing through a magnetic field?

The book's logic is that there is no induced EMF because flux is constant as it passes through the magnetic field. Which makes sense, but this seems counter-intuitive to what I previously learned. ...