The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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What is the physical meaning of the norm of the electromagnetic four-potential?

In SI units this would be $\frac{1}{c^2}\phi^2 - A_x^2 - A_y^2 - A_z^2$. Is this just not a physically meaningful quantity at all because it's not gauge invariant?
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12 views

Degeneracy in quater-wave stack

Consider a 1D photonic crystal, the quarter-wave stack, and its band structure. A famous conclusion is that there's no gap at Brillouin zone's center. In other words, successive bands are degenerate ...
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87 views

Can we explicitly solve the Hamilton–Jacobi equation for a particle in a uniform magnetic field?

HJE for nonrelativistic charged particle in an electromagnetic field is $$\frac{1}{2m}\left(\nabla S - q\mathbf{A}\right)^2 + q\phi + \frac{\partial S}{\partial t} = 0.$$ For a uniform magnetic ...
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130 views

Instantaneous Coulomb interaction in QED

It seems I am stuck with a (at a first sight) trivial problem. It's from the "Quarks and Leptons" (Halzen, Martin) book page $141$, where one considers the following integral: $$\tag{1} T_{fi} = ...
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59 views

Prove Biot-Savart law, assuming that $\vec{A}=\frac I c\int \frac{d\vec{L}}{r}$

Prove Biot-Savart law, assuming that $$\vec{A}=\frac I c\int \frac{d\vec{L}}{r}$$ $$\vec{B}=\nabla\times \vec{A}$$ Any hint on what to do next?
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2answers
59 views

Why group velocity represents energy or information transmission? What relation between phase velocity and special relativity

I have two question, why group velocity represents energy or information transmission? what is the relation between phase velocity and Special relativity: why can it exceed C without violation of ...
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2answers
71 views

Independent components in a 4-vector representing massless fields

In Ryder Page141, it is written "the electromagnetic field, like any massless field, possesses only two independent components, but is covariantly described by a 4-vector $A_{\mu}$". Why are there ...
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66 views

Relating Quantum Mechanics to Classic Electromagnetism [duplicate]

I've been directed to a few articles, and I am sure there is a related post, but can someone explain the procedure by which we can view classic electromagnetism through quantum mechanics? Indeed we ...
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103 views

How to compute speed without knowing mass or charge values?

A gold nucleus is $460$ fm ($1$ $fm = 10^{(-15)} m$) from a proton, which initially is at rest. When the proton is released, it speeds away because of the repulsion that it experiences due to the ...
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50 views

Magnet spinning between two other magnets

Suppose, we have two magnets, MA, MB, and we have a third magnet MC in between the two magnets. Each magnets' north pole faces the other magnets south pole, and the magnets are placed horizontally ...
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36 views

Alignment of a system in equilibrium and its potential energy

Consider a flexible free conductor which is placed near a strong long bar magnet. How will the the conductor arrange itself if current is passed through it? I asked my professor: he gave me a hint ...
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50 views

Measuring mass by acceleration due to electromagnetic forces in free fall

My question is a simple one (I think): How precise will the results be if you attempt to measure the mass of a macroscopic object by measuring it's acceleration when a constant electromagnetic force ...
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1answer
66 views

Microscopic understanding of Brewster angle

The textbook explanation is that, at Brewster's angle, the electric dipoles excited by the incident light can't reradiate to the reflection direction since it's aligned with the dipole moments. Is ...
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1k views

What problems with Electromagnetism led Einstein to the Special Theory of Relativity?

I have often heard it said that several problems in the theory of electromagnetism as described by Maxwell's equations led Einstein to his theory of Special Relativity. What exactly were these ...
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328 views

Electromagnetic field and continuous and differentiable vector fields

We have notions of derivative for a continuous and differentiable vector fields. The operations like curl,divergence etc. have well defined precise notions for these fields. We know electrostatic and ...
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80 views

If electrons are magnets do they attract each other?

It is said every electron is negatively charged and so they repel each other but if electrons are tiny magnets(which are responsible for atomic attraction and how solid magnet works) does it mean ...
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31 views

Questions about electromagnetism [closed]

Are photons units of energy? What is the relation between EM force, EM energy and the photon? Do EM forces carry energy, do they carry the photon (as unit of energy)?
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81 views

Solenoid pull force & Velocity calculation

So I am building a circular accelerator (like a slightly oversimplified model version of CERN) as a physics project, and I'm at a dead end. I believe I need to know how to work out differential ...
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1answer
56 views

What are magnet poles?

You see the poles of a magnet on every magnet picture, and they are said to be in the direction of magnetic field lines, but what does that mean? Is the number of electrons different on one side of ...
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507 views

What is the meaning of this “let there be light” joke?

A middle school teacher across the restaurant is wearing this shirt, and I certainly don't get it.
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252 views

What is the difference between induced current and eddy current?

I was reading today about electromagnetic induction and eddy currents. But while reading I was unable to differentiate between induced current and eddy current. What is the difference?
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154 views

Who foots the (magnetic) energy bill?

Gravitational attraction and electrostatic attraction/repulsion are intrinsic properties of matter, any particle (electron, proton) for some unknown reason can produce KE at a distance. But magnetic ...
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2answers
81 views

Finding the direction of the magnetic force acting on a conducting wire

I have a problem in finding the direction of the force when a conducting wire is placed in a magnetic field. If I use Fleming's Right Hand rule I get a circular magnetic field, so what will be ...
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1answer
25 views

Torque due to a magnetic field

We have two infinite perpendicular wires, each carrying a current "i" and the distance between them is l. If both the wires are free to move, how will they arrange themselves because of the torque ...
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1answer
171 views

How do you go from quantum electrodynamics to Maxwell's equations?

I've read and heard that quantum electrodynamics is more fundamental than maxwells equations. How do you go from quantum electrodynamics to Maxwell's equations?
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2answers
185 views

When can I use $\wedge$ instead of curl?

It seems in some circles the wedge product is used in preference to curl. I have a basic understanding of Green and Stokes' formula, I wish to use the $\wedge$ notation from now on. Can someone tell ...
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22 views

Magnetic flux and flow of electrons

What does change in magnetic flux mean? How can you change magnetic flux? How does a change in magnetic flux influence a current of electrons (electricity)?
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3answers
134 views

How do charged particles interact?

You'll have to forgive me if this question is too wrapped up in "classical" thinking. I've read that electrons and protons interact by trading photons, but this only raises more questions. What ...
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110 views

Why there is a time gap between the news presenter and the field reporter?

This one has been in my mind for years, but I simply can not find any reason for this event. The Situation Imagine yourself sitting in the living room while watching television. It's 9 p.m and the ...
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1answer
41 views

Poynting vector plain wave

I'm calculating the poynting vector for a plain wave and I have some doubt. $$ \bar S = \frac 1 2 \bar E \times \bar H^* = ... = \frac {| \bar E|^2} {2 \zeta} \hat i_k $$ Now if I consider a ...
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2answers
112 views

Inductor Charging and Discharging

Why does the inductor discharges in the same path ( same direction of current ) as that of its charging unlike a capacitor which discharges in the direction opposite to its charging(current direction ...
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40 views

Momentum operator of a particle in an electromagnetic field

In quantum mechanics, to all observables correspond some self-adjoint operators. In the absence of an electromagnetic field the momentum operator is clearly $\vec{P}:=\frac{\hbar}{i}\vec{\nabla}$. ...
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19 views

What is the difference between primary and volume currents in electromagnetism?

What is the basic difference between the two currents and how each is contributing to the magnetic field at source and the surface?
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3answers
2k views

Can a third type of electrical charge exist?

Upon reading my book on physics, it mentions that there are only two discovered types of electric charges. I wonder if there could be a third type of elusive charge, and what type of effects could it ...
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1answer
18 views

what does “mode” means in Mode-Stirred Reverberation Chamber?

Recently I have been studying about properties of Mode-Stirred Reverberation Chamber (MSRC). I have run through some of the research papers about the MSRC, but none of them talks about the meaning of ...
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1answer
47 views

Junction conditions in GR including electromagnetism

I have recently learned about the Israel junction conditions in GR (as explained in for example Gravitation by MTW). I then tried to generalize it when including Electromagnetism, ie matching two ...
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1answer
105 views

Why does a green glass block more UVA/B rays than a blue one?

Why does a green glass block more UVA/B rays than a blue one? White glass blocks 36%, blu 43% and green glass blocks most UVA rays. That is why beer and olive oil bottles are green, they say. Edit: ...
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1answer
94 views

Why would a rotating charged sphere not have time varying electric field?

I have seen Gauss Law being used for a uniformly charged hollow sphere rotating with $\omega$. How is that valid to use Gauss law since it is an electrostatic law and if it is valid, why do we get a ...
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56 views

Thermal fluctuations in metals

My professor said that the $k_BT$ displacement in the energy levels of the band electrons is due to the space-thermal displacement of the potential of the ion host. I think that this displacement is ...
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1answer
80 views

an example where changing the frame of reference of an observer changes the outcome of events!

consider two identical charges moving with uniform velocity. There will be a magnetic force of attraction between them as two currents in the same direction attract each other. If I sit on one of the ...
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1answer
81 views

Why is optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) called “topological charge”?

The terminology "topological charge" is frequent in lots of research papers related to optical vortex or optical OAM, it is used to represent the optical OAM. Why? How to comprehend it?
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1answer
122 views

Angular momentum, what is it, is it conserved, and how do we know?

Firstly, most definitions of angular momentum assume a point about which you define angular momentum. I realize that you can consider the angular momentum about any point, and have many angular ...
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1answer
24 views

What does $E$ field look like around an inductor? What does $B$ field look like outside of a capacitor?

For whatever reason I could not find a picture of $E$ field around inductor, and also couldn't find a picture of $B$ field outside of a capacitor. The reason I think is because these quantities are ...
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17 views

What potential between charges leads to confinement

In (2+1)-d, instanton effect leads to a linear potential between charges. If we have two particles with opposite charges in this case, since linear potential diverges when the distance between the two ...
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36 views

My model of Conductors in “static” condition - Please analyze

My textbook presents an idealization of a conductor as made up of infinitesimal units of charge and derives results. I was not convinced, so I started thinking of how electric fields are in real ...
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1answer
26 views

The difference between EMR and lone Electric and Magnetic fields

I fail to understand the true difference between EMR and electric and magnetic fields. When current flows, there is an electric field due to the electron flow and a magnetic field, however no EMR ...
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1answer
86 views

image method to calculate the surface charge density on a conducting plate

There is a charge q at a perpendicular distance z = d from an infinite conducting plate z=0. We use the image method and place -q on the other side of the plate and calculate the field. This field ...
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1answer
28 views

Electric Potential of Conductors

I understand that charges in a conductor reside on the surface of a conductor. So why is it that the neutral inside of a conductor and the charged surface are at the same potential?
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1answer
44 views

What plane is Area in, in this equation?

I have the equation $$F = (NI)^2\mu_0\frac{\text{Area}}{2g^2}$$ Which calculates the force of an electromagnet. I was wondering if anyone knew what plane Area is taken from? I have heard it is the ...
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32 views

Electric Field in Conductor Zero?

My textbook claims that the electric field in a conductor is zero in a static condition, as otherwise, a current would flow. But what if I go infinitely close to a proton; there will be an electric ...