The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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112 views

Transformers - Why more coils in second coil causes more voltage [duplicate]

I am learning about magnetic induction and transformers. I have coil1 which uses AC to create an oscillating magnetic field. I have ...
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73 views

Why is electricity 'the screwing force'?

In one of his lectures Richard Feynman, a great genius and a 'naughty Bronx kid', refers to to the Coulomb force, electricity as "the screwing force". Apart from the obvious joke and double entendre, ...
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916 views

What is the difference between electromagnet and solenoid?

What is the difference between electromagnet and solenoid? Both these terms seem as the same thing to me. The only difference that I can find seems to be that an electromagnet contains a soft iron ...
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35 views

Can two transformers used to make tesla coils?

Tesla coils seem to perform the same as a transformers: they use two coils and use magnetic field to transfer the energy. Doesn't using two transformers produce the same result? It doesn't seem to be ...
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95 views

Momentum conservation in an electromagnetic system?

Suppose that I have two charged particles in the configuration below. Let us assume the following: We apply a constant force $f$ to the the bottom particle so that it has a constant acceleration ...
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41 views

Can I tear apart a pipe with magnetostriction? And how big field should I use?

As I know, with magnetostriction we can "stretch" its unit cell. The stronger is the field, the more it expands the cell. Using alternating current in coils that induce magnetic field we can stretch ...
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133 views

Euler-Lagrange equations of a current-loop pendulum in a magnetic field

I am reading "Nonlinear Electromechanics", by Dmitry Skubov and Kamil S. Khodzhaev, Springer 2008. Here is the relevant and freely available chapter. Essentially, a loop of area $S$, mass $m$, moment ...
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175 views

Magnetic force as a relativistic effect?

There is something I am confused about when it comes to the force between two parallel wires carrying current, specifically why when they carry current in the same direction the wires are always ...
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63 views

Deriving electric field

Can anyone explain where the following expression for the electric field vector comes from? $$ \mathbf E(\mathbf r,t) = -\nabla \phi(\mathbf r,t) - \frac{\partial}{\partial t}\mathbf A(\mathbf r,t) ...
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29 views

Can iron be magnetized Via electric current in aqueous solution?

If you suspend iron particles in water and run an electric current through, the particles gather in a line along the current. Is this a form of magnetism?
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139 views

How can we derive the gauge field Lagrangian?

I learned the gauge field Lagrangian is given in this form: $$\mathcal{L} = -\frac{1}{4} \mathrm{Tr}(F_{\mu \nu}F^{\mu \nu}).$$ But how one can derive this equation starting from defining the ...
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120 views

How does EM radition depend on the reference frame?

In special relativity, magnetism is electrostatics in a different reference frame. This is how we explain the magnetic field being produced by moving charges (aka currents). Charges that move produce ...
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55 views
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212 views

Why can we detect a magnetic field, but not an electric field around an AC current?

Consider a wire through which an AC current is passing. Because of the AC current there is an alternating magnetic field present around the wire and because of the alternating magnetic field there ...
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40 views

What is the dormant common ground between harmonic mechanical oscilators and electromagnetical ones?

When I learnt electromagnetic oscillators I couldn't help but notice that it has many common stuff with mechanical ones. I know that it had to have sinusoidal equations. I (firstly, without ...
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39 views

How can we derive that an accelerated charge particle will radiate EMWs?

All the properties of the electromagnetic entity is said to be fully described by the four golden rules of Electromagnetism : The Maxwell's Equations.How can we derive that a charged particle will ...
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220 views

Permeability and magnetization of soft iron at various fields

I'm curious as to the magnetic permeability of soft iron (and other materials if available) under different fields. I know permeability of materials changes with field (that is why we have saturation ...
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118 views

Electromagnet force equation clarification

So, from a previous previous question, I know what plane the force from an electromagnet will affect a ferromagnetic material in. I thought that would be enough, but working through some problems ...
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35 views

Distribution of energy in an electric and magnetic field

Are the energy of the electric field and the energy of the magnetic field concentrated on their sources OR are they scattered in the environment where the fields arent zero? What is the formula that ...
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1answer
113 views

Finding the magnetic vector potential by calculus of variations

Given the functional $$F[A]=\int_{\mathbb{R}^3}\{\frac{1}{2\mu(x)}|\nabla\times\vec{A}|^2-\vec{J}\cdot\vec{A}\}d^3x$$ with $\vec{A}$ is a candidate vector potential for the field ...
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106 views

Why group velocity represents energy or information transmission? What relation between phase velocity and special relativity

I have two question, why group velocity represents energy or information transmission? what is the relation between phase velocity and Special relativity: why can it exceed C without violation of ...
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1answer
66 views

Measuring mass by acceleration due to electromagnetic forces in free fall

My question is a simple one (I think): How precise will the results be if you attempt to measure the mass of a macroscopic object by measuring it's acceleration when a constant electromagnetic force ...
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1answer
34 views

Electric Potential of Conductors

I understand that charges in a conductor reside on the surface of a conductor. So why is it that the neutral inside of a conductor and the charged surface are at the same potential?
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604 views

amplification of magnetic field

can we by any means amplify magnetic signal as we can with electric signal. As both electric and magnetic field can be represented in the form of a wave the analogy seems to be natural. I want the ...
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1answer
228 views

Calculating the magnetic field due to a rotating ring using Biot–Savart law

I wish to calculate the magnetic field due to a charged ring rotating about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the ring and passing through a point on its circumference $(P)$. I arrive at something ...
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83 views

Can I tune a magnetic field to conduct heat from a rotating object?

Is there a way to transfer heat from a rotating object made of iron into a suitable heat sink using a magnetic field as a transfer medium?
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1answer
47 views

Magnet substitution [closed]

I wonder if the two magnet configurations below are equivalent. If they are not - what will be the effects on the flux?
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228 views

In which loop does the induced emf remain constant during the passage out of the magnetic field region?

A rectangular loop and a circular loop are moving out of a uniform magnetic field to a field-free region with a constant velocity V as shown in the figure. Explain in which loop do you expect the ...
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179 views

Calculating equipotential lines and current density in a rectangular conductor

(This isn't homework, I'm trying to make an illustration for an article I'm writing.) Let's say that I have a thin rectangular bar of uniform conductivity, and I have point probes at various places: ...
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105 views

Why does the current increase in an LC circuit while the capacitor is being discharged?

From the maths governing an LC circuit (eg. $E_B=\frac{LI^2}{2}$) we can deduce, that the current through the inductor will have a maximum value, when there's no energy stored in the capacitor, or ...
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112 views

Physics of antenna requirements

I'm currently a junior at San Diego State University and ever since I learned on my intro physics courses that antennas are best 1/2 wavelength. I've read wimpy explanations that it is so it can ...
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175 views

Experiments which show the phenomenon of closed electric field lines

In german physics introductory texts often the following experiment is cited which "shows" that a changing magnetic field can induce an electric field with has closed field lines. Here is a picture of ...
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67 views

Homogeneity and isotropy of stress energy tensor

Given the energy momentum tensor in E&M: $T_{\mu\nu} = -F_{\mu\alpha} g^{\alpha \beta} F_{\beta \nu} +\frac{1}{4} g_{\mu \nu} F_{\sigma \alpha} g^{\alpha \beta} F_{\beta \rho} g^{\rho \sigma}$ I ...
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63 views

Why can we allow the speed of light being infinite in case of Surface Plasmons?

I have a problem with understanding of these sentences: We have indicated in the opening paragraph of the Introduction that surface plasmon polaritons are solutions of Maxwell’s equations in ...
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3answers
89 views

Arguments for finite speed of physical processes

When beginning a study of the special theory of relativity, one discovers that the theory of special relativity has as an axiom that the laws of physics are invariant with respect to transformations ...
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132 views

Ion Optics: Electric and Magnetic field. A comparison with Light Optics

When we compare ion optics with light optics, normally we consider electric field. For example Snell's law. $n_1\sin\theta_1$=$n_2\sin\theta_2$. When an electron move from one electric potential to ...
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128 views

What will happen to a solenoid with a bar magnet core?

Suppose I wrap wire around a bar magnet, creating a solenoid such that the poles of a bar magnet and the poles of solenoid are opposite to each other. If I were to hold a compass near one side, which ...
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53 views

Confused about the Hall effect?

In the common configuration of the Hall Effect, why wouldn't the conductor move? It follows the same principle of the Lorentz force or basic electric motor doesn't it? I can't seem to find the ...
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74 views

Connection between $\textbf E$ and $\textbf D$ can be non-local ? - Electrodynamics

In J.D. Jackson's first chapter, he says the proper equation connecting $\textbf E$ and $\textbf D$ $$ D_\alpha = \sum_\beta \int d^3x'\int dt' \epsilon_{\alpha\beta}(\textbf x',t')E_\beta(\textbf x ...
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61 views

Origin of the word Permittivity

Who coined the word "permittivity"? It appears that first usage was in 1887. Please cite your source.
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139 views

Behaviour of free electron with constant velocity

Can a free electron with a constant velocity V то move eternally at this rate in the inertial frame? The question arises from the fact that a moving charge creates near its trajectory varying electric ...
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121 views

Distance between two light rays of a beam in a material.

Why is it that the distance between two light rays changes as they pass from one material to another? It must have something to do with the change in refractive index, but to me it seems the ...
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190 views

Reducing Eddy Currents?

A conductor that passes a magnetic field, decreases its velocity due to the opposing magnetic forces created by the Eddy Currents. This "magnetic breaking" effect can be reduced if we change the ...
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73 views

Calculate energy from vacuum electromagnetic-field action

I'm reading Rubakov's "Classical Theory of Gauge Fields", and I'm having a little bit of trouble with problem 7, p 15: Using an expression of the type $E = \int d^{3} x \frac{\delta L}{\delta ...
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86 views

How can current be a smooth curve?

The following is a graph of the current across some circuit element: Note how the current is treated like a smooth continuous function. Even in the analysis of things (i.e. analysis of the ...
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3answers
289 views

More about the Right Hand Rule?

We started learning about electromagnetism in physics class, and the Right Hand Rule comes in handy as seems easy to use, but I'm curious as to how it actually works. I guess it's more of a math ...
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77 views

Alternative symmetries for the Maxwell Lagrangian?

I'm wondering about how to show that $A_a\rightarrow A_a+\alpha\partial_0A_a$, with $\alpha$ infinitesimal, is an infinitesimal symmetry of $\mathcal L=-\frac14F_{ab}F^{ab}$. \begin{equation} ...
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665 views

Saturation of an iron core?

Lets assume we have a 1 kg iron core, and a 100 kg iron core. Now saturation is defined as how much that core can absorb the magnetic field, since they are different sizes, don't they saturate at ...
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1answer
96 views

Electomagnetic Field Quantization

From Quantum Field Theory by Franz Mandl and Graham Shaw page 4. When we are expanding the vector potential as a Fourier series; $\renewcommand{\vec}[1]{\mathbf{#1}}\vec{A}(\vec{x},t) = ...
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255 views

Why is the magnetic field proportional to distance?

It's extremely difficult to create a magnetic field that can influence objects 1 m away, and somewhat impossible at 10 m away... Why is that? Why is the magnetic field heavily dependent on distance? ...