The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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Understanding the basics of electromagnetic induction

Suppose two rings are kept facing each other and that one ring have some current which increases constantly. Will the other ring be attracted or repelled? Does this also depend on how they are kept?
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155 views

Is it possible for a photon to be at rest? [duplicate]

I know it doesn't really make sense if looking at the photon from the wave point of view, but is there any law of physics which prohibits a photon from stopping completely? Thanks.
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120 views

A question about electromagnetic stress-energy tensor

This is what we know as electromagnetic stress-energy tensor $T^{\mu\nu}$. Now I want to know what is its direct relation with $\rho$, charge density? $\rho\,?=T^{\mu\nu}$, $\frac ...
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233 views

Negative emf in AC generator

At a certain instant in AC generator, when the normal of the plane (rectangular coil) makes an angle of 270 degrees with with the magnetic induction B, the value of emf is: $E = -NAB\omega$ My ...
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142 views

Quantum Mechanics of Lenz's Law?

I've searched the internet and two famous QM books (Sakurai and Messiah) for Lenz's Law, but haven't found anything. So my question is what the quantum mechanical explanation to Lenz's law is? Can ...
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381 views

Faraday's Law and magnetic monopoles

The magnetic monopoles does not exist which can be shown by $ \int {\vec{B} \cdot d\vec{A}} = 0 $. But in Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction, we clearly show the EMF induced is the time rate ...
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94 views

Can electromagnetic momentum be introduced at pre-university level as for electromagnetic energy?

Electromagnetic energy is introduced at pre-university level, starting with static electric energy followed by static magnetic energy. But the introduction of electromagnetic momentum usually has to ...
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166 views

Defining a local polarization field in a distribution of charge

I am currently building a theoretical model where charges of opposite signs are created by pairs and then diffuse and are drifted by an electrical field. I am taking this along a single so far, for ...
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134 views

Can the speed of an electromagnetic wave be measured in the absence of neutrinos?

Let me explain better: from what I understand neutrinos are so pervasive they are literally everywhere. And since they have such a tiny electric charge they barely interact with anything and cannot be ...
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197 views

The Lorenz gauge in electrodynamics

What is the fundamental reason to fix the Lorenz gauge to $0$?
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309 views

Factors of $c$ in the Hamiltonian for a charged particle in electromagnetic field

I've been looking for the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field, and I've found two slightly different expressions, which are as follows: $$H=\frac{1}{2m}(\vec{p}-q \vec{A})^2 ...
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142 views

What forces affect point charges?

I am working on a point charge simulator, and I was wondering what forces can affect point charges (assuming that they operate in a closed system, with no externally generated light, and initial ...
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631 views

Proving the consistency of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction

Here is a question which frequently occurs on my school exam paper: "Prove that Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction is consistent with the law of principle of conservation of energy." What ...
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261 views

Non-linear dynamics of classical hydrogen atom

I'd like to know if there have been attempts in solving the full problem of the dynamics of a classical hydrogen atom. Taking into account Newton equations for the electron and the proton and Maxwell ...
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245 views

Fields of Steady Currents Using Electrostatics

Suppose you have a uniform ring charge rotating at constant angular velocity so that you also have a uniform ring of steady current, and thus you can use the Biot-Savart Law to compute the magnetic ...
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1answer
472 views

How does Doppler effect differ between EM -waves in Electrodynamics and Sound -waves?

I have an electrodynamics -course that contains doupler -effect but unfortunately with little explanations. Is it the same thing as the classical doppler effect for example with sound, more here, or ...
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651 views

Extract energy from magnets

Is it possible to "extract" energy from a magnet, making it lose its magnetism? Or, to put in another way, is magnetism a form of energy? (I am not talking about potential energy in a magnetic field). ...
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108 views

Currents and magnets

I've watched this video on YouTube by Sixty Symbols entitled "Currents and Magnets". In the video, the professor demonstrates the expansion of a wire due to current heating it up and he also ...
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515 views

Gauss Law for Magnetism,Non Instantaneous Field Propagation

Is the magnetic force instantaneous? And, are all field lines established simultaneously? Otherwise, for example, the field line marked 'L' will take longer time to propagate than the ones above it, ...
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83 views

Magnetic field inside a charged stream

Outside a narrow charged stream (say, a beam of ions or electrons) is the same as observing a current through a conducting wire - there is a circular magnetic field around it. What would happen ...
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544 views

Does a magnetic field induce an emf in a loop of wire

Is it true that any magnetic field induces an emf in a loop of wire? If It it is true then kindly explain me with an example
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562 views

Potential of surface charge

I have a question about the $ \hat{n} $ in this formula $\sigma = P \dot{}\hat{n}$. Why do sometime in my book they get $\sigma = P \cos{\theta}$ for a sphere. Isn't $\hat{n} = r$ ? And then in ...
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380 views

Is there a more clever way to apply the cross product of two vectors to magnetism?

I am just beginning to learn magnetism and my book used two ways to define the force caused by the magnetic field, brushing over the latter. The first: $$F = q v B \sin (\theta).$$ And: ...
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741 views

Magnetization of coin on a railway track

The rumor was you could make a magnet by leaving a piece of iron on a train track. The train going over it would magnetize it. Is it true?
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128 views

Different results for Magnetic field using different methods

In calculating the magnetic field created by this current at the center point of the loop using Biot-Savart and using the vector potential will there be a difference? If so what is it and why? ...
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2k views

If electric charges accelerate towards lower potential energies, why do opposite charges attract?

I know my logic must be wrong but I can't figure out why. I know that charges must accelerate towards lower potential energies simply because that's a general rule of nature. However, when you release ...
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652 views

What was meant by the 'ponderomotive force' as understood by Minkowski?

Skimming through Minkowski's famous 1907 paper, he uses the term ponderomotive force. What does he mean by this?
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416 views

A lightning protection device physics

Here is a description of the principle of the operation of a new lightning device: During a storm the ambient electric field may rise to between 10 to 20 kV/m. As soon as the field exceeds a thresold ...
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449 views

Laplace's equation

I have got some mathematical difficulties in the following exercise : Calculate the potential of the polarized sphere along the z-axis. There are no free charges. For this, we need to solve ...
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295 views

Notation of plane waves

Consider a monochromatic plane wave (I am using bold to represent vectors) $$ \mathbf{E}(\mathbf{r},t) = \mathbf{E}_0(\mathbf{r})e^{i(\mathbf{k} \cdot \mathbf{r} - \omega t)}, $$ $$ ...
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368 views

Maxwell equations: how to know the behavior of charge and current?

In school-level tasks, when (almost) all substances are linear, homogeneous and isotropic, we have $D=\epsilon E$, $H=B/\mu$ and thus Maxwell "in material" equations (1) say how $E$ and $B$ depend on ...
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21 views

where does the term half in the formula of electrostatic potential energy comes from?(system of point charges)

Electrostatic potential energy stored in a system of point charges (from wikipedia) The electrostatic potential energy $U_E$ stored in a system of N charges q1, q2, ..., qN at positions r1, r2, ...
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28 views

Is the magnetic field calculated by Ampere's Law only because of the currents crossing the loop? [duplicate]

In Ampere's Law, $$\oint \vec B \cdot \mathrm d \vec l = \mu I$$ the current outside the curve is not included on the right hand side of the equation.* Does it mean that the magnetic ...
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29 views

Correlation between entangled photon polarisation measurement?

From Malus's law we know that if we measure a the polarisation of light with a filter angle $\theta$ to the direction of polarisation then the intensity goes like: $$I=I_0 \cos^2(\theta/2)$$ Firstly ...
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30 views

frictional force is nonconservative force [duplicate]

In nature there are mainly four kind of fundamental forces,electromagnetic force is one of them which is conservative force.If friction force is belongs to electromagnetic force then why it is not ...
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38 views

$B$ field around an infinite wire symmetry argument

Consider the infinity current carrying wire wire drawn below along with the three possible components of the magnetic field at a point a distance $r$ from the centre. I know how to use symmetry to ...
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79 views

Conducting rod moving through magnetic field

If a conducting rod moves through a magnetic field which way do its electrons move? In my revision guide it shows the following picture (more or less, but the following is my drawing of it -- I ...
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1answer
32 views

Interacting magnetic fields

Is there a reason why two magnetic fields perpendicular to each other do not interact? If they are parallel or at a non-90 degree angle they interact. Is it because magnetic field lines can be viwed ...
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24 views

How do I choose the right value of $r$ to find where the electric field is zero?

Sorry for the long question. I'm having a difficult time trying to explain my confusion. I have a positive point charge$\ Q_1 =+q$ at the origin and a negative point charge $\ Q_2 = -2q$ at $\ x=2$ ...
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20 views

Since electron clouds of different atoms repel each other, does that mean that touch is the feeling of electromagnetic repulsion? [duplicate]

Also when we rest our hand on an object does that mean we are effectively levitating because of the repulsion of the electron clouds?
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63 views

Have we really measured the wavelength of light? [duplicate]

Have we practically measured the distances between the variations of electromagnetic radiations in space in nanometers or is it just theoritical because of calculations? Also the one who have marked ...
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1answer
26 views

Units for displacement current density

The displacement current density, $$\mu_0 \epsilon_0 \frac{\partial \textbf{E}}{\partial t}$$ has units of (N/A^2) (C^2/Nm^2) N/Cs = Ns^2/(Cm^2) which is not the same for current density: C/sm^2 ...
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94 views

Derivation of Jefimenko's Equation in Jackson's EMT book

I have been trying to understand the derivation of Jefimenko's equation in Jackson on p.246-247 which can be seen in the photographs attached. First of all I did not fully comprehend the ...
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1answer
86 views

Radiation pressure (Jackson exercise)

Here's an exercise from Jackson: A plane wave is incident normally on a perfectly absorbing flat screen. From the law of conservation of linear momentum show that the pressure exerted from the ...
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1answer
80 views

Why does Ohm's law ignore the Lorentz force?

For example, the usual derivation of the complex dielectric constant of metals (using the Drude model) makes use of the Ohm's law in the Maxwell's equations, but what is never mentioned is why they ...
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49 views

Is there an electric field due to current?

Is there any electric field associated with current? If yes, then charge particle passing through magnetic field due to current should also experience electric force along with magnetic force.
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46 views

Field strength is always closed?

In electromagnetism, we can write the homogenous Maxwell equations succinctly as $$dF=0$$ Where $F=E\wedge dt+B$ is the field-strength 2-form. However, it is a well-known fact that the field-strength ...
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60 views

Why use different arguments to plot a sine wave?

In my Electronics class was given some examples of sine wave graphs that represent voltage in respect to time, $v(t) = Asin(wt)$ and other graphs whose $x$ axis is $wt$ instead of $t$, like in the ...
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160 views

EM wave in Real life

everyone I'm new here, but not so new in physics. I have read many articles about EM wave to find what I'm searching for and nothing still. I have seen many pictures, animations and videos about EM ...
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63 views

Gravity and the Speed of Light

Let's assume that I am on an airplane that is at about 4,000 altitude and now let's also assume that I am standing on one of the wings with a light torch, if I point the light torch below to the ...