The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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How can I approximate calculate the magnetic force between electromagnets?

I try to find an approximate amount of force exerted between two electro magnets. The below site could've helped me but the problem is that the below just talks about the number of coil turns and so ...
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2answers
54 views

Am I wrong about the right hand grip rule?

The right hand grip rule (also known as right hand screw rule) tells you the direction of a magnetic field due to a current. If you point your thumb in the direction of the current, your fingers will ...
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7answers
272 views

Is the electric field of a volume charge distribution well defined?

Consider a volume charge distribution $\rho({\bf r'})$. The electric field at ${\bf r}$ is $${\bf E}({\bf r})=\iiint\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\frac{\rho({\bf r'})}{R^2}\hat{\bf R}\, \mathrm d^3{\bf ...
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2answers
2k views

Meaning of boundary condition for steady current density?

Although I understand the derivation of boundary condition in case of steady electric current but I did not understand, that the electric field which is in direction of $J$ current density that is ...
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4answers
3k views

Charged particle between two parallel likely charged plates, is it affected by the plates?

Imagine two parallel conductive plates. Charge up both to have the same amount of positive charge. Then put positive test particle between the two. The Coulomb's law is an inverse square law, so one ...
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1answer
33 views

Why don't conductive objects change color when electric dipoles are induced in them?

I was playing around with a comb, my hair, and pieces of paper when it occurred to me that inducing a dipole on the pieces of paper meant that many valence electrons previously on the side closer to ...
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2answers
122 views

Calculating the rate of change of Magnetic Field strength [closed]

I'm a bit stuck on this question (which is homework so hints are more welcome than outright answers). The question is: A very long wire carrying a current I is moving with speed v towards a small ...
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2answers
139 views

How to find the parts across which emf is induced?

Is there a general rule that will allow one to find the parts where the emf is induced? Consider for example the following two cases: Case 1: A rod is made to move normally to the magnetic field at ...
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1answer
671 views

Why are atomic quadrupole moments calculated using nuclear spin?

It's my understanding that electric quadrupoles interact with the gradient of an electric field, and I understand roughly how this works. I am trying to calculate the interaction between an atomic ...
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1answer
857 views

Magnetic Levitation : Confusion with Lenz's Law

Considering the above diagram, I am failing to see why the aluminium ring floats upwards rather than oscillates. I understand Faraday's law, but I am struggling with Lenz's law - as there is an ...
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1answer
242 views

Magnetic field inside of a long rotating cylinder

I have a simple question. I need to find out what is the magnetic field inside a rotating long cylinder with a charged density $\sigma$. The cylinder rotates around its axis with angular speed ...
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1answer
2k views

Does the 4/3 problem of classical electromagnetism remain in quantum mechanics?

In Volume II Chapter 28 of the Feymann Lectures on Physics, Feynman discusses the infamous 4/3 problem of classical electromagnetism. Suppose you have a charged particle of radius $a$ and charge $q$ ...
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206 views

Opacity/transparency of conductive meshes to charged particles (electrons/ions)

When using a conductive (metal) mesh, effectively a metallic woven fabric, in vacuum applications as a "grid" for charged particle optics, how does one calculate (or at least estimate) the opacity or ...
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1answer
254 views

How can I find the position of an image charge when the boundary is parabolic or hyperbolic?

If the position of some charge $Q$ is known, the boundary condition is $u=0$ on some parabolic surface, and we know the image charge has its electric volume of $Q'$, then how can I determine the ...
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1answer
13 views

Light Ray component field strength

When looking at a diagram of the electric and magnetic fields oscilating down the time axis of a light ray diagram the field amplitude and frequency of each component is shown equal.Are they infact ...
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1answer
127 views

Do magnets also attract super conductors?

If a superconductor can be repelled by a magnet (or, well, locked in a certain position by the magnet) can a magnet be attracted to a superconductor. What would happen if you take a peace of metal, ...
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2answers
165 views

Two different electrostatic charges in rotation

It's a theoretical problem. I mean I drawn a circle and I consider this circle exist. I would like to understand how works this device composed of a circle and two charges: Two charges fixed on a ...
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1answer
50 views

Unpolarized wave, $\Delta\varphi =\Delta \varphi(t)$?

I have seen a unpolarized wave defined in a number of places (e.g. here) as a wave such that: \begin{align} E_x&=E_0 \cos(kz-\omega t) \\ E_y&=E_0 \cos(kz-\omega t+\varphi) \end{align} Where ...
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3answers
401 views

Electromagnetism boundary condition

The dielectric slab surrounded by air as shown in diagram has permittivity $\epsilon$ different from air and permeability almost same as air. Electric field everywhere within the slab is given to be ...
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2answers
278 views

What kinds of behavioural anomalies can a zero-field-cooled (ZFC) / field-cooled (FC) split indicate?

If a material shows a spiltting in the ZFC and FC curves, is it necessarily superparamagnetic, or could there be any other reason for the irreversibility? I have heard spin glasses also show ZFC-FC ...
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0answers
24 views

Do EM waves create action in receiver antenna without reaction?

If EM waves such as radio waves, can induce electrons in the receiver antenna to move, and electrons have a small amount of mass, isn't this action without a reaction? Is it possible to use the ...
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1answer
113 views

Magnetization of soft iron and steel

I was reading and I saw that the steel becomes permanent magnet whereas iron becomes a temporary magnet after magnetization during magnetic induction. Why does soft iron make temporary magnets and ...
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0answers
18 views

Which is the form of Born-Mayer repulsion term?

I have found in many textbooks different and unclear form of the Born-Mayer repulsion term. I write the interatomic potential as $V(r)= -\frac{e^2}{r}+V_{BM}$ and for $V_{BM}$ I expected something ...
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2answers
60 views

Magnetism In Space

I am not an expert when it comes to physics. I was looking at maglev technology the other day and a thought crossed my mind. Would similar systems work for deep space exploration. I understand ...
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1answer
37 views

Differential Operator

I am trying to understand the following expression \begin{eqnarray} e^{-ik.x}D_{\mu}D^{\mu}e^{ik.x} & = & e^{-ik.x}(i\partial_{\mu}+A_{\mu})(i\partial^{\mu}+A^{\mu})e^{ik.x}\\ & = & ...
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1answer
28 views

Eddy currents in a superconductor

Just had a lesson we just had our teacher introduced the concept of eddy currents, and showed us how a magnet moves slowly through a metal tube due to the opposite generated magnetic field. If you ...
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2answers
46 views

Introducing a phase, what changes?

This question is related to: Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the Fresnel-Arago laws Let us say we have unpolarised wave taking the form: $$\psi=\psi_0 e^{i(kx-\omega t)+i\phi(t)}$$ Where $\phi$ ...
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0answers
16 views

Electromagnetic Wave Impedance

In a derivation of the transmission and reflection coefficients for light incident at an angle onto a surface where we have a change in refractive indices the proof says that ...
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0answers
17 views

Free charges inside a conductor and propagation of EM wave

In Griffith's book on Electrodynamics, while discussing the propagation of electromagnetic wave in a conducting medium, he set $\rho_{free}=0$. He argues that, any extra charge given to the conductor ...
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1answer
27 views

Torque on a charged ring

I have been studying electromagnetic induction. As I understand, a magnetic field will exert a force on a moving charge. What I would like to know is whether a changing magnetic field will exert a ...
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1answer
527 views

Why do we always consider the area of inner solenoid while calculating the mutual inductance of two coaxial solenoids?

While we know that flux linked to an area is the dot product of the area vector of the loop(and not the actual area encountering the field lines) and the magnetic field linked to it, why then do we ...
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1answer
344 views

Calculating the magnetic field from rectangular conductor

I want to apply the Biot-Savart law to calculate the magnetic field at a point created by current flowing through a square/rectangular conductor. More specifically, a trace on a printed circuit board. ...
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1answer
116 views

What is the metric of a constant electromagnetic (pure electric or pure magnetic) field?

For example, imagine a magnetic field $B_x$ directing in $\hat{x}$ direction filling all the space. What is its associated metric field? I can construct the electromagnetic stress-energy tensor for ...
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21 views

Magnetic Field from Portion of Infinitely Long Cylindrical Shell

I just had this question on an exam and got a weird answer. A $\theta=30^\circ$ portion of an infinitely long cylindrical shell carries current with density $J=\frac{di}{dl}$ in the $\hat{k}$ ...
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4answers
214 views

Energy density with complex permittivity?

Question What is the correct form of the energy density when we have a complex permittivity (such as in a dielectric)? Additional information A complex permittivity means that we have: $$\vec ...
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2answers
244 views

What is the area in Faraday's law if we have only a piece of metal moving in a magnetic field?

If a piece of metal of length $l$ is moving with a speed $v$ in a region where there is a uniform magnetic field $B$ perpendicular to it, there will be a potential difference across its terminals ...
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0answers
36 views

Photon transmission

I want to know exactly how light travels. Are each photon in a light beam traveling in a cosine function? I'm confused because only when it goes through polarization that it starts to show this type ...
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2answers
151 views

Question regarding Van De Graff generator Belt

I have made a VDG generator with a rubber band as the belt and a glass roller. It doesnt seem to work because I think the rubber band may be conductive. I was thinking of using other materials for ...
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2answers
3k views

The electric field of a conductive sphere containing a charge - grounded vs not grounded

Let's suppose we have a sphere but unlike theoretical ones it'll have some thickness say $\Delta r$ and inner radius $R$. What I was wondering about is how will it behave if we place some charge $q$ ...
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2answers
117 views

The source and sink phenomenological description of charge - how realistic is it?

I've heard over and over an electron described as a source of the electric field, but that is a misleading term. Source makes one thing of a tap, with a constant flow of something coming out of it. ...
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2answers
180 views

Problem on electromagnetic induction and Newtonian physics

Please imagine a solenoidal toroid (i.e. a donut shaped inductor) powered by an AC voltage source. It creates a changing magnetic field which is confined to the interior of the toroid (i.e. within the ...
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4answers
401 views

Is this a Lorentz-scalar? How do I tell?

I'm struggling to identify whether a scalar is a Lorentz-scalar. E.g: $$\partial_i A^i \quad i \in {1,2,3}.$$ How do I determine if this is a Lorentz-scalar or not? If got the same problem with ...
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1answer
722 views

calculating magnetic field strength for a very small electromagnet

I am trying to calculate the magnetic field (in tesla/gauss) of an electromagnet that is very small and has very few windings. For example 12 windings over 0.003 meters. I know this is not going to ...
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0answers
28 views

Propagation Of Wave in Rectangular Waveguide

From what I understand, electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to one another and the direction of wave propagation.The text book states that the direction of wave propagation in the ...
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0answers
19 views

Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy

I have some problems in understanding magnetic susceptibility anisotropy. I know that magnetic susceptibility can be described via a rank 2 symmetric tensor so the magnetization induced in a sample is ...
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0answers
26 views

Longitudinal Polarization and Spin-0 for Massive Vector Fields

I was wondering if anybody would be willing to explain how a plane wave solution of the form $\vec{B^\mu}=\epsilon^\mu{e^{k_0ct+\vec{k}.\vec{x}}}$ for a massive vector field's equations, say for ...
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2answers
372 views

Hall effect with similar positive and negative carriers?

The Hall effect includes the transverse (to the flow of current) electric field set up by the charges which accumulate on the edges, to counter the magnetic component of the Lorentz force acting on ...
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0answers
61 views

Gauge transformations for Schrödinger equation [closed]

I want to prove the Schrödinger equation is invariant under the gauge transformations \begin{align*} \mathbf{A} & \rightarrow \mathbf{A}' + \mathbf{\nabla} \chi \\ \phi & \rightarrow \phi' - ...
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2answers
223 views

Path dependent phase in quantum mechanics

In elementary treatments of quantum mechanics, we are taught that the wavefunction of a single particle is complex valued ($\Psi : \mathbb{R}^3 \to \mathbb{C}$). In particular, the wavefunction has a ...
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1answer
141 views

Is it possible to create arbitrary shapes of magnetic fields?

I've been reading about Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) which can activate neurons using a magnetic field, which got me thinking... what if we can pick and choose exactly which neurons to ...