The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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80 views

Momentum around an accelerated electron

Assume that an electron is accelerated along the +x-axis. The electron will radiate electromagnetic energy and momentum in every direction. But it seems to me that the EM momentum it radiates in ...
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2answers
34 views

Path of a proton in a magnetic field

I read somewhere that a proton takes a semicircular path and exists a magnetic field when it enters. I did some research and that seems to be the case. From my understanding, an electron in a magnetic ...
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4answers
335 views

Electromagnetic field tensor via tensor products?

Can the electromagnetic field tensor be thought of as the tensor product of two physically reasonable vectors? Are the vectors arbitrarily constructed so that their components simply give the values ...
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1answer
70 views

Why does Ohm's law ignore the Lorentz force?

For example, the usual derivation of the complex dielectric constant of metals (using the Drude model) makes use of the Ohm's law in the Maxwell's equations, but what is never mentioned is why they ...
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0answers
63 views

Force between two current carrying wires: the general case

Assume two straight current carrying parallel wires with currents ($I$ and $I'$) flowing in the same direction, at a distance $R$ from each other. From Ampère's law (and from Biot-Savart as well) it ...
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1answer
187 views

Charged particle under a uniform electric field

Suppose a charge particle $q$ starts to move without initial velocity under the influence of a uniform electric field $E$ pointing in the positive $x$ direction. Express its position vector in ...
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0answers
26 views

How can you visualize hard axis of magnetization?

I think the main problem here is my understanding of the hard axis of magnetization. The hard axis is the "bad" direction of the magnetization i.e. the direction inside a crystal, along which large ...
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1answer
402 views

If we have a current $I$ flowing down a wire, why must the net bound current be zero?

Say we are dealing with a wire that has a current $I$ flowing through it, i.e. $I$ is the free current. Why must it then hold that the net bound current, that is, the bound volume current, $J_b$, and ...
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1answer
84 views

magnetic field of a rotating ring magnet

Can the magnetic field of a rotating ring magnet induce current in a conductor? Is there a flux linkage between magnetic field of a rotating ring magnet and a conductor?
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2answers
64 views

Obtaining electric field of an uniformly charged sphere surface without using gauss law [closed]

How can i obtain the electric field due to a uniformly charged sphere surface without using gauss law on a point outside the sphere, im stuck not knowing what infinitesimal surface i shall consider so ...
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1answer
59 views

Gravity vs. Electromagnetism Scenario

Imagine a two dimensional world where there are only two electrons. They are set right beside each other. Of course, immediately they will start to separate, being repelled. My question is, as they ...
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1answer
121 views

Motion in a Paul trap: $2n^{\text{th}}$ harmonic with larger amplitude than $n$th harmonic

Using a Paul trap, we captured the motion of a light charged particle (based on a rotating potential applied by AC current). Our rotational frequency was 50 Hz, and so when used FFT on the data, we ...
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1answer
37 views

Are the electrons spin and his magnetic dipole moment unambiguously connected?

Is the angle between the spin orientation and the magnetic dipole orientation for all electrons and under all circumstances the same?
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22 views

How to repeat the Biot-Savart experiment for the direct current in a straight wire and the corresponding magnetic field without side effects?

As I read Biot and Savart took a compass needle and this needle make some rotation when the current was switched on and off. As it was clear that a changing current induces a magnetic field the ...
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0answers
14 views

Expanding the H and D field in orthogonal modes

Currently I am doing my bachelor thesis on the behaviour of Q-factors in 3D microwave cavities. One step in that process is to approximate the behaviour of the 3D cavity by comparing the cavity to an ...
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1answer
1k views

Why magnetic field lines and force are not orthogonal with magnets?

The below explanation why magnetism exists is superb in this video. The explanation about magnets is also great in this video. A magnet has atoms with unpaired electrons forming mini magnets. The ...
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1answer
424 views

Homopolar motor and Lorentz force

My second grader thought making a homopolar motor for her science experiment would be fun. And, it was. Now I am trying to explain how it works and the Lorentz force. Please help me by giving me a ...
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1answer
35 views

Interference and windows

The other day i was learning about interference patterns with the effect of a bubble making a rainbow on the surface. I learned that the reflections from both sides of the soap can interfere ...
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0answers
12 views

Electromagnetism Books and Lectures [duplicate]

I am an undergraduate at mathematics.And this semester i took E&M as one of my courses because i found it interesting .So i am looking for a good introductory book that will keep my interest as ...
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0answers
21 views

Accurateness of measurement of 1Ampère for the last years, especially depending from the method how to switch on the current?

From Wikipedia: Ampère's force law states that there is an attractive or repulsive force between two parallel wires carrying an electric current. This force is used in the formal definition of the ...
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2answers
68 views

What actually is a continuous charge distribution? [closed]

I am well aware of the maths of how to do all sorts of calculations using continuous charge distributions (like volume, space, and, line charge distributions) but when I think about it I couldn't get ...
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2answers
327 views

AC Electromagnets

Could someone help explain the uses of AC electromagnets. Wherever I look it says that DC electromagnets create stronger magnetic fields. I understand why AC electromagnets could be used in ...
0
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1answer
28 views

How does the Hutchinson Effect work? [closed]

I have seen pictures online of metal ripped apart and metal completely messed up due to the Hutchinson Effect. How does this effect work and what are the other principles behind it?
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1answer
240 views

Why dimensionality of the Electric Charge varies with the spacetime dimensions?

The point is: We can find via dimensional analysis that the electric charge dimensionality varies with the dimension of space-time. $$[\text{charge}] = eV^{(3-D)/2}$$(You can see below the way I did ...
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1answer
63 views

Electromagnetic braking hypothetical situation?

Let's say there is a conducting rod in space - with a constant external magnetic field. If you spin the rod - will electromagnetic braking make the rod stop eventually? I feel like there is a change ...
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1answer
98 views

Free Electromagnetic field in Lorenz gauge

To get rid of the extra term in the QED Lagrangian we need to redefine the electromagnetic four-vector: $A^{\mu} \rightarrow A^{\mu} - \frac{1}{c} \partial_{\mu} a(x)$ where $a(x)$ is the function ...
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1answer
44 views

Electron propagation

How can electrons travel in these beams if they repel?
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1answer
683 views

Why is the magnetic field stronger at the edges of a bar magnet?

I have been performing an experiment at school in which I test the force on an iron surface from the magnetic field of an electromagnet. The electromagnet has a rectangular iron core. The theory ...
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1answer
710 views

Electric field from conductive to dielectric media

I am interested in the main difference between transitions from electric fields from Conductive to Conductive/ Dielectric to Dielectric and Dielectric/Conductive media. What are the boundary ...
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1answer
55 views

Why particles don't lose mass when they radiate

Charged particles radiate when accelerated: in the rest frame of the particle moving with acceleration $\textbf{a}$ the amount $dW$ of radiated energy over time $dt$ is $$ dW \propto \textbf{a}^2 ...
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2answers
4k views

Does gravity affect magnetism, vice-versa, or do they “ignore” each other?

I am suddenly struck by the question of whether gravitation affects magnetism in some way. On the other hand, gravity is a weak force, but magnetism seems to be a strong force, so would magnetism ...
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1answer
31 views

How does the magnetic field generated from a rectangular cross-sectional current-carrying conductor differ from a circular cross-sectional conductor?

I can find much information of cylindrical conductors (ie. regular wires), where $B=\frac{\mu_0 i}{2 \pi r}$ and $r$ represents the radius (or distance) from the centre of the conductor, however I ...
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1answer
192 views

Dielectric tensor vs. conductivity tensor in (cold) plasmas

I'm studying Waves in Cold plasmas right now, but I guess my question is generalizable. It's about the 4th Maxwell Equation in polarizable / conductive media: $\nabla \times H = \frac{1}{c} ...
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0answers
12 views

Reference for the Definition of Magnetic Properties [duplicate]

I am writing a report on a piece of software I have made as part of my final year assessments. The software models the flux density of arbitrary arrangements of permanent magnets. The readers of my ...
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1answer
33 views

Explanation for: A monopole antenna must contain a resistor (or equivalent) and therefore must have 2 terminals?

Could someone explain why this sentence makes sense: A monopole antenna transfers energy from electrical domain to the electromagnetic domain, hence must contain (equivalently) a resistor, hence ...
3
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1answer
42 views

What is the difference between a magnon and a spinon?

For a long time, I thought the terms "magnon" and "spinon" were equivalent, describing the collective spin excitation in a system. Lately, I have seen remarks in the literature that they indeed do ...
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0answers
29 views

Speed of light in a medium as superposition of dipole radiation

Studying electromagnetism I know that the speed of light in a medium is $v = c/\eta$ and that it's possible to derive this from the Maxwell equations in the medium. But I wanted to find a microscopic ...
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1answer
28 views

Proof the directivity antenna formula in degrees

For a single-lobed pattern the beam solid angle is approximately given by $$\Omega_A \approx HP_E.HP_H$$ where $HP_E$ and $HP_H$ are the half-power beamwidths in radians of the main beam in the E ...
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2answers
135 views

Induced emf in stationary conductor lying in varying magnetic field

We explain that motional emf is induced because charges in a conductor move along with the conductor and as a result a magnetic force pushes them to one side of the conductor. But in case of a ...
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0answers
17 views

How to generate a Hysteresis curve using MOKE?

I am designing an online lab to generate Hysteresis curve using the principles of MOKE (Magneto Optical Kerr Effect) Is there any math or a logic that I can use to generate the Hysteresis curve? ...
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0answers
25 views

What are some good online texts for electromagnetism? [duplicate]

I am trying to gain a basic knowledge of electricity and magnetism. The resource being free/cheap is important, because I am still a high school student and don't have much money to spend on books.
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1answer
118 views

Right hand solenoid example

I am just studying for my physics final exam. I came across this example and am not satisfied with the answer. My answer is that Z is South and the current would flow from Y to X because of the ...
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1answer
52 views

Magnetic field and electric field induce one another forever [duplicate]

A changing electric field produces magnetic field and vice versa. Does that mean that this process will carry on forever? Think of a circuit with a capacitor. The magnetic field due to the current at ...
1
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1answer
88 views

$U(1)$ 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein topological defects

Five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory is well-known to predict that the electromagnetic field can be described as a curled additional dimension over four-dimensional spacetime. That is, you only need ...
3
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1answer
57 views

Induced magnetic field produces electric field and vice versa forever!

So here are the two of Maxwell's laws that I am interested in: So we have the simple circuit (from google): So, before the system goes into steady-state we know that charge slowly accumulates on ...
0
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1answer
337 views

Coercivity of a ferromagnetic material?

I understand that coercivity is the field/force required to demagnetize/magnetize a ferromagnetic material. What if we had two opposite magnetic fields of different strengths values H acting on the ...
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0answers
8 views

Carnot cycle efficiency increases by which method either increase sink temp. or decrease source temp

which method is more suitable for increasing efficiency of Carnot cycle engine either increase sink temp. or decrease source temp.?
3
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3answers
257 views

How are the Lorentz force, Maxwell's third law and Faraday's law of induction clasically related?

Faraday's law of induction can be used in any situation where the magnetic flux is changing through a closed conducting loop. While giving the correct answer, it seems to me that for the following ...
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1answer
155 views

What are the boundary conditions for EM waves normally incident on the interface between two dielectric media?

An EM wave, amplitude $E_0$, frequency $\omega_0$, is incident upon a material with relative permittivity (dielectric function) $$\varepsilon \left( z \right) = \left\{ \begin{gathered}{\varepsilon ...
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2answers
333 views

Torque per unit length on infinite rotating charged cylinder

For homework I have the following question, but I am stuck on finding the torque on the cylinder. An infinite cylinder of radius $R$ carries a uniform surface charge $\sigma$. We start rotating the ...