The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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4answers
425 views

How does the speed of electrons change around a circuit?

I have been thinking about ways of teaching electronics and I'm wondering if the following is true... For starters, when we talk about voltage as energy per unit charge, is this energy manifest ...
3
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1answer
91 views

Motion in a Paul trap: $2n$th harmonic with larger amplitude than $n$th harmonic

Using a Paul trap, we captured the motion of a light charged particle (based on a rotating potential applied by AC current). Our rotational frequency was 50 Hz, and so when used FFT on the data, we ...
1
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1answer
39 views

Homogeneity and isotropy of stress energy tensor

Given the energy momentum tensor in E&M: $T_{\mu\nu} = -F_{\mu\alpha} g^{\alpha \beta} F_{\beta \nu} +\frac{1}{4} g_{\mu \nu} F_{\sigma \alpha} g^{\alpha \beta} F_{\beta \rho} g^{\rho \sigma}$ I ...
10
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8answers
3k views

Is gravity just electromagnetic attraction?

Recently, I was pondering over the thought that is most of the elementary particles have intrinsic magnetism, then can gravity be just a weaker form of electromagnetic attraction? But decided the ...
2
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1answer
56 views

Far Field Diffraction of EM waves: what does the zero frequency signify?

If you have a system of independently radiating electrons/point-charges, the far field distribution of the EM waves can be approximated by the fraunhoffer diffraction integral, or simply by the ...
5
votes
1answer
74 views

Calculate electric field induced by a changing magnetic field

I want to plot the electric field (as a vector field plot) which is induced by a changing magnetic field for some simple cases. Suppose for example that the magnetic field changes linearly (or ...
18
votes
5answers
9k views

How do moving charges produce magnetic fields?

I'm tutoring high school students. I've always taught them that: A charged particle moving without acceleration produces an electric as well as a magnetic field. It produces an electric field ...
7
votes
2answers
383 views

Special relativity and electromagnets

This Veritasium video explains how electromagnets can be explained by special relativity, and how the magnetic field surrounding a current-carrying wire can also be viewed as an electric field, if ...
0
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1answer
25 views

Does inducing charge on a grounded conductor do work?

Imagine a grounded conductor as an plane of infinite area. If I bring a charge to a close proximity to the plane, it induces some charge distribution on the conductor. The question is: is any work ...
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0answers
24 views

ODE envolving current [closed]

I have to do this exercise: 9. The current $I(t)$ at time $t$ flowing in an electric circuit obeys the differential equation $$I''(t) + RI'(t) + I(t) = \sin \omega t$$ where $R$ and ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

Calculating the magnetic field from rectangular conductor?

I want to apply the Biot-Savart law to calculate the magnetic field at a point created by current flowing through a square/rectangular conductor. More specifically, a trace on a printed circuit board. ...
0
votes
2answers
83 views

Does a simple copper wire with an AC current create EM waves?

I want to know if a household AC current flowing through a simple copper wire will radiate EM waves? If yes, up to what range and can they be called radio waves?
2
votes
0answers
25 views

How is the imaginary part of angular frequency omega related to the imaginary part of the refractive index?

I'm trying to find the attenuation constant (leak rate) $\alpha$ from the imaginary part of the refractive index of a lossy material. I have the eigen frequency $\omega$ for my structure which has an ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Has a metric formulation of electromagnetism ever been attempted? [duplicate]

I understand that electromagnetic fields carry energy, and this energy curves spacetime gravitationally. That's not my question. I'm asking if anyone has tried to formulate electromagnetism in such ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

What is the necessary condition on EM field for vanishing Poynting vector?

It is well known fact that both static and dynamic EM fields can give $E\times B \not=0$. What can we say about EM field if $E\times B =0$ ? Can previous equation still hold in case of dynamic EM ...
4
votes
4answers
3k views

Why is current a scalar quantity?

Current has both magnitude and direction. As per the definition of vector defined in encyclopedia, current should be a vector quantity. But, we know that current is a scalar quantity. What is the ...
20
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4answers
2k views

Why do we deal only with large scale magnetic fields in astrophysics, and not electric fields?

In astrophysics there is a lot going on about strong, large scale magnetic fields: in stars (prominences), magnetic dynamos, compact accretors collimating jets, etc. There's even a special ...
0
votes
1answer
575 views

Why magnetic field lines and force are not orthogonal with magnets?

The below explanation why magnetism exists is superb in this video. The explanation about magnets is also great in this video. A magnet has atoms with unpaired electrons forming mini magnets. The ...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

Different factors of $4\pi$ and $\epsilon_0$ in Poisson equation [duplicate]

Some authors claim the Poisson equation is $$\nabla^2 \psi = -\dfrac{\rho}{\epsilon\epsilon_0}$$ (e.g. Wikipedia) whereas other ones (e.g. Andelmann) claim it is $$\nabla^2 \psi = ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

What does “optical conductivity” mean?

Does it just mean "AC electric conductivity"? If so, why have a special name for it, and why mention optical specifically? The wikipedia page on it is very sparse. This (warning, PDF) document just ...
0
votes
1answer
218 views

How to calculate flux density in a toroidal CT that has an electrical line pass through the center?

I have seen the Biot–Savart equation, but I don't know how to apply it. Does the conductor length need to be considered finite and equal to the core length, or will the calculation be for a conductor ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Jiles-Atherton model of hysteresis

In my quest for finding a good algorithm to draw hysteresis curve,I have found Jiles-Atherton model which seems to be a rather new model. But I have trouble understanding some of the ...
3
votes
2answers
77 views

How does a magnetic field cause objects to move?

Let me start off by saying that I never got a degree in any field but I do read and study physics (both classical and quantum); although I personally can't solve quantum physics equations I do have a ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Faraday's Law and Variable Reluctance Sensor

My coworker's and I have been discussing the variable reluctance sensor and have had trouble establishing the relationship between the magnetic flux, voltage and tooth position (when the VR sensor is ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Earnshaw Theorem for ionic solids

Is a single molecule of sodium chloride (say) or a cluster of molecules of NaCl unstable, although macroscopically NaCl is in fact, stable? How can I reason this based on Earnshaw's theorem?
0
votes
2answers
76 views

Magnetic field by a solenoid?

I am really not able to understand why is it that the current,while finding the magnetic field in the solenoid (ideal one), is not $I$ the current flowing throught the solenoid but $nI$, where $n$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Maxwell calculations that predicted the generation of waves (further use for wireless telegraphs)

At this point in this documentary about the history of electricity: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPnS2WO2_0k&t=4m40s the guy says the Maxwell calculations predicted the generation of certain ...
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vote
2answers
51 views

Current in a strip - Scalar or vector [duplicate]

In certain books like David Griffiths electrodynamics , he treats current as a vector in some places. Moreover certain problems like current in a strip are often dealt with by taking current ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Deflection of magnetic compass sorrounded by alternating poles

What happens to the deflection of the magnetic compass if it is surrounded by south poles and north poles in alternating direction of a magnet around it in a circular pattern. Will it be deflected in ...
1
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1answer
54 views

How does information about charges propagate through the electromagnetic field

I understand how the wave equation works, and therefore how light moves through the EMF; this question is not about that mechanism. But when a charge moves in space, information about its location ...
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Why does a magnetic field raise the ground state energy of an electrical particle?

I heard a statement that the ground state energy of a electrical particle in a magnetic field is larger than its ground state energy without the magnetic field. I just heard this statement. This ...
2
votes
4answers
204 views

Why ONLY Maxwell's equations are the basic equations of electromagnetism?

In electromagnetism we say that all the electromagnetic interactions are governed by the 4 golden rules of Maxwell. But I want to know: is this(to assume that there is no requirement of any other ...
-4
votes
2answers
39 views

Doughnut magnet [duplicate]

Take a magnet. Punch it flat so you now have a foil with a north side and a south side. Bend into a tube, so north is outside and south is inside. Finally bend the tube into a doughnut. Will the ...
0
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0answers
14 views

Book/article with details for finding fiber modes numerically?

What is good book/article that describes in detail the basics in finding fiber modes numerically? I am interested in photonics fibers and multilayer fibers, but would like to start with hollow fiber. ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Why is the perfect obstructor the perfect conductor as Heaviside 'believed'?

How might one consider a conductor to be an 'obstructor'? Might the strength of the 'skin effect' of a conductor be in direct relation to conductance? And how does this relate to insulators, as ...
0
votes
2answers
97 views

How does electric current generate thermal energy?

How does free electrons moving through a wire cause random vibrational motion of the positive ions?
1
vote
1answer
137 views

Force from solenoid

I'd like to approximate the force from a solenoid, or at the very least find a formula which is proportional to the force so that I can experimentally find the constant for my particular case. ...
2
votes
2answers
38 views

Is there Phase difference between voltages at end points of a long AC Power line

I found this explanation somewhere: Since wavelength=c/freq so in a AC power line of 50 Hz, wavelength=(3*10^8)/50 = 6000 Km, so voltage phase reverses after 6000 Km in a ac Power line. Now this ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Determine stationary angular velocity of wheel with circuit in magnetic field

I have a wheel (free to spin around the $z-$axis) with four spokes that is connected by sliding contacts to a circuit with $U_0 = 0,72V$. Also, there is a B-Field parallel to the $z-$axis For the ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

How can Drift Velocity of an electron causes change?

Assume we have a conductor that has current flowing and its placed in a magnetic field so that it experiences the Lorentz force, and it gains Kinetic energy due to that force. Would drift velocity ...
1
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1answer
66 views

Electron distribution around atom when moving

I do not have much experience on this but if an atom has some electrons around nucleus and the atom itself it is moving at some speed does that affect the distribution of electrons around? I am ...
1
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3answers
86 views

Current through two inductors after a long time

I'm having trouble with visualizing the following problem, which is asking me for the final, steady current in both inductors $L_{1}$ and $L_{2}$. I was thinking that after a long time, essentially ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

Plane wave complex notation

As far as I know, the function: $$ \vec{E}(\vec{r},t)=\vec{E_0}\cdot e^{i(\vec{k}\cdot \vec{r}-\omega t)} \hspace{2cm}(1) $$ is a mathematical solution of the wave equation: $$ \nabla^2 ...
0
votes
2answers
487 views

Potential energy from opposing magnets repelling each other with a gap of 1 mm

I have two powerful rare earth magnets, that are separated by a distance of 1 mm. I applied energy to bring them closer to each other, hence increasing the potential energy. Now, when one of the ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

How can I calculate the relative permeability of iron?

I'm a high school physics student, and part of our project requires us to make an electromagnet. We have an iron core, and it will go inside a solenoid. The problem is, we don't know what the relative ...
1
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3answers
57 views

Arguments for finite speed of physical processes

When beginning a study of the special theory of relativity, one discovers that the theory of special relativity has as an axiom that the laws of physics are invariant with respect to transformations ...
3
votes
0answers
43 views

Attraction and repulsion of electron spin ups and electron spin downs

Alright, we know that copper is a diamagnetic material, which has paired electrons. These paired electrons have different spin. I'm specifically interested in what is going on with the electrons in a ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Physics of a Railgun

I have a couple of questions about how railguns actually work, and the mathematics behind them. I understand that the projectile is driven forward by the Lorentz force caused by high currents ...
4
votes
2answers
49 views

What is the difference between surface plasmon and surface plasmon polariton?

I'm trying to understand this reading article linked below and I still don't know how to explain this simply, without need to derive everything mathematically. Can someone just write here how do SP's ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Why can we allow the speed of light being infinite in case of Surface Plasmons?

I have a problem with understanding of these sentences: We have indicated in the opening paragraph of the Introduction that surface plasmon polaritons are solutions of Maxwell’s equations in ...