The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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Help understanding Diamagnetism

I need some help understanding Wikipedia description of diamagnetism https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamagnetism In the first sentence of the first paragraph, when said "...induced magnetic field ...
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20 views

Excitation spectrum of heisenberg model

I understand that ferromagnetic Heisenberg model (lattice of spin variables that can point in any direction) spectrum can be deduced by a $\lambda\phi^4$ theory with $\phi$ being complex. This model ...
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18 views

Approximate of self-inductance of a square wire coil

Imagine you have a square coil of wires with n turns. In order to calculate the self-inductance coefficient I should know the magnetic field. Is it acceptable to consider the 4 sides as infinitely ...
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121 views

Can the physical properties of the EM field be described directly from the 4-gauge potential?

I'm trying to make an argument that classically, the EM field is considered a more 'real' physical quantity than the potentials, and am tempted to say that the fact that the field carries energy & ...
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1answer
66 views

Are non-atomic electrons scattered exactly like electrons in atoms?

Has the Compton effect ever been described in a beam of electrons in a Crookes tube or the like? All the references I found refer to electrons in atoms: In Compton's original experiment, the ...
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25 views

EMF and Distance

As a professional underground service locator, EMF and Inductance are at the very core of what we do. Very few of us truly understand the detailed physics behind what makes it possible for us to ...
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29 views

How does a magnet cause magnetic force and its magnitude/direction?

Magnetic fields are created due to electron spin in the magnet. But how exactly does an electron "spinning" create forces around the magnet? Also, the magnetic force on a charge moving in the magnetic ...
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3answers
327 views

What force creates ions out of neutral atoms?

Consider the reaction between Na and Cl to form NaCl. Na loses an electron and "gives" it to Cl because this makes both atoms more stable. But what forces "pulls" the electron from Na to Cl? Both ...
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what happens when a cylindrical diamagnetic rod is placed in a uniform magnetic field with the axis along the direction of the field?

When a cylindrical diamagnetic rod of lenght l is placed in a uniform magnetic field along the z axis with the axis of the rod along the same axis, what is the mathematical expression for the induced ...
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162 views

What determines the magnitude of force of an electromagnet?

Let's assume that there is an electromagnet with $B = 1 Tesla$ , what is the magnitude of the force it could generate on other dipoles equal to it's surface area? Can the magnitude of force (in ...
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1answer
33 views

Applying Biot-Savart to a circular loop along central axis

I'm trying to understand the solution to the magnetic field of a circular loop along its central axis. The solution I'm looking at is page 9 of this document: ...
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1answer
40 views

Would a solenoid move if a magnet went through it?

If you were to have a solenoid (0 current) floating still in space, and shot a magnet through it, would the solenoid move, or would it only create a DC current (what if it has a closed/open circuit)? ...
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13 views

Surface current density and infinite solenoid

I have an infinitely long cylinder with radius $R$ and axis lying on the $z-$axis, charged with volume density $\rho$ and surface density $\sigma$. The cylinder is spinning with angular velocity ...
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30 views

Magnetic field re-routing

Can a magnetic field be directed in a particular direction, that is re-route it, such that the magnetic field comes out in only one direction?
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2answers
114 views

Momentum around an accelerated electron

Assume that an electron is accelerated along the +x-axis. The electron will radiate electromagnetic energy and momentum in every direction. But it seems to me that the EM momentum it radiates in ...
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2answers
317 views

Why does the dimension of the electric charge depend on the number of spacetime dimensions?

We can find via dimensional analysis that the dimension of the electric charge varies with the dimension of space-time $(D+1)$: $$[\text{charge}] = (\text{eV})^{(3-D)/2}.$$ It is dimensionless if ...
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1k views

Why is the magnetic field stronger at the edges of a bar magnet?

I have been performing an experiment at school in which I test the force on an iron surface from the magnetic field of an electromagnet. The electromagnet has a rectangular iron core. The theory ...
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219 views

Reaction-at-a-distance: Do charged plates immediately repel each other?

Imagine that we have a pair of parallel plates, $A$ and $B$, separated by some distance as in Fig. $1$ above. At time $t_1$ we simultaneously charge both the plates. This could be done by ...
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127 views

Opacity/Transparency of Conductive Meshes to Charged Particles (Electrons/Ions)

When using a conductive (metal) mesh, effectively a metallic woven fabric, in vacuum applications as a "grid" for charged particle optics, how does one calculate (or at least estimate) the opacity or ...
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17 views

Force Between Two Solenoids

How does one calculate the magnetic force between two coaxial solenoids, placed in a way their currents are in the same sense? There is a simple way to treat both as dipoles and then calculate the ...
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1answer
483 views

Homopolar motor and Lorentz force

My second grader thought making a homopolar motor for her science experiment would be fun. And, it was. Now I am trying to explain how it works and the Lorentz force. Please help me by giving me a ...
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39 views

How does lightning flip a car?

http://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/car-flips-into-air-after-being-struck-by-lightning-in-freak-electrical-storm-accident-10366208.html and a few others ...
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2answers
104 views

Two different electrostatic charges in rotation

It's a theoretical problem. I mean I drawn a circle and I consider this circle exist. I would like to understand how works this device composed of a circle and two charges: Two charges fixed on a ...
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37 views

Magnetic field on axis of solenoid

So first I'd like to say that I have asked similar questions to this one. However, all the answers involve a level of calculus that I do not yet know. (Still on limits, going to spend the rest of ...
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1answer
54 views

What force decays an oscillating charge?

Consider this scenario: We have a charge on a spring. As it oscillates, it loses energy to radiation. What force decays the oscillation? As far as I can see, the only forces in the scenario are ...
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4answers
536 views

Rigorously prove that electric field is zero in a perfect conductor

I have ran into a problem while trying to prove that the electric field is zero in a perfect conductor My argument went something like this: We know that: $$\vec J = \sigma \vec E$$ In a ...
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2answers
50 views

Why are the formulas for magnetic or electric fluxes as such?

For electric flux, the formula is given by $$\Phi_E=EAcos\theta$$ For magnetic flux, the formula is similarly given by $$\Phi_M=BAcos\theta$$ But would it not make more sense to describe flux as the ...
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1answer
128 views

Motion in a Paul trap: $2n^{\text{th}}$ harmonic with larger amplitude than $n$th harmonic

Using a Paul trap, we captured the motion of a light charged particle (based on a rotating potential applied by AC current). Our rotational frequency was 50 Hz, and so when used FFT on the data, we ...
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8answers
2k views

Why does Coulomb's constant have units?

I think of Coulomb's constant as a conversion factor (not sure if this is correct). Kind of like how you would do calculations in kg and then times it by the conversion constant to convert your answer ...
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2answers
153 views

Why Change Of Magnetic Flux Induces Current In circuit?

Why change of magnetic flux with the time through a coil induces current in it? Please tell me that what happen to charge in the coil if the magnet or electromagnet wave around this? Also, why a ...
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4answers
47 views

Why are excess charges in a conductor at the surface?

I’ve been told that coulomb repulsion pushes excess electrons to the surface of a conductor (i.e. sphere) electrostatic equilibrium, and this symmetry causes the net electric field inside to be zero. ...
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18 views

How to describe frequency spectrum with samples?

I posted this same question in math, but nobody is answering, so I thought I'd give a try here too... To me the question is pretty straightforward, but nevertheless I have to explain its background ...
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84 views

electromagnetic waves accelerating reference frame

A charge is at rest in an inertial reference frame. Consider this situation: From the point of view of an observer who is accelerating relative to the charge. Would the observer observe ...
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3answers
97 views

magnet moving in space

I know that a time varying magnetic field produces an electric field even in the absence of a conducting body, because thats how em waves work. But can you say the same for a space varying magnetic ...
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49 views

What are the interpretations of ampere's circuital law for a single moving electron?

I understand from Ampere's circuital law that when a current passes though any open surface with a boundary (a circular boundary, for simplicity), then limit of summation of the scalar products of ...
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33 views

Why do Superconductors make Magnetic Fields Bend Away

When superconductors reach their "threshold temperature" their electrical resistance turns 0. This makes the magnetic field lines not pass through the superconductor but instead bend itself around it ...
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2answers
156 views

How to use Ampere's Law for a semi-infinite wire with current?

Suppose that there is a semi-infinite wire which extends to infinity only in one direction. There are no other circuit elements at the other end(finite end) of the wire and the current does not loop. ...
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99 views

Is the wobbly rope depiction of a radio wave inherently wrong? And how do vectors of parallel waves align with each other?

I don't have a scientific education, yet I'm scientifically curious. Among other things, I'm struggling to understand the nature of electromagnetic waves. What I have recently realized is that the ...
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29 views

Gravitomagnetic railgun

Would a gravitomagnetic analogue of a railgun work as expected, in theory? Consider replacing the electric currents on each rail with mass currents. Then place a mass between the rails, moving with ...
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2answers
139 views

Uniformity in a solenoid

I know the magnetic field strength increases as the number of turns in the solenoid increases. However, I've learnt the field inside the solenoid is usually nearly uniform. So, does the number of ...
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3answers
4k views

The exchange of photons gives rise to the electromagnetic force

Pardon me for my stubborn classical/semiclassical brain. But I bet I am not the only one finding such description confusing. If EM force is caused by the exchange of photons, does that mean only when ...
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1answer
19 views

An electric motor that does not reverse current flow

If an electric motor did not reverse the direction of its current every half-turn, what would be observed in the armature? Would it spin from left to right clockwise, then spin back anti-clockwise ...
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5answers
2k views

Difference between spin and polarization of a photon

I understand how one associates the spin of a quantum particle, e.g. of a photon, with intrinsic angular momentum. And in electromagnetism I have always understood the polarization of an EM wave as ...
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2answers
190 views

Currents induced by rotation of a coil about magnetic field lines

If the coil on the left is rotated about the magnetic field lines, will there be an induced current? I know that the flux concerns only the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the ...
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1answer
67 views

Why is magnetic field perpendicular to that plane?

Magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane containing direction of flow of current in a straight wire and radius vector.What I have been told is that,to explain lorentz force magnetic field was ...
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45 views

is it possible to get an object to travel over 200 mph with magnets [closed]

Is it possible by magnetic forces to cause a certain material to travel at speeds over 5000 mph<>?
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246 views

Ampere's circuital law

I'm having trouble understanding the surface used for Ampere's Circuital Law. In classes, we've been using simple circular or rectangular loops. Is the surface supposed to be area of the circle or the ...
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1answer
46 views

Gradient in the Frenet-Serret coordinate

I was simply thinking that the gradient in the Frenet-Serret coordinate at a particular point is similar to the gradient in the Cartesian coordinate. I simply assumed that Frenet space is an ...
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50 views

I need a book to deeply understand electromagnetism [duplicate]

i am an electrical engineer and i want a deeper understanding of electromagnetism, something beyond the equations, i am looking for something the "Theoretical Minimum" book but for electromagnetism. ...