The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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252 views

Homopolar motor and Lorentz force

My second grader thought making a homopolar motor for her science experiment would be fun. And, it was. Now I am trying to explain how it works and the Lorentz force. Please help me by giving me a ...
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1answer
75 views

Definition of Electromagnetic field?

What is the Electromagnetic field at a given point in space due to a point charge being accelerated non-uniformly? Is there a single equation that can give me the electromagnetic force experienced by ...
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3answers
652 views

how can I find the potential created by spherical capacitor with dielectric material

If we have a spherical capacitor with inner radius or r1 and outer radius of r2, with charges (+/-)q on them and there is a dielectric material (with constant e) in between them with. What kind of a ...
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1answer
130 views

Earnshaw's theorem and springs

Earnshaw's theorem states that the Laplacian of the potential energy of a small charge moving through a landscape full of static negative and/or positive charges (and gravity) is zero. Thus you can't ...
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1answer
47 views

Understanding frequency of a signal

I'm trying to understand how can one transmit different signals on a same copper wire using different frequencies. How does the electrons actually interact with the frequency? And how does the ...
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1answer
297 views

Dielectric slab counter-intuitive formula?

For the calculation of force on one of the two equal(in magnitude, opposite in sign) point charges separated by $r$ with a dielectric slab of dielectric constant $K$ and width $d$ in between, the ...
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2answers
429 views

How do I express the interaction energy between two charged spheres?

Consider two identical insulating spheres each with radius $R$ and uniform charge $Q$ through their volume. They are separated from their centers by a distance of $d>2R$. Here is my general ...
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1answer
78 views

Boltzmann Distribution of Electrons in Confining Potential

I have a particle simulation wherein many non-interacting electrons are trapped in a electric potential well. I would expect, and therefore I initialize according to this, that the electrons would ...
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1answer
36 views

Force between two current carrying wires

Is the force which acts perpendicular to a wire due to another current wire in its vicinity consistent or it is just for a brief time? I thought it should be for a brief time because only for a moment ...
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2answers
40 views

How do I find the perpendicular velocity of a particle to a varying magnetic field?

I am trying to find the component of velocity perpendicular to a magnetic field. This was easy when the magnetic field was static and pointing in only one direction (the $z$ axis), but now I need to ...
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1answer
85 views

Why is the magnetic field stronger at the edges of a bar magnet?

I have been performing an experiment at school in which I test the force on an iron surface from the magnetic field of an electromagnet. The electromagnet has a rectangular iron core. The theory ...
3
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4answers
551 views

Do Electromagnetic Waves really propagate through continuous Induction?

I've often seen it said that in an Electromagnetic Wave the changing Electric Field component creates the Magnetic Field Component and the changing Magnetic Field Component in turn creates an Electric ...
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3answers
2k views

Visualizing Electromagnetic Waves in 3D Space [closed]

I did one module of physics for my GCSE one year ago which taught me about transverse EM waves & the EM spectrum, but since then, I do not understand how a wave would move in 3D space. Can someone ...
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0answers
52 views

Electrodynamic multipole expansion

I am reading Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, and I have a question regarding the electrodynamic multipole expansion (with page numbers I refer to the 3rd edition). So on page 409, he gives in ...
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1answer
183 views

How to properly construct the electromagnetic tensor in curved space-time?

How do I properly construct the electromagnetic tensor in curved space-time? I have my curved spacetime metric $(+,-,-,-)$ and my magnetic vector potential $A$. I tried two ways but not sure which is ...
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0answers
17 views

Drag on a conductor moving in a uniform magnetic field

Given a conductor moving through a perfectly uniform magnetic field, what is the drag force experienced by the conductor (due to induced eddy currents, or any other magnetic interactions I may have ...
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1answer
364 views

Proof of equality of the integral and differential form of Maxwell's equation

Just curious, can anyone show how the integral and differential form of Maxwell's equation is equivalent? (While it is conceptually obvious, I am thinking rigorous mathematical proof may be useful in ...
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3answers
182 views

How to understand “accelerating charge radiate” using intuition? [duplicate]

While I know that accelerating charges produces EM radiations (at least in lots of cases), most discussion about this matter only focuses on which kind of situation will emit EM radiations and which ...
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3answers
56 views

Magnet motor free energy generator [duplicate]

Is it possible to run a fan without electricity? like the one show on this website? http://free-energi.com/index.php?a=2
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2answers
86 views

Physics of antenna requirements

I'm currently a junior at San Diego State University and ever since I learned on my intro physics courses that antennas are best 1/2 wavelength. I've read wimpy explanations that it is so it can ...
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2answers
162 views

AC Electromagnets

Could someone help explain the uses of AC electromagnets. Wherever I look it says that DC electromagnets create stronger magnetic fields. I understand why AC electromagnets could be used in ...
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0answers
30 views

Finite rod aligned with a time varying magnetic field

A finite length rod is aligned parallel with a magnetic field that has a changing magnitude (let's say a sinusoidal change), given the conductivity and permeability of the rod and assume a large ...
3
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1answer
52 views

Conducting rod moving in uniform B vs. stationary rod in 'moving' uniform B field

I'm trying to understand how to correctly think about a change of reference frames for a conducting rod moving sideways through a uniform magnetic field. Thinking of the rod in motion through a ...
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2answers
61 views

Curious about this perpetuum concept

I know it's not possible to build a perpetual motion machine, but I still got this concept running in my mind. If you take a (longer)copper coil, and insert an axis through it(right-angled) with a ...
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3answers
399 views

Does Kaluza-Klein Theory Require an Additional Scalar Field?

I've seen the Kaluza-Klein metric presented in two different ways., cf. Refs. 1 and 2. In one, there is a constant as well as an additional scalar field introduced: $$\tilde{g}_{AB}=\begin{pmatrix} ...
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1answer
163 views

Frequency of rotating coil

Given a coil initially in the x-y plane, rotating at angular frequency $ \omega $ about the x-axis in a magnetic field in the z-direction. This uniform time varying magnetic field is given by $B_z ...
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2answers
81 views

Principle of locality and forces

I have a silly confusion about the statement written in the link Einstein and Locality ''external influence on A has no direct influence on B; this is known as the Principle of Local Action.'' ...
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1answer
39 views

Lorentz force, multiple conductors?

3 conductors are placed in a magnetic field $B$, that have equal current $I$ flowing, is the Lorentz force totaled as the sum of all those conductors? Assuming that all of them have the same direction ...
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8answers
3k views

Electric field near a conducting surface vs. sheet of charge

I know perfectly well how to derive the magnitude of the electric field near a conductor, $$E = \frac{\sigma}{\varepsilon_0}$$ and near a sheet of charge, $$ E = \frac{\sigma}{2\varepsilon_0} .$$ In ...
2
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1answer
74 views

Why is an electric and magnetic field present in all universe?

the Earth has its fields due to the motion of molten metals in the core but how does this whole universe has its fields without any discontinuity? And we can say for sure that fields are present in ...
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2answers
104 views

What is the area in Faraday's law if we have only a piece of metal moving in a magnetic field?

If a piece of metal of length $l$ is moving with a speed $v$ in a region where there is a uniform magnetic field $B$ perpendicular to it, there will be a potential difference across its terminals ...
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2answers
72 views

Experiments which show the phenomenon of closed electric field lines

In german physics introductory texts often the following experiment is cited which "shows" that a changing magnetic field can induce an electric field with has closed field lines. Here is a picture of ...
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2answers
72 views

Determining the minimum pull force of a magnet required to hold it in place

If I place a magnet on the underside of a metal object so that it is held there by its attraction to the metal, how can I determine the minimum pull force the magnet needs to have in order to keep it ...
10
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3answers
4k views

Where can I find simulation software for electricity and magnets?

Is there easily-available* software to simulate coils, solenoids, and other magnetic and electromagnetic devices? I'd like to play around with some design ideas, such as Halbach arrays, but physics ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Does a lightning rod prevent lightning strikes?

I was always under the impression that a Lightning rod worked to protect a building by being the tallest part of the building and having a low path of resistance to the ground, thus being a good ...
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5answers
174 views

Is Coulomb's law accurate for moving charges?

Can we use Coulomb's law to calculate the force between two charges which are not at rest? If not, what formula should be used to calculate the force? I searched it, but I couldn't find a clear ...
0
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1answer
88 views

What is absorption of an electromagnetic wave?

Can any one explain the absorption/transmission/reflection of electromagnetic waves in the wave form? It is generally said that the atom absorbs/reflects/transmits photon. But can this phenomena be ...
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2answers
96 views

Understanding fields and their correlation to forces

I seem to be confused between the concept of a "force", and a field. Now let's assume there is a magnetic field of $1$ $\mathrm{Tesla}$, what does that mean in relation to force? Finally, if field is ...
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2answers
54 views

Induced “Potential Difference” in Loop/How do Voltmeters work?

Say we have a single, solid circular loop of wire rotating at a constant angular velocity in a uniform magnetic field. There is an induced EMF creating a current in the wire. At the absolute ...
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1answer
29 views

Repulsion and attraction of electric currents

Now, I understand that when a an electron travels, it creates a magnetic field. If you put two wires with current traveling in the same direction they repel, and current traveling in opposite ...
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1answer
37 views

Back EMF & Current, how can we make I stable?

Lets assume we have a wire that has $10V$ across and $1$ $Amp$ flowing, now if this conductor is introduced to a changing magnetic field, $-EMF$ is induced, can we control our voltage to increase it ...
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2answers
67 views

Using Ampere's Law for a Solenoid

To calculate the magnetic field, a rectangle amperian loop was drawn, and since the sides of the rectangle are perpendicular to the magnetic field, and the top is too far away to have any field ...
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2answers
70 views

Electrical force between two objects

I tried to solve the following problem: There are 2 objects . The object m1 with charge q and the object m2 with charge q.(same charge).The object m2 is connected with a rope to the ceiling. at the ...
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2answers
80 views

Velocity of a Charged particle in a magnetic field according to Biot-Savart Law

According to Biot-Savart Law, if there is a charged particle in motion, there will be a magnetic field. My question is whether the counterpart of this law also holds true, i.e. if there is a magnetic ...
2
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1answer
514 views

Physical meaning of Maxwell's equations and origin of EM waves

Is it possible to describe the physical meaning of Maxwell's equations and show how they lead to electromagnetic wave, with little involvement of mathematics ?
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3answers
121 views

How do electrons actually move in a circuit?

Last year, we were taught about electricity, about how electrons in a closed circuit. But as our teacher had not taught us about electric fields yet, she gave us a simplified model of motion of ...
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1answer
199 views

Electric field from current without Maxwell's law of induction

A long, straight wire carries a current that decreases linearly with time. What is the direction of the induced electric field outside the wire? I would interpret this as follows: a current ...
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0answers
72 views

Why does Coulomb's law not hold for fast moving charges?

We all remember calculating the electric force of interaction between a stationary nucleus and a revolving electron using Coulomb's law. The electron in this case is moving. Here's what I think about ...
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1answer
54 views
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2answers
85 views

What is supposition of equilibrium? How do Rayleigh, Jean know the electromagnetic wave in equilibrium behave?

In a cavity of dimension L, the wave must give zero amplitude at the wall, means wave equation has zero amplitude. Why? Answer from hyperphysics "since a non-zero value would dissipate energy and ...