The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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What does $\beta$ mean in Ulaby's electromagnetism text on waveguides?

On p.381 of Fawwaz Ulaby's text there was this equation: Here $$k_c^2 = k^2 - \beta^2 = \omega^2\mu\epsilon - \beta^2\tag{8.90}$$ and $k$ is the unbounded-medium wavenumber defined ...
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2answers
49 views

Do there exist functions $\phi$ and $A$ such that $\vec E$ satisfies the Helmholtz Theorem $\vec E = -\nabla \phi + \nabla \times \vec A$?

Helmholtz Decomposition theorem stats: "Let $\vec F$ be a vector field on a bounded domain $V$ in $\mathbb R^3$, which is twice continuously differentiable, and let $S$ be the surface that encloses ...
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1answer
134 views

Understanding fields and their correlation to forces

I seem to be confused between the concept of a "force", and a field. Now let's assume there is a magnetic field of $1$ $\mathrm{Tesla}$, what does that mean in relation to force? Finally, if field is ...
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1answer
20 views

Does a proton oscillating at RF produce an EM field with a -E vector

to clarify - FACT: oscillating charges of sufficient frequency produce a propagating EM field. All communications is based on electron oscillation. Question: IF a proton was oscillated at RF would ...
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115 views

Boltzmann Distribution of Electrons in Confining Potential

I have a particle simulation wherein many non-interacting electrons are trapped in a electric potential well. I would expect, and therefore I initialize according to this, that the electrons would ...
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82 views

How do two electrical charged particles know to repel or attract each other?

Now per QED, electrical charges interactions are effected by photons. Suppose you are one of the two charges. How do you know to attract or repel the other charge? In other words, how do you know if ...
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1answer
21 views

Question about wavelength of EM wave in dielectric

Many websites (http://maxwells-equations.com/materials/permittivity.php) lists out the following formula as to how you can compute the wavelength of an EM wave in a dielectric $$\lambda_d = ...
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54 views

Ohm's Law for Accelerated Conductors

My questions are about the Ohm's law for a moving conductor in a stationary magnetic field. As we know this law is stated based on following relation with respect to the fixed frame of reference ...
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4answers
994 views
+50

Why does only one side of a neon lamp glow?

When applying DC to a neon lamp, only the negatively-charged electrode glows: The voltages across the lamps are left: DC (left lead positive), middle: DC (right lead positive), and right: AC. ...
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28 views

Maxwell's Equations for Accelerated Conductors

I asked a question about accelerated conductors in a magnetic field but nobody unfortunately answered. That is: Ohm's Law for Accelerated Conductors Maybe, I could not state my question well. I ...
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1answer
32 views

FDM versus fdtd for computational electromagnetics

Every article I've seen on computational electromagnetics uses the Yee fdtd algorithm, and I'm wondering if would be possible to do the same analyses using out of the box FDM with more data points, ...
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1answer
2k views

Can Ionocrafts be improved by breaking them up into multiple stages?

Ionocraft or "lifters" are lightweight devices that produce thrust by ionizing the air around an electrode, and then accelerating the ions toward another electrode with an electric field, during which ...
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53 views

Can you debunk this “Perpetual” (ie, very long term) motion machine? [on hold]

In the following design, gravity is "always" pulling down. There's a parallelogram-shaped box containing a magnet, and underneath the lowest corner of the box is another magnet to repel the first ...
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1answer
191 views

Why is the magnetic field stronger at the edges of a bar magnet?

I have been performing an experiment at school in which I test the force on an iron surface from the magnetic field of an electromagnet. The electromagnet has a rectangular iron core. The theory ...
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21 views

Ground influence on 434 MHz radio signal

I have read in a paper that ground acts as reflector for radio signals in 434 MHz band. Why is that the case?
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3answers
592 views

Electromagnetic waves should stop while encountering a conducting shell?

I am a high school student who has just started reading elementary electromagnetism and am a completely beginner in this subject. I have read in books that EM waves are nothing but sinusoidal ...
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1answer
39 views

What are the boundary conditions for EM waves normally incident on the interface between two dielectric media?

An EM wave, amplitude $E_0$, frequency $\omega_0$, is incident upon a material with relative permittivity (dielectric function) $$\varepsilon \left( z \right) = \left\{ \begin{gathered}{\varepsilon ...
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1answer
154 views

Understanding Poynting's Theorem intuitively

I understand that, broadly speaking, Poynting's theorem is a statement of conservation of energy. Energy density of a volume of current and charge decreases proportionally to work done on charges ...
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2answers
53 views

Why does freshwater attenuate signals less than seawater?

One of the most interesting problem in underwater communication is how deep the device (i.e. submarine) could go to still be able to communicate with on-shore data centers. The attenuation in a ...
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9 views

How can you relate magnetic dipole moment using bound current density?

This was on my midterm last week, the question ask us to use bound current density to compute magnetic dipole moment
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33 views

Time derivative of Magnetic Field as Source for Electric Field [on hold]

Show the following directly, and not by analogy with Ampere's law: $$ \vec E ( \vec r, t) = \frac{1}{4\pi} \int d^3r' \frac{(\vec r - \vec r')\times \frac{\partial \vec B (\vec r, t)}{\partial t} ...
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1answer
76 views

Ampere's circuital law for finite current carrying wire

When I was studying about Ampere's circuital law. Then there comes a question in my mind that "whether this law is applicable for finite current carrying wire or not"
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14 views

Calculate the attenuation constant on a lossy transmission line [on hold]

$\nu$ = 10 [kHz] $L$ = 600 [nH/meter] $R$ = 50 [mOhm/meter] $C$ = 80 [pF/m] $G$ = 0 So the question on my test was what is $\alpha$, the attenuation constant? The answer is $\alpha$ = 0.25 [1/km] ...
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1answer
142 views

Can you safely draw sparks from the nose of an electrified boy?

From Purcell's Electricity and Magnetism A spectacular conclusion of one of the popular exhibitions of the time was likely to be the electrification of a boy suspended by many silk threads ...
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1answer
39 views

Closed and Open Electromagnetic Cores

I think I may understand this concept, but I haven't been able to verify with anyone that I'm going about this the right way. So when a wire is wrapped around a core that is a closed loop, like a ...
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30 views

Does the total energy in an electromagnetic field depend on the acceleration of the sources?

If I accelerate a charge from rest to some velocity $\vec v$, does the total final electromagnetic energy contained in the field depend upon the acceleration of the charge?
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88 views

Far Field Diffraction of EM waves: what does the zero frequency signify?

If you have a system of independently radiating electrons/point-charges, the far field distribution of the EM waves can be approximated by the fraunhoffer diffraction integral, or simply by the ...
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1answer
51 views

Why doesn't the electron lose or absorb energy while remaining in a selected orbit?

Postulate 2: When an electron revolves in any selected orbits, it neither emits nor absorbs energy . The energy of an electron in a particular orbit remains constant. Thus, Bohr, by postulating ...
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1answer
57 views

Electromagnetic field or direct interactions between charged particles?

Consider a small distribution of charged particles enclosed by an arbitrary volume $V$ with boundary $S$. It can be shown that the total mechanical momentum of the particles, $\mathbf{P_{mech}}$, ...
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1answer
104 views

Motion in a Paul trap: $2n$th harmonic with larger amplitude than $n$th harmonic

Using a Paul trap, we captured the motion of a light charged particle (based on a rotating potential applied by AC current). Our rotational frequency was 50 Hz, and so when used FFT on the data, we ...
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0answers
19 views

Construction of a magnetic dip “compass”

I want to make a demo magnetic dip compass and was wondering what would be the relative sensitivity (restoring torque) of: 1) two neodymium magnets at the ends of a plastic rod (say 40 cm. i.e. ...
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1answer
50 views

Deriving electric field

Can anyone explain where the following expression for the electric field vector comes from? $$ \mathbf E(\mathbf r,t) = -\nabla \phi(\mathbf r,t) - \frac{\partial}{\partial t}\mathbf A(\mathbf r,t) ...
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1answer
111 views

Why doesn't an electromagnetic wave violate conservation of energy?

I'm starting to study electromagnetic waves and as i understand, an electromagnetic wave projects a varying electric field. This electric field can in turn give forces of repulsion/attractions to the ...
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1answer
101 views

How is the electostatic field propagated by the vacuum? How does a charge feel the presence of another charge when there is NOTHING between them?

Is the word "vacuum" equal to "nothing"? Imagine two charges of opposite sign, far from one another in vacuum, and moving with constant velocity - s.t. none radiates energy, none emits photons. At ...
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2answers
102 views

Determining the minimum pull force of a magnet required to hold it in place

If I place a magnet on the underside of a metal object so that it is held there by its attraction to the metal, how can I determine the minimum pull force the magnet needs to have in order to keep it ...
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1answer
99 views

Electron distribution around atom when moving

I do not have much experience on this but if an atom has some electrons around nucleus and the atom itself it is moving at some speed does that affect the distribution of electrons around? I am ...
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2answers
229 views

AC Electromagnets

Could someone help explain the uses of AC electromagnets. Wherever I look it says that DC electromagnets create stronger magnetic fields. I understand why AC electromagnets could be used in ...
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1answer
113 views

How to compute speed without knowing mass or charge values?

A gold nucleus is $460$ fm ($1$ $fm = 10^{(-15)} m$) from a proton, which initially is at rest. When the proton is released, it speeds away because of the repulsion that it experiences due to the ...
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1answer
140 views

Calculating the magnetic field from rectangular conductor?

I want to apply the Biot-Savart law to calculate the magnetic field at a point created by current flowing through a square/rectangular conductor. More specifically, a trace on a printed circuit board. ...
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1answer
66 views

Back EMF & Current, how can we make I stable?

Lets assume we have a wire that has $10V$ across and $1$ $Amp$ flowing, now if this conductor is introduced to a changing magnetic field, $-EMF$ is induced, can we control our voltage to increase it ...
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2answers
191 views

Confusion between magnetic field and magnetic flux

I've been learning about electromagnetism and Maxwell's equations (in integral form), and I'm slightly confused. The Ampere-Maxwell law (as I know it): $$ ...
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2answers
53 views

Induced emf in stationary conductor lying in varying magnetic field

We explain that motional emf is induced because charges in a conductor move along with the conductor and as a result a magnetic force pushes them to one side of the conductor. But in case of a ...
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2answers
40 views

What does it mean to say “a paramagnetic material is attracted to an external magnetic field?”

I'm just having a hard time wrapping my head around what actually goes on when a paramagnetic material is exposed to an external magnetic field. I understand that the individual dipoles line up so ...
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2answers
2k views

Why do bar magnets have least attraction in its center?

Why do bar magnets have the least attraction in its center?
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2answers
124 views

Drift Speed and Current in Two Different Inertial Frames

We have a long, cylindrical wire carrying a constant current I in an inertial frame. At a distance of R from the center of the wire, the magnitude of magnetic field is $μI/2πR$. What is the magnitude ...
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35 views

Is there an equivalent force to magnetism for gravity? [duplicate]

In electrodynamics, one way to explain the origin of the magnetic field is to analyze how a moving particle perceives a static electrical field under the effects of special relativity. Due to the ...
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1answer
98 views

How can we derive the gauge field Lagrangian?

I learned the gauge field Lagrangian is given in this form: $$\mathcal{L} = -\frac{1}{4} \mathrm{Tr}(F_{\mu \nu}F^{\mu \nu}).$$ But how one can derive this equation starting from defining the ...
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120 views

Differentiating the Hamiltonian Operator, $\hat{H}$

Firstly let $\hat{H}$ denote the full energy of the electromagnetic wave. I'm trying to differentiate the Hamiltonian operator with respect to the components of momentum, i.e. $$\frac{d}{dp_x} ...
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2answers
61 views

Poynting vector plane wave

I'm calculating the poynting vector for a plain wave and I have some doubt. $$ \bar S = \frac 1 2 \bar E \times \bar H^* = ... = \frac {| \bar E|^2} {2 \zeta} \hat i_k $$ Now if I consider a ...
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Larmor Precession of a macroscopic number of electrons

I know that there are some similiar questions out there, but I'm still quite puzzled by the following problem. Say i have a box full of interacting electrons ( I'm not sure if it would change anything ...