The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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6k views

Why does pushing a magnet inside a solenoid produce current?

If you push a bar magnet inside a solenoid, a current is produced. But why is that? I mean, the wire is being moved along the magnetic field, so taking the cross product: $\vec{F} = ...
2
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1answer
149 views

polarization of a transverse wave travelling in ionosphere with polarization direction perpendicular to earths magnetic field

Assume a transverse electromagnetic wave entering ionosphere such that its Electric field of wave is perpendicular to earths magnetic field. Now, i read that as it will enter plasma, the wave will ...
3
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1answer
686 views

Homopolar motor and Lorentz force

My second grader thought making a homopolar motor for her science experiment would be fun. And, it was. Now I am trying to explain how it works and the Lorentz force. Please help me by giving me a ...
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0answers
34 views

World's Largest Radio Telesope : How accurately does it need to be figured?

In Guizhou Province, China, the worlds largest radio telescope is almost complete, measuring 500 metres across. I am aware that todays largest optical telescope require very accurate figuring and ...
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0answers
20 views

Is the magnetic field caused by the lenght contraction, as seen by us, in the frame of a fast moving charged particle?

If for example an electron moves very fast relative to us, then the length contraction as seen by us, causes the electric field lines to compress themselves in the direction of motion. Is this the ...
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2answers
108 views

Why doesn't current induced by changes in flux affect the flux, while current induced by a battery does?

Faraday's law states $V=-\frac{\mathrm{d}F}{\mathrm{d}t}$, where $F$ is flux. Since $V=IR$ for passive circuits, $I = V/R = -\frac{1}{R}\frac{\mathrm{d}F}{\mathrm{d}t}.$ But by the Biot-Savart law, ...
3
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1answer
49 views

Schrödinger-Pauli Equation Solutions

The Schrödinger-Pauli equation is the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation, and therefore describes spin-1/2 particles in an external electromagnetic field. It is given by: ...
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0answers
25 views

Confusion with calculating electric potential [on hold]

V = kQ/r I understand that this equation is a product of electric field and the distance through which the electric force acts, to calculate electric potential. Is not electric field non constant ...
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0answers
17 views

Magnetism and straight conductors [on hold]

Through two long, parallel straight conductors gårströmmarna 3.0 A and 2.0 A, as illustrated below. The distance between the wires is 4.0 m. Is there a point where the flux density is zero? Where? ...
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1answer
21 views

If $T_{kl}=\epsilon_{kil}m_i$, how to show $m_i=0.5\epsilon_{ilk}T_{lk}$? [on hold]

In a book I am reading (about magnetic dipole), it is given that $T_{kl}=\epsilon_{kil}m_i$. Then, it says since $T_{kl}=-T_{lk}$, it can be shown that $m_i=0.5\epsilon_{ilk}T_{lk}$. I understand that ...
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0answers
15 views

How to derive torque from a velocity dependent potential? [on hold]

In Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics, the rate of change of the angular momentum of the electron in its rest frame in constant external electric field $\textbf{E}$ and magnetic field $\textbf{B}$ is ...
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0answers
12 views

Variation of spin in the rest frame of an electron in an external magnetic field

In Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics, the equation of motion for the angular momentum $\textbf{s}$ of an electron in an external magnetic field is given by (eq. 11.101) ...
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1answer
17 views

Calculating the B flux density of a flat spiral coil with N turns

Consider the following topology for a flat spiral coil (with an air gap in the middle). It's been a very long time since I have used Maxwell's Equations and now I find myself trying to figure out the ...
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0answers
18 views

Magnetic field between 4 wires with the same current

if I have 4 long wires with a current I and all of them have the same distance from each other (looked at from the front you'd have a square) shouldn't the magnetic field vanish in the middle of all 4 ...
1
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1answer
33 views

Rewriting Maxwell's equation in tensor form [on hold]

Suppose $F_{ij}=\epsilon_{ijk}B_k $, how to prove the following: $\partial_iB_i=0$ becomes $\partial_iF_{jk}+\partial_jF_{ki}+\partial_kF_{ij}=0$ $B_iB_i$ becomes $F_{ij}F_{ij}/2$ I can see that ...
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1answer
30 views

Is it possible that propagation of acustic waves leads to emission of radiation?

Question: Consider large cloud of gas. Assume it is electrically neutral (but as always, matter is composed of smaller things which are actually charged). Is it possible that propagation of sound ...
6
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1answer
249 views

Confusion in Maxwell's derivation of Ampere's Force Law - Part II

I am reading Maxwell's "a treatise on electricity and magnetism, Volume 2, page 156" about "Ampere's Force Law". I have some confusion in the following pages: My question is of two parts: 1. ...
3
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4answers
92 views

How do light waves get their size?

An atom or (small) molecule has the size of about 100pm. Elektromagnetic waves range from about 0.1nm up to 1 km. The most common way waves (like light) are caused by 'jumping' electrons to another ...
3
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1answer
60 views

Can the Biot-Savart law be derived from QED?

It's important that a new theory of physics contains the equations and results of previous related ones. Maxwell theory and QED both have explanations for electromagnetic phenomena so I'm wondering if ...
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1answer
20 views

Induced current in a rectangular loop [on hold]

The question is How much heat is generated in the resistor during the loop's entire path into and out of the magnetic field? Give your answer in J. I used Faraday's law and managed to get the ...
7
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1answer
157 views

From Liénard-Wiechert to Feynman potential expression

When studying the potential of an uniformly moving charge in vacuum, Feynman proposes to apply a Lorentz transformation on the Coulomb potential, which reads in the rest frame $ \phi'(\mathbf r',t') ...
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0answers
11 views

Type of motion when a long wire carrying current is inserted between two wires carrying current is moved normal to its length [on hold]

Two long rigid wires separated by a distance d and placed parallel, carry current I in the same direction. Determine the force developed . Now a third wire is placed in between the rigid wires keeping ...
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0answers
30 views

How do I determine the information needed to design a solenoid electromagnet that can ionize a gas? [on hold]

I have been trying to answer this question for a long time. I watched a video where a person used a solenoid to heat up aluminum till it became a liquid. I want to apply this, to a gas. I want take ...
5
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2answers
4k views

How come Wifi signals can go through walls, and bodies, by kitchen-microwaves only penetrate a few centimeters through absorbing surfaces?

The only difference that I know of between Kitchen Microwaves and Wifi signals is how much power is pumped through them. Why is it that Wifi signals, being 1000 times weaker can travel so much ...
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1answer
37 views

Correct Definition of Angular Momentum of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field? (Classical Mechanics) [duplicate]

What is the more correct definition of angular momentum $\vec{\mathbf{M}}$ in three dimensions? (I.e. classically/Lagrangian/Hamiltonian, not necessarily quantum or relativistic) ...
2
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1answer
182 views

The strength and control over the strength of electromagnets, correlation between the strength and weight of the magnets

I am currently working on a project that aims to use the attraction & repulsion between two electromagnets as an alternative to weights, from a physiotherapy and rehabilitation perspective to help ...
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1answer
29 views

A Formula for the Phase Difference Between the Electric and Magnetic Wave Oscillations?

A) Is there a formula for the phase difference between the electric and magnetic field oscillations, in vacuum, in an electromagnetic wave emitted from an antenna, as a function of the frequency the ...
5
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1answer
188 views

Hidden momentum

I'm trying to learn about hidden momentum. After reading what I could find with a google search, I understand that it is equal to the momentum carried by radiation, calculated with the Poynting ...
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0answers
19 views

Does a cathode ray tube emits electromagnetic waves from a steady DC electron beam?

In cathode ray tube, heated cathode emits stream of electrons but when I wrap a coil around tube a current will be inducted in that coil? after all electron beam is a steady DC current? so no emf?
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0answers
38 views

Can someone explain me magnetic potential? [duplicate]

I don't understand why we can write the magnetic field as a potential vector A, and what exactly this potential is. Is it just a mathematical thing? And how can it help me calculate the magnetic ...
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1answer
142 views

Energy conservation of permanent magnets engine

How to explain the fact that magnet can attract an object (apply a work W) without losing a (significant) part of its internal energy? How to apply the energy conservation principle? Please think to ...
6
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1answer
114 views

Why is U(1) the gauge group in classical electromagnetism?

Can anyone give a physical reason that $U(1)$ is the gauge group for classical electromagnetism? I am familiar with the principal bundle formalism for Yang-Mills theory and see that since the Lie ...
23
votes
2answers
908 views

Do intergalactic magnetic fields imply an Open Universe?

According to a paper on the arXiv (now published in Phys Rev D), they do. How credible is this result? The abstract says: The detection of magnetic fields at high redshifts, and in empty ...
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0answers
240 views

Galactic binary engine found in the center of the Milky Way? [closed]

It is accepted science that Sagittarius A* is the black hole in the middle of our galaxy, and motion measurements of Sag A* show that it is more or less stationary relative to our Sun, so why would ...
2
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2answers
22 views

Should static electricity affect a Crookes radiometer?

I've been playing around with a Crookes radiometer for fun and I happened across something I can't figure out. I know the fundamentals of the radiometer (e.g. partial vacuum, thermodynamics, etc.), ...
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0answers
38 views

Eigenstates of 2D harmonic oscillator in a constant magnetic field

I want to find the eigenstates of the 2D harmonic oscillator in a constant magnetic field $\vec B = \vec B(x,y)$. My Hamiltonian reads $H_0 = H_{xy} + H_z$ where $H_{xy}$, is the hamiltonian of the ...
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0answers
31 views

why was necessary the discovered of electromagnetism? [on hold]

Need to know much more for the necessity of electromagnetism. http://www.ck12.org/physical-science/Discovery-of-Electromagnetism-in-Physical-Science/lesson/Discovery-of-Electromagnetism-MS-PS/
1
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1answer
207 views

Can the physical properties of the EM field be described directly from the 4-gauge potential?

I'm trying to make an argument that classically, the EM field is considered a more 'real' physical quantity than the potentials, and am tempted to say that the fact that the field carries energy & ...
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0answers
22 views

A bar magnet is brought close to, but does not touch, a paper clip [on hold]

The paper clip moves toward the magnet. What does this observation show about the field associated with the bar magnet?
4
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1answer
96 views

What is relationship between electromagnetic mass and rest mass?

Is there a direct equation which compares rest mass $m_°$ and electromagnetic mass $m_{em}$? Nothing on web I found. $m_{em} = \frac{4 E_{em}}{3c^2}$ 4/3 problem The final solution of the ...
1
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1answer
169 views

Find magnetic field in a solenoid for different regions?

A steady current I flows along an infinitely long hollow cylindrical conductor of radius R. This cylinder is placed coaxially inside an infinite solenoid of radius 2R. The solenoid has n turns per ...
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0answers
31 views

What is r-r' in spherical polar coordinate and cylinderical coordinate? [on hold]

In solving Vector equations in Physics like Electric field and Magnetic field. $$E=\frac{1}{4\pi\varepsilon_0} \int\frac{\rho(r')\hat{\mathcal{R}}}{\mathcal{R}^2}d\tau'$$ $$B=\frac{\mu_0}{4\pi} ...
0
votes
4answers
236 views

Transformers and DC voltage

Ok, if I have a transformer with 100 coils of the primary and 200 coils on the secondary and I connect a 9 volt battery to the primary, how many volts should I expect from the secondary coil? I know ...
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0answers
16 views

what is the reaction force of electromagnetic force created on a conductor in a magnetic field? [on hold]

If a force is created on a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field, what does the reaction of this force act on?
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0answers
49 views

Could a photon also be a fermion? [duplicate]

Some phycisits have found photons that has a spin of 1,5. Now fermions has always a half spin and bosons like photons always with a whole spin. But if those photons really exists are they than ...
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1answer
34 views

Can a flow of current be produced in a wire if its is bombarded with Electromagnetic waves?

If you have a conducting wire and you bombarded it with EM waves, is there a frequency (lower then the threshold frequency to liberate the electrons) that would induce a current within the wire. I ...
3
votes
2answers
114 views

What is $\epsilon_\infty$ in this equation and why can it be neglected in the IR?

I'm reading this paper (warning, PDF) and they mention that the complex permittivity $\epsilon$ and complex conductivity $\sigma$ are related through the equation $$\epsilon - \epsilon_\infty = (4\pi ...
0
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1answer
28 views

What causes a charged particle to follow circular motion in a magnetic field? [duplicate]

I would like to know why particles follow a circular path in a magnetic field, what path they trace and how this path is measured and controlled?
0
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2answers
336 views

How does back-emf oppose the input-current?

A circuit, has current $A$ flowing at a certain $V$. When there is a change in magnetic-flux, based on Faraday's law of induction & Lenz's law, we know that there is change in Potential ...
1
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1answer
50 views

Relativistic transformation of electrical current [on hold]

If, in frame $S$, we have an electrically neutral wire with some current $I$, modelled as positive charges moving in $x$ direction and negative charges moving in $-x$ direction, then how would one ...