Propagating solutions to Maxwell’s equations in classical electromagnetism and real photons in quantum electrodynamics. A superset of thermal-radiation.

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Electrons Orbiting Sphere Magnet in Crooke's Tube

Were I to assemble a Crooke's Tube and insert a spherical magnet, with the poles of the magnet perpendicular to the electron stream, would the electrons begin to orbit the poles of the magnet as in ...
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63 views

Compatibility between solutions of explicit Maxwell equations vs. wave equation?

When trying to solve for the allowed propagation frequencies in a cylindrical waveguide, I approached the problem by solving the wave equation for all three components of $\bar{E}$, and subsequently ...
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81 views

Electromagnetic Radiation of Charged particles

This question is motivated by similar one. If an accelerated point charge $q$ radiates with power $W$ then I assume the same particle with charge $-q$ will radiate with the same rate $W$. Now what if ...
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What's the purpose of the speed of light in $E = mc^2$?

Is $E=mc^2$ not just $E=m$. What does the speed of light have to do with this other than to give it a really big number so it looks cool? What spectrum of light is used? How can we test the speed of ...
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1answer
77 views

Photon Angular Momentum

Essentially I am wanting to evaluate $$\langle j\, m \mid a^\dagger(\mathbf{k}, \lambda) \mid 0 \rangle \,,$$ where $\lambda$ indicates the circular polarization (about $\mathbf{k}$). We have that ...
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147 views

Is my simulation result for unpolarized light correct?

This is a follow-up of this question. After that, I picked up some knowledge of FDTD (an algorithm for solving Maxwell's equations) and simulated following scene: Pic 1 As the picture shows, a ...
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8answers
3k views

Why no longitudinal electromagnetic waves?

According to wikipedia and other sources, there are no longitudinal electromagnetic waves in free space. I'm wondering why not. Consider an oscillating charged particle as a source of EM waves. Say ...
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1answer
40 views

Would electromagnetic radiation impart a pressure on a surface of neutrons?

In my physics textbook, it says that a qualitative way to envision pressure from EM waves is as follows: the electric field drives charges in the $x$ direction, and the magnetic field then exerts on ...
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2answers
60 views

Does the cell phone make dipole particles in our body dance the same way Microwave oven does in food

I am a non-physics person trying to wrap my head around some EM radiation facts. Please help me with this. I have read about Dielectric Heating on Wikipedia. And watched quite a few videos on ...
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1answer
189 views

Why Negative refractive index is negative

$n=\sqrt{\epsilon \mu }$ Negative refractive index happens when permittivity ($\epsilon $) and permeability ($\mu $)of a material is negative. My question is, if permittivity and permeabilitity of a ...
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2answers
219 views

Black body radiation

I have a few questions related to the emission of electromagnetic radiation by black bodies. Consider the following image: On the above image I have drawn the rays of light that are emmited by ...
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2answers
2k views

What are coherent and incoherent radiation?

What are coherent and incoherent radiation? I am a mathematician who is self-learning physics. In reading Jackson's electrodynamics and other books, I often hear that radiation is incoherent or ...
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2answers
3k views

In electromagnetic radiation, how do electrons actually “move”?

I've always pictured EM radiation as a wave, in common drawings of radiation you would see it as a wave beam and that had clouded my understanding recently. Illustration on the simplest level: ...
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7answers
359 views

Is the sun's solar radiance spectrum matching up with water's absorption spectrum just coincidence?

People frequently point out that water has a pretty narrow range in which it isn't very absorbing of light, reaching a minimum at a wavelength of about 500nm: And that our eyes have made good use ...
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4answers
160 views

Question about the wave nature of light

I quote from my textbook, " Consider two vertical slits S1 and S2 placed parallel to each other, and a string is passed through them. The end B is fixed and A is given jerks perpendicular to its ...
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2answers
60 views

Sun: When its closest and when its farther away?

If the sun is closest to the North American Hemisphere in the winter than it is in the summer, why doesn't our faces and hands tan and/or blister quicker? Please provide two hyperlink sources with ...
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2answers
80 views

Huygen's principle in EM waves

In trying to understand diffraction, I keep coming across Huygen's principle as the why behind diffraction, and I think I understand the principle itself all right. However, I was hoping to find an ...
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3answers
896 views

EM waves: How do they travel for billions of km without damping

If a star is 1 billion light years away, it means that the light we see from the star is emmitted billions of years ago. How does this light not undergo a frequency change or get damped inspite of ...
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1answer
24 views

What is the difference in application for near infrared camera data capture as opposed to infrared data capture?

I am trying to understand why I would use a near infrared as opposed to an infrared camera for data capture of vegetation health monitoring.
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2answers
146 views

Do electromagnetic fields gravitate?

It's well known that electromagnetic fields contains energy but do they gravitate ? When we talk about the composition of the universe it's now accepted that the 74 % is dark energy , the 22 % is ...
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2answers
274 views

Why does the light travel slower in denser medium? [duplicate]

Wikipedia says that "in general, the refractive index of a glass increases with its density." And the refraction index of water vapor is less than ice, and even less than liquid water. Is there any ...
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0answers
42 views

Why in 2+1 spacetime dimensions electromagnetic wave (light) cannot be distinguished with acoustic wave (mechanical wave)?

I have heard a saying that in 2+1 spacetime dimensions electromagnetic wave cannot be distinguished with acoustic wave. Or maybe they want to say in 2+1 spacetime dimensions photon and phonon cannot ...
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1answer
130 views

How does the Cosmic Microwave Background give us information about the Big Bang?

I was reading about CMB after this new breakthrough last week and I could not figure this out. The CMB did not exist before the epoch of Last Scattering. They were just photons which were formed at ...
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1answer
73 views

Why is titanium dioxide transparent for visible light but not for UV?

I wonder the reason for TiO2 thin films to be transparent for visible light but not for UV. I made a quick search and I found that it is due to the band gap of TiO2. It absorbs UV light but not ...
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19 views

How to compute radiated power from known instantaneous potential distribution

Friend of mine has a device that has an oscillating electric potential and he wants to know how much power it radiates. He can simulate the instantaneous electric potential using a software package, ...
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1answer
58 views

Characteristic quantities in Fiber optics

I'm having trouble finding typical quantities in fiber optic communication. In particular, what kind of powers are generally used (or what is the minimum that fiber optics receivers can detect ...
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1answer
96 views

Is every electromagnetic radiation considered “light”?

Somebody mentioned on Freenode chatroom for physics that All Electromagnetic Radiation are delivered in form of Photons not just light. Is it true? Does that mean if we get a THF electrical ...
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179 views

Do higher frequency EM waves travel longer than lower EM frequency waves?

In radio communication, the distance traveling seems to be an important parameter before we choose the frequency band of communication. There is also a path-loss model that describes a distance ...
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2answers
54 views

EM Radiation and Heat

If there is EM radiation, will there always be a heat exchange between the wave and its surroundings? If you have an extremely energy-efficient light bulb that converts ALL the energy it receives into ...
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1answer
329 views

Explosively Pumped Flux Compression Generator = EMP strong enough to destroy my phone from a mile away?

Explosively Pumped Flux Compression Generator detonated a mile away or so, what damage would be done to my phone, and other electronics? I would imagine it would be similar to a CD in the microwave ...
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1answer
143 views

Write down equations for the electric field and magnetic fields components of a linearly polarized plane wave [closed]

A linearly polarized plane wave at 100 MHz is propagating in the $z$ direction. The electric field vector makes an angle of 30° with the $x$-axis. Its peaks amplitude is measured to be ...
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1answer
58 views

Could an attachment to cell-phones limit or neutralize electro-magnetic radiation?

Assumption: Cell-phones generate some degree of electro-magnetic radiation. Whether it's harmful or not is not the question here. Claim: Certain devices may "neutralize" this radiation. (Ex: ...
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0answers
41 views

Primordial black hole: how dense does matter need to be to feed it?

Primordial black holes are a dark matter candidate. Suppose you put a primordial black hole the mass of an asteroid in Earth's core. Will it grow? NO! The black hole will be on the order of a proton ...
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3answers
963 views

Explain how (or if) a box full of photons would weigh more due to massless photons

I understand that mass-energy equivalence is often misinterpreted as saying that mass can be converted into energy and vice versa. The reality is that energy is always manifested as mass in some ...
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3answers
105 views

What is radiation(in simple words)? [closed]

I am a student who is interested in scientific facts. I want a simple definition for radiation. Neither too scientific, nor too simple.
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3answers
683 views

Prove EM Waves Are Transverse In Nature

Why we say that EM waves are transverse in nature? I have seen some proofs regarding my question but they all calculate flux through imaginary cube. Here is My REAL problem that I can't here imagine ...
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3answers
3k views

Amplitude of an electromagnetic wave containing a single photon

Given a light pulse in vacuum containing a single photon with an energy $E=h\nu$, what is the peak value of the electric / magnetic field?
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88 views

How is extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation collected by a submarine antenna?

The U.S. Navy Project ELF managed to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation at down to $\approx 76$ Hz (implying a wavelength of $\approx 3,945$ km!). I was curious, what kind of receiving ...
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3answers
684 views

Are Electromagnetic Waves The Only Means of Transmitting Information?

We've been using EMF to transmit energy (information) for over a century. I was wondering is there any other way to send a message on long distances, even faster than EMF waves can travel? For example ...
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34 views

Would electron degenerate matter be a good x-ray reflector?

I do not know much about x-ray physics or degenerate matter, but I have the intuitive feeling that the high electron density and what must be some crazy band structures in electron degenerate matter ...
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0answers
19 views

Building a magnetron powered steamer

I am wanting to build a microwave powered steamer for a reverse engineering project in university. I've read up some on this and know that its not as efficient as a heating element. I'm curious about ...
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1answer
54 views

Electromagnetic spectrum

I understand that the electromagnetic spectrum is made up of different frequencies of light waves, but is this true in all cases such as with longer wave frequencies? "such as with microwaves". ...
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33 views

Electron and photon interaction

Assuming I shoot a beam of light to an electron, the electron will take the energy and reemit EMR at all direction randomly? If it will, is it happening at the same time?
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1answer
69 views

Could the Sun be partly powered by cosmic rays?

The Earth and the Sun has magnetic fields which shields us from cosmic rays, as a charged cosmic ray particle will loose kinetic energy when its direction is perpendicular to the magnetic field. So ...
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3answers
4k views

Is it possible to avoid the radiation that caused the American flag turned into white on the Moon? [closed]

While lunar images have proven that the American flags planted during the Apollo missions are still standing on the moon, lunar scientists have now said that they probably no longer hold the iconic ...
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1answer
62 views

black body radiation graph [duplicate]

I got really confused about the graph of the relationship between wavelength and intensity of black body radiation. What does the peak stand for? And what does the graph tell us?How can we analyze it? ...
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1answer
50 views

What is the theoretical wattage output of a Tokamak fusion reactor?

By that I mean the complete radiative wattage of any type of energetic radioactivity or electromagnetic wave or even particle if that's what they output. My purpose is to compare this to the suns ...
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0answers
12 views

Where does 1/Gamma characteristic angle come from in EM Radiation?

Very curious as to where this angle comes from? It describes the peak of radiation for almost all radiation regimes, but I am having a difficult time seeing where it comes from. Also, the physical ...
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1answer
83 views

Deriving and gaining intuition for the equation for the index of refraction $n = \sqrt{\mu_r\epsilon_r}$

I've come across the equation in the title. It relates the index of refraction of a substance to the square root of the product of the relative permittivity and the relative permeability at whatever ...