The study of the presence and flow of electric charge. Charges, currents, fields, potentials.

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Electric and Water Flow Analogy

I’ve been studying electricity lately and it has been quite hard to understand the terminology, and picturing it in my mind. After struggling to understand what each property of electric currents ...
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57 views

“+” and “-” sign in Maxwell Stress tensor

I have trouble in determining the "+" and "-" sign of momentum per unit time, per unit area of the following question. Why in the second part, $d\vec{a}$ is pointing in the $ -\vec{z} $ direction? I ...
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56 views

What would we observe from thompson's lamp thought experiment?

The thought experiment goes like this: Say there is some circuit which turns a lamp on/off with just a flick of a switch. Say its off; you flick it, it turns on; flick it again it turns off, ...
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65 views

Calculating kWh from time series of kW

I have a time series of kW where each sample is measured at regular intervals (10 seconds). Could anyone explain to me how could I calculate the total power consumed (kWh) over an hour? Thanks
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7k views

Birds sitting on electric wires: potential difference between the legs

We have seen birds sitting on uninsulated electric wires of high voltage transmission lines overhead without getting harmed, because sitting on only one wire doesn't complete any circuit. But what ...
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68 views

Power wasted and power delivered?

If a power source is supplying a current I and a voltage V, that travels to its destination through resistors of restance R is the power delivered at the destination = $VI - RI^2$, where $(Pi=) VI$ is ...
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102 views

combination of cells

There are m*n identical cells of emf E and internal resistance r connected in parallel rows. This combination of cells is connected across an external resistance R. For what arrangement of the ...
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4answers
565 views

How are electric flux calculations not double integrals?

A disk of radius 0.10 m is oriented with its normal unit vector $\hat{n}$ at 30$^{\circ}$ to a uniform electric field $\vec{E}$ of magnitude 2000 N/C. What is the electric flux through the disk? ...
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46 views

Battery Capacity vs. Battery draw

Pardon my ignorance but I just can seem to find an Answer to my question and I hope that you can help me. What is the equation for calculating how long a Lithium Battery can supply a device? For ...
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353 views

What are all the lines on a double circuit tower?

I understand what three-phase power is. But when I look at some pictures of a double-circuit-three-phase-power-line I see two or three lines close together? What is the purpose of these lines close ...
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109 views

Why does not my power stop when alternating current goes at 0 between positive and negative?

I am having some trouble understanding three-phase alternating current. I realize that most houses are not three-phase but single phase. Would that not mean that at some point when the flow of ...
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56 views

Circuits and Power

"The diagram below represents a simple circuit composed of 5 identical light bulbs and 2 flashlight batteries. Which bulb (or bulbs) would you expect to be the brightest? a) V only b) V and W ...
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319 views

Why does an electric motor burn up when you physically stop it?

As an electric motor spins, the energy from the electricity is 'conducted' to the rotor by the magnetic fields. However, when the motor is stopped, the energy becomes heat and burns up to motor. ...
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43 views

Does 1 volt cancel out 1 ohm? Can current be 0? [closed]

$V=IR$ Right? $100 (\rm{V}) = 0 (\rm{A}) \times 100 (\rm{\Omega})$ Lets say something has $100 \rm V$ potential But since this object is surrounded by air and current is not flowing therefore there ...
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3answers
199 views

If the current is increased, is there more charge flowing or is it moving quicker?

Problem Current is the amount of charge that is flowing through a component per unit of time. For a given voltage, Ohm's law tells us that if we increase the resistance, then the current must ...
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1answer
32 views

Current when the slide wire attains a constant velocity

In a slide wire generator, when the slide wire attains a final constant velocity, is the current in the circuit 0? It does not make sense if it is 0 as the area keeps increasing, allowing more flux ...
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70 views

Source of electrons in Crooks tube experiment (Inside the Discharge tube)

In the experiment, gases are put at low pressure inside the discharge tube. Now the issue that arises is a very simple one. ...
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3answers
199 views

How “earthing” electricity work?

I made a simple bulb-battery circuit and then I cut one of the wires and attached both ends to cemented floor, the bulb didn't glow, this means cemented floor is a ...
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2answers
96 views

Why does holding an electrical switch in between on and off states cause sparks?

If air is a bad conductor, then why do sparks develop when an electrical switch is held in between on and off states? Why are sparks generated when cables carrying heavy electric current are brought ...
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3answers
140 views

Electric impluses inside nerve cells

I'm not a biologist, nor physicist, but there is one thing I try to understand about the elecricity inside human body. I wasn't sure whether place this question here, or perhaps on biology portal, but ...
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3answers
921 views

Can magnetic flux be negative

I am studying magnetic flux linkage in an ac generator and it appears to be that magnetic flux linkage is negative half the time, how can this be?? Also with lenz's law why is emf defined as negative ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the relationship between the verbal definition and the mathematical definition of some quantities?

I know this is probably an easy question, but it's been a while since I've studied physics and I've started reading some circuit analysis textbooks. I'm finding hard to understand the relationship ...
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2answers
63 views

Finding the voltage of an inductor in a RL series circuit [closed]

Here is the solution: This assigned question is an odd one since it doesn't seem to have anything to do with phasors which is the chapter I am currently studying. I know that that the phase ...
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166 views

How much electricity can be produced by my thermoelectric generator?

I am using a thermoelectric cooler from a pc's heatsink to produce electricity. Its size is 30mm by 30mm. I will cool it on one side at -10 degree Celsius and the other at 24 degree Celsius. Can ...
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40 views

Circuit analysis: Two nodes as one?

Can I treat these two nodes in the center as if there were only one node connecting these four components?
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75 views

Which thermoelectric effect is better?

I am doing an experiment which requires the thermoelectric effect. I know about the Seebeck and the Peltier effects. Well, from what I have found till now on these topics is that they both can produce ...
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2answers
178 views

Water and electricity? Hot or Cold?

Is hot water or cold water more conductive for electricity or is it the same regardless?
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30 views

Steam and Electricity

If an electrical conduit with sufficient voltage were cut and lay naked inside a chamber of steam, would an electrical arc occur? As a secondary question, if the steam were subject to a stabilized ...
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1answer
41 views

Can electrons coincidentally flow along a circuit to cause current?

My understanding of circuits which are not supplied an e.m.f. is that the electrons randomly just flow about in random directions, and since there's so many of them, probability dictates that any ...
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42 views

Does back emf occur in transformers?

Does back emf occur in transformers and if so does it reduce the efficiency of the transformer and can it be reduced?
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43 views

How do the different types of energy apply to voltage in a circuit

I was just wondering what happens in a circuit in terms of different types of energy transformations. If you apply a voltage to a circuit then electrons start moving (very slowly). Since the electrons ...
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26 views

An EM problem of polarized sphere

Today, I'm doing an EM problem and my question is exactly the same as this site shows: http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=133501 To reiterate my confusion, why we can't use that integral ...
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180 views

question on dipole moment of water molecule

I read a line today and don't get it: "Molecules with mirror symmetry like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon tetrachloride have no permanent dipole moments." ...
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49 views

Why do the chargers produce persistent high pitch sound?

I have noticed that my Nexus Orb charger and a charger for the shaver produce some unpleasant high pitch sounds - near the fork. Why are they doing this? Does it indicate any problem with my ...
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1answer
51 views

Magnetic flux and transformers

I have two linked quesitons, 1. what is magnetic flux linkage's formal definitaiton and 2. when people say the flux flows better thru a soft iron core then the air what do they mean by flux flowing ...
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342 views

The shape of the graph of the equation: $V= -r I + E$

I have recently collected data (for a school experiment) in order to measure the EMF and the internal resistance of a solar cell. The data complied with the equation: $V = -rI + E$, i.e. the voltage ...
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298 views

The relation between the movement of electrons and energy

So, I've been enjoying reading a lot of helpful posts, but now, I found myself in the need of asking something. I have a hard time grasping the general concept of electricity / how the relation ...
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224 views

What is the capacitance of parallel plate capacitor with different electrode material?

What is the capacitance of parallel plate capacitor with different electrode material? The capacitance of parallel plate capacitor depends on dielectric material, surface area, and separation between ...
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1answer
69 views

Electric arc due to static discharge in a T-Shirt possible?

Yesterday, when I came home, I went to the bathroom (lights off) and i took off my T-Shirt (100% cotton) which I wore under a Shirt (50% cotton, 50% polyester). I believe to have seen a small but well ...
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237 views

What would the graph between P (power) and i (current) look like if the graph between V (potential difference) and i is parabolic?

The answer is same... That us the graph between P and I will also be a parabola.... Similar to the graph between V and I. But how? Can anyone explain through mathematical approach ? I used ...
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1answer
113 views

The position of center of mass of electron cloud in an atom

I read Griffiths EM today and it says something very interesting but a little bothering to me. It states for an atom, the position of center of mass of an electron cloud lies in the center of the ...
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2answers
1k views

How do Permanent Magnet Generators Work?

Why we don't use this in our houses to generate the electricity? Isn't the electricity generated by the magnets strong enough? Why do we have to pay for electricity if we can just create it by pushing ...
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1answer
114 views

The probability of electron-hole pair recombination as a function of physical proximity

When we shine line of an appropriate wavelength at a metal, e.g. gold, such that there is sufficient energy to promote an electron from the valence band to the conduction band, we'll generate with ...
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1answer
43 views

What makes different metals conduct better?

If a metal is a Fermi sea, what makes different metals better conductors? Clearly, one valance electron dominates. All things being equal, I would have assumed that the bigger atoms, with more ...
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1answer
105 views

Electricity Flow and Ground Wire

Pre-face: My step-father and I were turning the heat down on the water heater. He demonstrated that touching the ground wire doesn't shock you. My understanding is that the ground wire doesn't have ...
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1answer
85 views

Electricity from lightning

According to the internet, a lightning strike contains about 5 billion joules or 5 GJ. How was this calculated? Another thing: Once the lightning strike a metal grounded rod, a current will flow. ...
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1answer
49 views

Charging a capacitor

Below is an excerpt from a physics textbook: One common way to charge a capacitor is to connect these two wires to opposite terminals of a battery. Once the charges $Q$ and $-Q$ are established on ...
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36 views

The value of current and voltage in a circuit

The picture is just for example. I don't know why $i$ and $i_1$ have different directions and $i+i_1=0$ according to KCL. Also, the value of voltage at each element. I mean in why the $V$ of the end ...
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3answers
65 views

electric current in parallel circuit [closed]

If I have a parallel circuit with two resistors ($R_1=48 \Omega$ and $R_2=16 \Omega$) - and $R_1$ has a $0.1 A$ current running through, is it possible to calculate the current through $R_2$ without ...
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84 views

Creating electricity from mains water pressure.

Could someone cleverer than me help me out? I had a crazy thought going through my head the other day and I can't lay my mind to rest until I get an answer. Q. How much energy could be produced by ...