An electronic system, with closed loop current flow, and relative electrical potentials present across electrical components.

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Load resistance adding with minimized power and voltage constraint [closed]

Consider the simple circuit below: Suppose $V$ and $R$ have set voltage and resistance values respectively, and you are to choose the resistance values for $R_1$ and $R_2$. However, you must choose ...
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1answer
29 views

Showing $\frac{\delta V_{out}}{V_{out}}=\frac{\delta R_2}{R_2} \frac{R_1}{R_1+R_2}$ [closed]

Consider a voltage divider with $V_{out}=V_{in} \frac{R_2}{R_1+R_2}$. Show that for a small change in $R_2$, the voltage divider equation is: $\frac{\delta V_{out}}{V_{out}}=\frac{\delta R_2}{R_2} ...
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64 views

Theoretical uncertainty of a circuit's total resistance when made entirely of resistors

My question in short(ish) is: Will the fractional uncertainty of a circuit made entirely of resistors with equal fractional uncertainties be the same as the fractional uncertainty of those resistors. ...
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3answers
278 views

Defining Reference Directions for Voltage and Power (sign convention)

My professor decided to use the above reference directions when calculating power in circuits. He says that when power > 0, power is consumed. When p < 0, power is generated. This definition is ...
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What is the difference between electric potential, potential difference (PD), voltage and electromotive force (EMF)?

This is a confused part ever since I started learning electricity. What is the difference between electric potential, potential difference (PD), voltage and electromotive force (EMF)? All of them have ...
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0answers
43 views

Probe/Sensor-design for pulsed electromagnetic field

So I have a wire/coil, acting as a sender, which has a pulsed signal as described below. I would like to build a sensor/probe that can detect the electric field at a distance, where the primary goal ...
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1answer
107 views

Electrical Analog of a Chain of Springs

I'm trying to wrap my head around the Force $\rightarrow$ Voltage analogy between mechanical and electrical systems. I have a mechanical system where masses are connected by springs in series, and ...
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589 views

The role of resistor in e.g. an AND gate

What is the role of the resistor in e.g. an AND gate like this one? : One often sees lots of resistors in electric circuits, but I haven't really understood their role.
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Why does the current stay the same in a circuit?

I was informed that in a circuit, the current will stay the same, and this is why the lightbulbs will light up (because in order for the current to stay the same, the drift speed of the electrons need ...
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2answers
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Why is the voltage drop across an ideal wire zero?

I'm having trouble conceptualizing why the voltage drop between two points of an ideal wire (i.e. no resistance) is $0~V$. Using Ohm's Law, the equation is such: $$ V = IR \\ V = I(0~\Omega) \\ V = ...
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64 views

Dependence of the Capacitance on the Material and Geometry of the Plates

I have two questions concerning capacitors: 1) We know that the capacitance of a capacitor also depend on the dielectric material inside as $C=$ $\dfrac{K \epsilon_0 A}{d}$ But what if the ...
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99 views

Measuring electric conductivity

My daughter is doing a science experiment on which metal (e.g., copper, silver, aluminum, iron) has maximum electric conductivity. We are assuming we can accomplish this by using different metal, 3 to ...
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245 views

Why is emf equal to PD when circuit is “open”?

I understand that the set up of a battery consists of very good, but not ideal conductor, and therefore, some internal resistance exists. Also, I get that emf is the PD that would exist if the ...
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2answers
26 views

Determining the behavior of the transference function as $\omega\to 0$ or $\omega\to\infty$

I'm studying experimental Physics and one of the experiments I must understand is about electronics concerning filters. Considering one RLC filter, measuring the output at the resistor we have the ...
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3answers
61 views

Current in an RC Circuit

If an $emf$ leaves from point A, the concepts at play in the following diagram are straightforward: at any time, the $I_{R}$ = $I_{c}$ as time increases, $\Delta V$ across $R$ decreases and it ...
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278 views

Circuit breaker Trips during thunderstorm

The circuit breaker at the electrical mains trips at home when there is a thunderstorm outside. Why does this occur?
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How are the CPU power and temperature caculated/estimated?

From Wikipedia The power consumed by a CPU, is approximately proportional to CPU frequency, and to the square of the CPU voltage: $$ P = C V^2 f $$ (where C is capacitance, f is ...
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52 views

Isn't the inductor equation negative?

The inductor "resists" change in current. So say you measure the voltage across the inductor from point A to point B - the current is flowing in from A towards B. Now say the current is increasing. ...
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70 views

Why is the voltage output equal to the voltage drop?

I have a very basic question about measurement of voltage output on some simple circuits. Considering the circuits of the figure: Supposing one wants to measure the voltage output $V_2$, on the ...
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1answer
43 views

Is it true that a processor with a higher temperature uses inevitably more power in comparison with a processor with a lower temperature?

If a processor has a higher temperature, can you be sure it it consumes more power than a processor with a lower temperature? And is the reverse relationship true? A processorchip with a higher mean ...
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1answer
105 views

Voltage calculation and reference voltage in simple linear circuit [closed]

For the diagram above, the following voltages are specified: $V_A = 4V$ $V_D = 2V$ $V_a = 0V$ Here, $V_{ab}$ indicates the voltage referenced from node b to node a. In other ...
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1answer
95 views

Direction of Current Flow in Complex Circuit

Physics Hypertextbook writes that "The current through the 1 Ω resistor most certainly runs from right to left." Why is that true? My approach: I arbitrarily assigned a counterclockwise ...
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1answer
49 views

Where are the negligible and infinite resistances, respectively, of the ideal am- and voltmeter?

Consider the picture below. An ammeter is shown to the left, a voltmeter to the right. They consist of a d'Arsonval galvanometer, which is a coil (with a pointer attached) that can rotate in a ...
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162 views

The electric field in wires in a circuit

I have a hard time really understanding the electric field in a complete curcuit. How is the electric field maintained throughout the wiring / the conductors from component to component? The charges ...
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147 views

Why is the current in an electric circuit constant?

Considering electrostatics, suppose we have two charges of equal value and opposite sign and we put electrons along the road between them: We know that the electrical force or field is different from ...
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44 views

Drift velocity of charges in current

In an electric curcuit, charges (electrons e.g.) move randomly around very, very fast. When a current is set in a curcuit, the charges still move randomly, but have a drift velocity around the ...
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Where does electricity go from a solar panel that is not plugged in to anything?

I found a similar question here on this site, but my question is slightly different. If a solar panel is exposed to sunlight but is not plugged in to anything--dc load, inverter, etc--where does that ...
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1answer
65 views

Why is there current in LC Circuits?

When we connect two electric sources (positive to positive and negative to negative) then the current that runs the circuit is calculated as follows: $ I = (E1-E2)/(2r + R) $ In case of an LC ...
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63 views

Weird phenomenon on aluminum laptop casing [duplicate]

A couple of days ago I observed a phenomenon which I'm not sure I understand correctly. My brother-in-law has recently bought an ASUS gaming laptop in an aluminum casing. When the power supply is ...
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3answers
3k views

Magnitude of magnetic field at the center of circular wire

I'm preparing for an exam by solving the sample questions , here is the one I'm having difficulty with : Following is the given circuit. Which contains two resistance $R_1$ and $R_2$ in form of ...
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1answer
81 views

Variable Resistance

We know that the resistance increase with temperature or for exemple in an AC circuit, the resistance is superior to the same resistor for DC current due to skin effect. But my question is for a same ...
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4answers
236 views

Birds and cables: how is the potential difference between two diff. cables established?

The common explanation of why birds don't receive a shock when standing on high tension cables is that there needs to be a considerable potential difference between both of his feet for him to receive ...
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144 views

Determine which circuits are parallel and which are in series

I need to find the Equivalent Resistance across A and B. The problem is, I don't know which one's are in series and which ones are in parallel. How do I identify which ones are parallel or series?
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380 views

Potential difference with an inductor

As far as I know, the potential difference between two points is defined as the negative line integral of electric field between those 2 points: $$\Delta V=-\int d \ell\cdot\mathbf E$$ I also know ...
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1answer
118 views

What happens when a wire is conneceted to a plug point directly?

I did it in my school lab and at first nothing happened. Then I jiggled around, sparks flew out with a small explosive sound. It was really cool. The wire ends got burnt and the holes of the plug ...
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3answers
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Why current through all the resistors in series is considered to be same? [duplicate]

Consider the circuit shown, where $R_{1} > R_{2}$. I meant to say that resistance offered by the resistor 1 is greater than the resistance offered by the resistor 2. Keep $t$ constant i,e ...
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71 views

Does reflected light change LED power consumption?

If I enclose an LED in "tin foil" so that the photons it gives off are reflected back to it, would the power consumed by the LED go down?
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56 views

Solve symmetric circuits by a glance [closed]

How to know with just a cursory glance that the Voltage needed is zero ? i think there must be a way to know it , by symmetry or something
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1answer
46 views

Where can I get fluidics components?

Many years ago people were interested in developing fluidic circuits, i.e. circuits that are analogous to electric ones but that use fluids rather than electricity. It used to be possible to buy ...
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1answer
63 views

I wnt to know HOW to create TM, TE, and TEM waves; and is it being used in industry? [closed]

Transverse Magnetic (TM) and Transverse Electric (TE) modes So I'm wholly ignorant of any knowledge surrounding these modes, so bear with me here.. One component is infinitesimally small in the ...
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1answer
36 views

portable transistor radio [closed]

I recently bought a cheap (@ US$7) transistor radio, with an FM band, an AM band, 4 SW bands, and 2 VHF (tv audio) bands covering channels 1 to 13. However, i later discovered that i couldn't tune in ...
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3answers
505 views

How is Kirchhoff's voltage law understood in the water flow analogy?

I met the Kirchhoff circuit laws in the past, but now I'm trying to associate them with a practical representation to be sure to understand them. Let's start with the Kirchhoff current law: If I say ...
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1answer
33 views

Formulas which describe Electric power loss accurate

What formulas describe the real power loss in conductors the best? I heard that there are different effects, like skin effect etc. I want to calculate the % the power drops per meter distance. ...
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2answers
38 views

Physical Explanation of the steady state in RC circuits

Given a simple RC circuit with a resistance $R$ connected to a capacitor $C$, the differential equation that describes the voltage is $$C \dot V + V/R = 0$$ whose solution is $$V= V(t) = V_0 ...
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3answers
2k views

Pn junction voltage drop?

This image from wikipedia, explains that there occurs a potential drop across a pn semiconductor junction, and an electric field confined to the depletion region. I already know the reason for the ...
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2answers
49 views

Power transmission loss in a large circuit

This is a followup question to this question Consider a large circuit like the german electric power transmission network. You have a lot of of people consuming power and a lot of power stations ...
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2answers
68 views

Kirchoff's loop law

Can any one provide me with mathematical proof of kirchoff's loop law? I am not able to understand from where to start.
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77 views

Comparing voltages of Parallel and Series circuits

There are two electric circuits. Resistor 1 ($R_1$) connected with resistor 2 ($R_2$) by series circuit $R_1$ connected with $R_2$ in parallel Each of the circuit has battery with emf and the ...
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1answer
54 views

Quadrupling Power in a Circuit

If I have a heating wire with resistance $R$ to be connected across a constant potential difference $V$, it would seem like cutting the wire into two (thus each having half the resistance) and ...
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52 views

Current in Parallel Circuits

For the parallel circuit below: Why is the current across the ammeter unchanged when the resistance of the variable resistor is increased? I've always learnt that current varies in parallel and ...