An electronic system, with closed loop current flow, and relative electrical potentials present across electrical components.

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Equivalent resistance in ladder circuit

I have stumbled upon a given question I really have a hard time to solve. Basically I need to find an equivalent resistance in some form of "ladder" configuration. Where the chain is an infinite ...
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1k views

Capacitors and Resistors - Series or Parallel?

I recently came across a problem in which a 12v DC power supply is connected in parallel to (in one loop) a one microfarad capacitor and a one kilo-ohm resistor. In the other loop is a 1000 microfarad ...
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256 views

What is zero impedance in AC circuit?

If a capacitor is connected with an inductor, then because $$Z=\frac{1}{j\omega C}+j\omega L,$$ the Z may be zero. Does that mean when I apply a voltage, the current will be infinite large? What's ...
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2k views

Capacitors: why is the energy not stored in a magnetic field?

When a capacitor is charging, the rate of change $dE/dt$ of the electric field between the plates is non-zero, and from the Maxwell-Ampère equation this causes a circulating magnetic field. Now, ...
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How are the CPU power and temperature caculated/estimated?

From Wikipedia The power consumed by a CPU, is approximately proportional to CPU frequency, and to the square of the CPU voltage: $$ P = C V^2 f $$ (where C is capacitance, f is ...
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324 views

The electric field in wires in a circuit

I have a hard time really understanding the electric field in a complete curcuit. How is the electric field maintained throughout the wiring / the conductors from component to component? The charges ...
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977 views

Application of Kirchhoff's laws in circuits with inductors

As we know,the Kirchhoff circuit laws are applicable for conservative electric fields. Now it is applicable for circuits where inductors are present but the field there is not conservative. So how ...
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158 views

How are electromagnetic waves differentiated?

I would like to know how the signals for remote controlled cars, radios, etc.. That use radio waves are told apart from each other. I know that the radio waves are modulated to encode data and the ...
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238 views

Why does smashing a TV remote load its batteries?

Many times I had the same problem: my TV remote's batteries were too weak for it to operate, but then, when I shook the remote a bit and smashed it on my palm, somehow the remote regained its ability. ...
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784 views

Electric field in a wire?

The electric field in a wire is parallel to the wire's surface (it is always pointing "to the front"). If the electric field did not point in this direction, surface charges would build up and ...
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273 views

Why is the anode (+) in a device that consumes power & (-) in one that provides power?

I was trying to figure out the flow of electrons in a battery connected to a circuit. Conventionally, current is from the (+) terminal to the (-) terminal of the battery. Realistically it flows the ...
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3k views

Relating milliampere-hours to watt-hours for batteries

I've seen many batteries that are measured in milliampere hours (mAh), while others are measured in watt hours (wh). How can I convert them between each other so that I can actually compare them? It's ...
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161 views

Why is the voltage of a battery equal to the emf?

We know that there is an electric field inside the battery that works against the moving electrons of a circuit. But there is also the chemical force of the battery that at some point become equal. ...
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279 views

Birds and cables: how is the potential difference between two diff. cables established?

The common explanation of why birds don't receive a shock when standing on high tension cables is that there needs to be a considerable potential difference between both of his feet for him to receive ...
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437 views

How can there be current if all paths have same potential difference

I am learning about circuit analysis now, but there is something that I can't wrap my head around. Imagine this simple circuit: ...
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2k views

Measuring human resistance with a DMM

When I attach a Digital Multimeter (DMM) to read the resistance between my right and left hands, the resistance starts off high and reduces over time. It appears almost like "RC-type" behavior. Can ...
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627 views

The role of resistor in e.g. an AND gate

What is the role of the resistor in e.g. an AND gate like this one? : One often sees lots of resistors in electric circuits, but I haven't really understood their role.
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341 views

Why are ammeters used in series and voltmeters in parallel?

As I'm reading a course on electricity, this one says that an ammeter should be branched inline and not on a bridge. Can someone explain to me physically why we branch a amperemeter inline and a ...
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Is a capacitor in an open circuit charged?

Say I have a circuit consisting of a battery, a wire, an open switch, and a capacitor. The circuit is open since the switch is open. My book says that the capacitor will only be charged when the ...
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139 views

Voltage in a circuit?

The voltage of the battery signifies the difference in voltage between the positive and negative terminal What does this mean? The definition of voltage difference I'm familiar with is the ...
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3k views

Why is there no current flow when i connect two opposite terminals of two separate batteries

I don't understand this..maybe there is something wrong with my understanding of battery or electricity. I am learning about electricity more deeply this time. So please spare with me... So lets ...
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Round bulb and Long bulb in Series Circuit

If you have a series circuit with a battery, one round bulb (with thicker filament), and one long bulb (with thinner filament), the round bulb does not light up and only the long bulb lights up. ...
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Why does the current stay the same in a circuit?

I was informed that in a circuit, the current will stay the same, and this is why the lightbulbs will light up (because in order for the current to stay the same, the drift speed of the electrons need ...
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252 views

Electric circuit. Slight problem with the sign on voltages

Translation first! The figure shows an electric circuit. a) Use Kirchhoffs 2.law on the part-circuit abed and show that $I_3$ = 0,50A. b) Explain that $I_2 + I_5 = 2,0A$. Use Kirchhoffs 2.law on the ...
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106 views

How does an inductor store magnetic energy?

I am trying to figure out what the potential energy of an inductor with a current really means. In a capacitor, the energy stored works like this: if you let the plates attract each other, before ...
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114 views

Calculating the resistance of a 3D shape between two points

If I have an arbitrarily shaped object made of a uniform material of some specified resistivity, how would I go about calculating the resistance between two measurement points with known contact ...
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192 views

How to model “Doppler Distortion” of speakers?

Simple Model w/o Doppler I have a speaker driven by an electrical signal. The pressure at the sampling point is some linear operator acting on the input signal: $L[ s(t)]$. Where $L$ combines the ...
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150 views

Is there a differential equation that can represent a circuit with an arbitrary voltage source connected acrorss an antenna?

An RLC circuit with a voltage source can be characterized by the differential equation: $$ LC\;\ddot{I}\left(t\right) + RC\; \dot{I}\left(t\right) + I\left(t\right)-C \;\dot{V}\left(t\right) = 0 $$ ...
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73 views

Direct current and metallic conduction

Suppose we have a circuit with and EMF source and a resistor. We know that when electron moves from one terminal of a voltage source to another it encounters resistance, which is basically collisions ...
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916 views

What is the physical interpretation of the Fourier transform $(\mathcal{F}Z)(t)$ an impedance?

If I compose a impedances out of smaller ones in series and parallel configurations, e.g. $$Z(\omega)=i\omega L_2+\tfrac{1}{\tfrac{1}{R_1}\ +\ i\omega C_1+\ \tfrac{1}{i\omega L_2}},$$ then I get a ...
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7k views

Ohmic and Non-Ohmic devices

Why do some conductors follow Ohm's law and some do not? Isn't there any universal law that can explain the flow of current?
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760 views

Flow of electrons in a circuit

When the electrons flow in a circuit, so are those the electrons from the battery or are those the electrons of conductor like copper wire, etc..which are flowing in the circuit?
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595 views

Explanation of the Graetz circuit

My knowledge of circuits is pretty rudimentary and I've never really understood circuits, so I'm having trouble with the concept of Graetz circuits: When you register the voltage on the resistor R ...
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60 views

Does an Inductor maintain it's energy?

Consider a simple LCR ac circuit; generally I (might) understand that the charge exchange between capacitor and inductor would induce a harmonic current flow, but I remain confused for two reasons: ...
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233 views

Why is there no induced electric field in the experiment (Faraday's Law)

Below are three circuit diagrams for each of Faraday's experiments that allowed Faraday to come up with Faraday's Law. In Griffiths' Introduction to Electrodynamics Griffiths states (on page 302 of ...
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568 views

Why does current density have a direction and not current?

As I understand it the definitions are as follows: Current is a scalar $I$ with units of $\mathrm{[J/s]}$. It is defined as $I=\frac{\mathrm{d}Q}{\mathrm{d}t}$. Current density is a vector $\vec{J}$ ...
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225 views

Resonance Frequency of High Resistance RLC

I was measuring the resonance frequency of an RLC (all in series) circuit using an oscilloscope and a function generator. Now resonance frequency is given by: $$f_r = \frac{1}{2 \pi \sqrt{LC}}$$ In ...
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642 views

$Q$ factor of parallel RLC circuit in series with a capacitor and resistor

I know that for parallel RLC circuits, the $Q$ factor is given by: $$ Q = R \sqrt {\frac{C}{L}} $$ But now suppose it is connected in series to a resistor $R_2$ and capacitor $C_2$. Would the $Q$ ...
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1answer
2k views

Delta to Star/Y Conversions and vice versa in Electric Ciruits

We all know the basic rules for conversion of $"Delta"$ circuits to $"Star"$ circuits and vice versa. We also know that this is needed for simplification of circuits in complex cases. Can anyone ...
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697 views

What is the current through the lamp?

We have the following circuit: A neon lamp and a inductor are connected in parallel to a battery of 1.5 $V$. The inductor has a 1000 loops, a length of $5.0 cm$, an area of $12cm^2$ and a ...
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537 views

Instantaneous current after battery unplugged in RL circuit?

I've been racking my brain over this, and I can't find any clues in my textbook as to how to approach it. I have the following circuit: My goal is to find R such that, right after the switch is ...
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542 views

Compute closed line integral of electric field in circuit

I have a circuit where resistor is parallel to capacitor, which is charged with voltage U. How to compute line integral around closed loop to get the result of Kirchhof second law - ...
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3answers
633 views

Electrostatic notion of voltage as it applies to circuits

I have a question that's been bothering me about electric fields, voltage, and circuit analysis. Initially, I came to understand voltage as it was taught in the context of electrostatics - through ...
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1answer
280 views

How are quantum potential wells fabricated?

Potential wells, such as infinite and finite potential well, have been the standard examples in quantum mechanics textbooks for tens of years. They started being only theoretical toy models but as ...
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168 views

Are magnetic hysteresis losses relevant to alternating currents flowing in a wire?

Say we have an AC in a magnetically lossy material, like iron. Because of iron's relatively high permeability, skin effect will be more pronounced than it is in say, copper, so this iron wire isn't so ...
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186 views

RLC circuit, turning off the voltage source

An RLC circuit (pictured above) is governed by two equations: \begin{align} -iR &= -L \frac{dj}{dt} = \frac{q}{C}+V(t) \\ \frac{dq}{dt} &= i+j \, . \end{align} $q$ satisfies the equation ...
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182 views

What is the area in Faraday's law if we have only a piece of metal moving in a magnetic field?

If a piece of metal of length $l$ is moving with a speed $v$ in a region where there is a uniform magnetic field $B$ perpendicular to it, there will be a potential difference across its terminals ...
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Is voltage difference always proportional to its derivative?

We write, because of Ohm's law: $$V=RI(t),$$ but also we have $$C\frac{dV}{dt}=I(t).$$ From the first equation we deduce that $V\propto I$ and from the second $\dot V\propto I$. So we can conclude ...
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412 views

Olympiad physics 1996 problem [closed]

I don't understand the official solution of the first problem of the 1996 International Physics Olympiad. They give this circuit: Each black box is a resistor of resistance $1\Omega$. They then ...
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352 views

Justification of root mean square [duplicate]

In the top answer to the question Why do we use Root Mean Square (RMS) values when talking about AC voltage, the following was stated: This RMS is a mathematical quantity (used in many math ...