# Tagged Questions

A fully relativistic (Lorentz covariant) description, first put forward by Paul Dirac in 1928, of the first quantized, spin one half fermion with nonzero mass. Physical notions to do with this equation include the Dirac sea, Dirac hole theory, the Klein Paradox and the fine structure of the Hydrogen ...

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### What is the difference between a spinor and a vector or a tensor?

Why do we call a 1/2 spin particle satisfying the Dirac equation a spinor, and not a vector or a tensor?
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### Wrong sign anticommutation relation for the Dirac field?

Consider the Dirac Lagrangian $$\mathcal{L}=\psi ^{\dagger }\gamma ^{0}\left( \mathrm{i}\gamma ^{\rho }\partial _{\rho }-m\right) \psi .$$ The conjugate momenta to $\psi ^{a}$ are defined, as usual, ...
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### What was missing in Dirac's argument to come up with the modern interpretation of the positron?

When Dirac found his equation for the electron $(-i\gamma^\mu\partial_\mu+m)\psi=0$ he famously discovered that it had negative energy solutions. In order to solve the problem of the stability of the ...
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### CPT invariance of Dirac equation

We know that Dirac equation is $$( i \partial _\mu \gamma ^\mu - m ) \psi ~=~0.$$ How can we show that Dirac equation is invariant under CPT transformation?
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### Why is the Dirac equation not used for calculations?

From what I understand the Dirac equation is supposed to be an improvement on the Schrödinger equation in that it is consistent with relativity theory. Yet all methods I have encountered for doing ...
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### Equation for relativistic electron and two-component spinor

Recently I heard that there is some "alternate" equation for the Dirac one. It can be introduced if we refuse some properties of the theory describes the electron, which Dirac used in his original ...
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### Nonlinear Dirac's Equation?

Are there any nonlinear variations of Dirac's Equation analogous to the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, that have been studied and published in any mainstream journals or books? Perhaps such a ...
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### Why fermions have a first order (Dirac) equation and bosons a second order one?

Is there a deep reason for a fermion to have a first order equation in the derivative while the bosons have a second order one? Does this imply deep theoretical differences (like space phase dimesion ...
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### How to prove $(\gamma^\mu)^\dagger=\gamma^0\gamma^\mu\gamma^0$?

Studying the basics of spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ QFT, I encountered the gamma matrices. One important property is $(\gamma^5)^\dagger=\gamma^5$, the hermicity of $\gamma^5$. After some searching, I stumbled ...
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### Majorana mass vs Dirac Mass

Why is it said that the Dirac mass term conserves the fermion number but the Majorana mass term does not? Can someone explain this mathematically? Which breakdown of symmetry is responsible for ...
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### Is there a 2D manifold on which the Dirac equation has a zero mode?

The two-dimensional (2D) Dirac equation $(\sigma_1iD_1+\sigma_2 iD_2)\psi=E\psi$ admits zero mode ($E=0$) solutions on a non-trivial gauge background, such as the zero mode at the core of a U(1) gauge ...
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### What happens to the Lagrangian of the Dirac theory under charge conjugation?

Consider a charge conjugation operator which acts on the Dirac field($\psi$) as $$\psi_{C} \equiv \mathcal{C}\psi\mathcal{C}^{-1} = C\gamma_{0}^{T}\psi^{*}$$ Just as we can operate the parity operator ...
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### Dirac equation as canonical quantization?

First of all, I'm not a physicist, I'm mathematics phd student, but I have one elementary physical question and was not able to find answer in standard textbooks. Motivation is quite simple: let me ...
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### Substitution $\partial_\mu \to D_\mu \equiv \partial_\mu + ieA_\mu$ allows the introduction of electromagnetic interactions [closed]

I want to show that the substitution $\partial_u \to D_\mu \equiv \partial_\mu + ieA_\mu$, or equivalently $p_\mu \to p_\mu - eA_\mu$ allows the introduction of electromagnetic interactions. Here $e$ ...
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### Why do we need matrices in the Dirac equation?

Consider the following equation: \nabla^2 - \frac{1}{c^2}\frac{\partial^2}{\partial t^2} = \left(A \partial_x + B \partial_y + C \partial_z + \frac{i}{c}D \partial_t\right)\left(A \...
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### Why the lowest order of matrices in Dirac equation are 4x4 matrices? [duplicate]

Why the lowest order of matrices in Dirac equation (Relativistic Quantums) are 4x4 matrices (and can not be 2x2 matrices)? How to prove it?
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### Components of the Weyl spinor field

In the Weyl basis we can separate the spinor field into 2 components: the right-chiral spinor and the left-chiral spinor. Each of these fields has again 2 components which are coupled. What is the ...
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Below are two statements from my notes and I am trying to verify them explicitly. In both cases the fields are assumed to transform under the fundamental representation of $O(N)$ - --'The kinetic ...
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Relativistic Quantum Mechanic is based, as far as I know, in the Dirac Equation. Now, the Schrödinger equation, in the abstract state space takes the form: $$i\hbar \dfrac{d|\psi(t)\rangle}{dt}=H|\... 1answer 355 views ### Dirac operator in curved spacetime in 2 dimensions – hermitian? I'm currently trying to learn about the Dirac equation in curved spacetime and have come across an odd remark in Nakahara's well-known textbook "Geometry, Topology and Physics" that I would like to ... 1answer 599 views ### Explanation of equation that shows a failed approach to relativize Schrodinger equation I'm reading the Wikipedia page for the Dirac equation: \rho=\phi^*\phi\, ...... J = -\frac{i\hbar}{2m}(\phi^*\nabla\phi - \phi\nabla\phi^*) with the conservation of probability ... 1answer 444 views ### Dirac adjoint of a matrix The Dirac adjoint for Dirac spinors is defined as,$$ \bar{u} = u^{\dagger} \gamma^{0} \, . $$However I have come across this,$$ \overline{\gamma^{\mu}} = \gamma^{\mu} \, , \tag{1} $$(where \gamma^... 1answer 1k views ### Dirac field and stress-energy tensor density I read somewhere that stress-energy tensor density is a symmetric tensor. But if I take the Dirac Field tensor:$$T^{\mu \nu}=i \psi^\dagger \gamma^0 \gamma^\mu \partial^\nu \psi $$How could I ... 1answer 324 views ### Complete set and Klein-Gordon equation In http://www.physics.ucdavis.edu/~cheng/teaching/230A-s07/rqm2_rev.pdf, it says that when there is some external potential, the Klein-Gordon equation is altered, and it says the following: The ... 0answers 103 views ### Tunneling from Dirac material into Schrodinger material? When a Dirac material, like graphene or TI, has a connection with a normal metal which Schrodinger equation govern on their carriers, how could we manipulate the tunneling of electron from Dirac side ... 1answer 223 views ### Spin tensor and Lorentz group operator in bispinor case For infinisesimal bispinor transformations we have$$ \delta \Psi = \frac{1}{2}\omega^{\mu \nu}\eta_{\mu \nu}\Psi , \quad \delta \bar {\Psi} = -\frac{1}{2}\omega^{\mu \nu}\bar {\Psi}\eta_{\mu \nu}, \...
(Warning: I'm a student of mathematics with no training in physics.) In derivations of the Dirac equation from an action principle, one encounters the action S= \displaystyle\int\,d^4x \,\bar\psi(x)...
Norm of four momentum in Minkowski spacetime is proportional to the square of rest mass as $$|P|^2= P^\alpha \eta_{\alpha\beta}P^\beta= (E/c)^2 - p^2 = (mc)^2$$ While in ...