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3
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4answers
6k views

Difference Between Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction

What is the difference between Fraunhofer diffraction and Fresnel diffraction? I mean diffraction is just bending of light waves or waves in general around a point. So how can there be two types of ...
3
votes
1answer
532 views

Fresnel Diffraction at a circular aperture

In Fresnel Diffraction at a circular aperture the central image according to 'Optics' by brij lal and subramanyam will be bright if odd number of full half-period zones can be ...
0
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1answer
98 views

Time duration for pulse of single electron viewed as a wave

Electron as an example has a de Broglie wavelength and could diffract. If it has a single wavelength the time extent of the particle's pulse duration would be infinite .. If it carries a broadband ...
1
vote
1answer
215 views

How does the uncertainty principle make a photon beam spread out?

I'm reading about uncertainty principle, and something has been bothering me for quite a while. There is the formula: $$\sigma_x \sigma_p \ge \frac{\hbar}{2}$$ I know what this means: the more you ...
2
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0answers
41 views

Airy Pattern as infinite sum of Fraunhoffer Patterns

Is there a way to view the Airy Pattern as an infinite sum of Fraunhoffer diffraction patterns? I don't know where the 1.22 would come from then. Is there something inherently wrong with collapsing ...
3
votes
1answer
209 views

computing wavefront deviations for off-axis mirrors

Suppose you have two off-axis aligned mirrors which are nearly planar, with small deformations such that a wavefront at plane $P_I$ at distance $-D$ from the mirrors, is refocused at distance $D$ at ...
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0answers
89 views

What are some problems with Hugyen's wave model of light? [closed]

In terms of the different light phenomenon (reflection, diffraction, rectilinear propagation and dispersion), what are some problems with Huygen's wave model of light?
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2answers
319 views

Why are diffraction gratings not called interference gratings?

It seems to me that diffraction gratings are completely described by the double slit experiment-why then is it called a diffraction grating?
0
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2answers
74 views

Brewster angle with diffraction propagation?

Diffraction theory is scalar. How you deal with beam propagation in fourier optics that is sensitive to the to the polarization? If I have linearly polarized gaussian beam incident on glass surface, ...
5
votes
3answers
418 views

Why does light diffract only through slits?

We can see diffraction of light if we allow light to pass through a slit, but why doesn't diffraction occur if we obstruct light using some other object, say a block? Why are shadows formed? Why ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

If I take an XRD image of a single cubic unit cell, would the diffraction pattern simply be its reciprocal lattice?

I've seen the rings from powder diffraction images, and I read that each line is made up of a lot of dots, I was wondering if these dots are reciprocal lattice points of the structure. And if we ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

Is diffraction through an aperture similar to diffraction by a plane of atoms?

I'm asking because I have a problem asking me what the diffraction pattern would be if instead of spherical atoms I'd have triangular atoms. I can't find anything about this in my X-ray diffraction ...
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0answers
82 views

C Method for Diffraction grating

Alright, so I am trying to find the efficiencies of a coated diffraction grating through the method in this paper. This is through a change of coordinate system. So I went through and derived all of ...
2
votes
1answer
256 views

Diffraction Gratings

Is it possible to use the sawtooth shape diffraction grating instead of rectangular grating if yes then which parameters will affect at the output ? Secondly, what is special in blaze grating ...
1
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0answers
65 views

Is there spatial data loss in light passing through transparent crystal?

There is perfect parallelepipedal bar made of transparent crystal with cubic lattice floating in vacuum. Faces of parallelepiped are parallel to lattice axis. There is image, forming checkerboard ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Problem similar to Davison & Germer eksperiment but with more angles and the mirror reflection

The problem statement: Narrow beam of electrons hits an aluminium plate under an angle $\alpha=30^\circ$ according to the flat surface. We know the distance between two crystal planes in ...
2
votes
2answers
380 views

Diffraction and waves

Sorry about my poorly worded question as i'm not to good at explaining but bare with me so here i go. Does sound come as straight lines like ||||| and become diffracted into curves when it passes ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Understanding a paper: What is the meaning of $b_0$?

I am looking at this paper (Multicoated gratings, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1981) and I am getting confused around equation 22. I do not completely understand where he comes up with the equation ...
2
votes
1answer
281 views

How “wide” is a beam of light? What is its half-diameter?

If you believe ray optics where a light ray is a straight line, a light beam is infinitely thin. If you think of fiber optics, you can guide a whole lot of photons down a fiber only one or a few ...
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2answers
335 views

Inverse Fourier Transform Of K-space Image…what is the object space scale?

Checked around a buch and could not find any help. But I needed help with: Understanding that if I get the Inverse FT of K-space data, what is the scaling on the X-space (object space) resultant ...
3
votes
1answer
491 views

Perfect pinhole diffraction pattern with sharp fringes using a 632nm laser

I'm trying to produce a diffraction pattern with pinhole using a laser of 632nm wavelength .The pinholes' diameter are ranging from 10um , 25um , 50 um , 0.1mm and so on . I also have good lenses for ...
3
votes
2answers
422 views

Diffraction in Electromagnetic Waves

Diffraction can be observed in physical waves very easily, however when it comes to the diffraction of electromagnetic waves in things like the single slit experiment, I become a little confused. In ...
3
votes
2answers
288 views

Photons-Wave/particle duality

I know that photons and electrons and such are said to have a wave particle duality, but what does that mean for a photon? When light strikes an object, are many photons emitted, enough to draw ...
1
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2answers
108 views

How would a diffraction pattern change if the atoms were triangular instead of spheres?

On a related note, what's a good book/source that would answer questions that go very in depth with these kinds of "what if" questions because I am also asked the same if the atoms were long cylinders ...
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1answer
1k views

Diffraction-Long versus short waves

Why is it that long waves diffract more than short waves? I know that refraction has a quantum mechanical explanation, does diffraction have a similarly complex explanation? My teacher in high school ...
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0answers
50 views

Bass and Treble-Car Steroes

In a car which phenomenon, diffraction or the resonant frequency of the car, lends itself more to the ability of bass to go farther? Related Answer: Why do bass tones travel through walls?
5
votes
3answers
282 views

Is it possible to surpass the diffraction limit for telescopes?

Telescopes have angular diffraction limit depending on the observed wavelength and aperture diameter. I've read that it's possible to go beyond the limit for microscopes. But is it possible to do the ...
3
votes
1answer
143 views

Hearing sound around corners

I've been taught that diffraction is the reason why we can hear around corners, since the wavelength of sound is approximately 10 cm (smaller than a door or a window). I wonder how can this be ...
2
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1answer
347 views

Young's Double slit experiment (Finding the value for slit separation) [closed]

The question illustrates mono-chromatic red light passing through 2 slits and forming an interference pattern on the screen. The question then asks to suggest a suitable value for the slit separation. ...
5
votes
2answers
655 views

What's the physical significance of using fourier transform for diffraction?

I am studying some basic idea of diffraction and there mention in far field, the diffraction pattern could be understood by Fourier transform. But I just don't understand what's the physical fact for ...
19
votes
2answers
655 views

Optimal telescope size?

Consider a diffraction-limited telescope with unobstructed aperture $D$. Such a scope is capable of yielding an angular resolution $\alpha$ that scales as $\lambda/D$, with $\lambda$ denoting the ...
4
votes
1answer
366 views

Young's double slit experiment viva question

My professor asked me (in my viva exam), "If, in the Fraunhofer single slit diffraction experiment, if we have 2 slits instead of one (at very short distances), What would happen?" I answered with ...
6
votes
4answers
7k views

How can a single slit diffraction produce an interference pattern?

How can a light passed though a single slit produce a similar interference pattern to the double-slit experiment? How does the diffracted wave produce the points of cancellation and reinforcement, if ...
3
votes
1answer
309 views

Planes of graphite crystal on diffraction experiments

When doing electron diffraction on graphite (a popular experiment for students at universities) always diffraction at these two planes with distances $d_1$ and $d_2$ are observed: But a plane ...
6
votes
1answer
181 views

Will a football (soccer) diffract? [duplicate]

Apparently all objects have wavelike properties, so, if we kick a football (soccer ball, if you must) through a pair of posts, does the ball in any sense diffract? If this is ridiculous then let me ...
5
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2answers
155 views

Smaller Airy disk with another lens?

Is it possible to reduce the airy disk size produced by one lens with another lens placed after the previous one? For example, parallel ray incident on first lens L1 (without aberration), then there ...
3
votes
2answers
349 views

X-ray diffraction from Metals

Is X-ray crystallography is possible for metals? Or not due to absorption?
2
votes
1answer
759 views

Covariant derivative

I would very much appreciate some help in The following: What is 2nd order covariant derivative $$\nabla_i\nabla_jf(r)$$ in terms of $r,\theta, g(r)$ and partial derivative, given that the metric ...
2
votes
1answer
126 views

Factors that make beam divergence worse after refocusing

A beam of light of width $W$ and wavelength $\lambda$ with divergence that is diffraction-limited is refocused with an optical element placed at a distance $D$ from the beam source. Will the refocused ...
8
votes
1answer
345 views

How fat is Feynman’s photon?

According to my calculations, it is a lot skinnier than Airy’s photon, but still a whole lot fatter than a straight line. So, how does a photon get from point A to Point B? The ray optics ...
1
vote
3answers
284 views

Beam waist at extremely long distances

A beam of light of wavelength $\lambda$ and width $W$ needs to be focused at a distance $D$ to a spot not bigger than $w_S$, which stands for 'width of sail'. Now, the diffraction limit says it ...
0
votes
3answers
133 views

How do I determine where I can no longer hear sound?

A teacher stands well back from an outside doorway that is 95 cm wide and blows a frequency of 600 Hz. The door faces north. Assume the speed of sound is 340 m/s and that there are no reflections. At ...
5
votes
1answer
201 views

Is diffraction affected by interaction between photons and electrons?

Suppose we take a sheet of ordinary metal, make a narrow slit in it, and shine a light beam through the slit onto a screen. The light beam will diffract from the edges of the slit and spread out onto ...
1
vote
0answers
77 views

about wavefunction and vector entries

I am beginer of physics and I am studying some very fundamental idea of quantum mechanics by myself. In the introducing book I am reading, there is an example to show a particle diffraced by a slit or ...
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1answer
643 views

Diffraction through a single slit?

I'm having some trouble finding the answer to this homework question: A wide beam of light from a laser with a wavelength of 450.0 nm is incident on a long narrow opening that is 0.300 mm wide. ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Diffraction through the slit

In book "Quantum Mechanics and Path Integral", 3-2 Diffraction through the slit: Under the fig. 3-3, why did Feynman say that we cannot approach the problem by a single application of the ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Application of diffraction problem!

Here is a problem that I am working on, which is the applying the concepts of diffraction to the setting of the sun: Air has a small, usually negligible index of refraction. It is 1.0002926. This ...
3
votes
1answer
155 views

How small can diffraction grating be?

Like in title, how small can diffraction grating be? And, of course be "fully operational". I mean, littles diffraction grating possible that still works as full-sized one.
7
votes
1answer
688 views

Calculating diffraction patterns using FFT

I'm trying to write a piece of code that calculates a diffraction pattern similar to an X-ray experiment using a FFT. From my knowledge, the diffraction pattern for point particles can be calculated ...
3
votes
2answers
165 views

X-ray diffraction from crystals and time-averaging

To calculate the elastically scattered intensity of x-rays from crystals, one classically considers scattering from a free electron first and then one sums up the scattered em-fields of all electrons ...