# Tagged Questions

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### Why phase velocity of light is slower in a dielectric than vacuum?

Why does light speed suffer a reduction when it passes through a homogeneous dielectric medium? I know my math says so, i.e.- a highly polarizable ($\chi$) medium is associated with high $\epsilon$ ...
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### Role of $1/\varepsilon$ in Gauss' theorem considering it to be more fundamental than Coulomb's law (i.e. without using it) [on hold]

Recently Gauss' theorem is considered to be more fundamental than Coulomb's law. It says that field lines emerging from of a closed surface enclosing a charge in it depend on two factors - $Q$ ...
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### How can I find the potential created by spherical capacitor with dielectric material?

If we have a spherical capacitor with inner radius or r1 and outer radius of r2, with charges (+/-)q on them and there is a dielectric material (with constant e) in between them with. What kind of a ...
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### dielectric polarization

Suppose a small solid sphere made of an isotropic dielectric is introduced in the field of some given system of remote charges. Assuming that the polarization in the dielectric does not affect the ...
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### Plane wave normal incidence on dielectric, direction of fields

I'm having an extremely hard time to figure out the direction of the $\vec E_R$ (reflected electric field) and $\vec H_R$ (reflected magnetic field) as well as the transmitted fields. I've been ...
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### Direction of polarization in dielectrics

Our teacher just taught us polarization in dielectric materials. I have some doubts that he wasn't able to clear. Is the direction of polarization, for any non-linear dielectric, in the direction of ...
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### Dielectric sphere placed in another dielectric medium with uniform external field: is there a surface charge density?

Consider a dielectric sphere placed within a dielctric medium. There is a uniform electric field $E_0$ present throughout in the medium. Would there be surface charge on the sphere?
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### Buy thin film electret material [closed]

I know that electret could be fabricated by charging the dielectric material (such as corona dis-charger); however, I do not know how to set it up and whether my school facility is able to do that or ...
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### Does rubber insulate lightning more effectively than air?

Last week, an Ars Technica writer was struck by lightning. He says that the 911 operators were concerned about whether or not he was wearing shoes at the time, but he didn't think it would make much ...
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### Rotating dielectric cylinder in magnetic field?

In this example we find that the polarization in a rotating cylinder is given by an iterative method (see section 2.2 in the link) using an effective $E$-field of $\vec E_0=\omega B \vec r/c$. Why ...
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### Effect of a dielectric medium on electric field and electric flux

What is the effect of dielectric medium in comparison to vacuum on electric field and electric flux. I read that higher dielectric constant means higher relative permittivity which means more ...
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### Force between two charges when the dielectric constant of the material varies?

If two point charges $q_{1}$ and $q_{2}$ are seperated by a distance $l$ apart, and the space between them is filled with a variable dielectric constant. Near $q_{1}$, the dielectric constant is ...
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### Microwave oven + water: dielectric heating or ion drag?

When you place a water or food in a microwave oven, it heats. Which process commits more energy to that: dielectric heating, or ion drag i.e. resistive heating? AFAIK, in distilled water (which is a ...
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### what can be the BG and dielectric constant of monolayer MoS2 in semiconducting state (2H) and in metallic state (1T)

Monolayer MoS2 is a semiconductor that can undergo an MIT (Metal to insulator) or semiconducting state to insulating state transition. The semiconducting state is referred as 2H State and the metallic ...
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### What's the meaning of linear medium in electromagnetism?

I'm studying the book Polarimetric Radar Imaging: From Basics To Applications and on page 31, there's this sentence: In the following, we shall consider the propagation of an electromagnetic ...
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### Quantitative understanding of excess heat capacity in ferroics

I'm looking to understand what an excess heat capacity in a ferroelectric (FE) can correspond to qualitatively. Typically one starts with a Landau expansion of the free energy if you want to study the ...
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### Nonlocal dielectric function - what does it mean?

I'm reading this* article and in the second sentence of introduction I encountered a term I haven't heard of before. Namely: nonlocal dielectric function. What does this nonlocality mean? And how does ...
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### Why there are spikes in permittivity Vs. frequency curve?

When the frequency is increased the permittivity of a dielectric material decreases. But in the way of decrease there are some spikes which indicates sudden increase of permittivity for certain ...
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### How are band gap energy, dielectric constant (permittivity) and resistance related to each other?

The following three properties are related to current flow: Band gap energy Dielectric constant Resistance I would expect them all to have the same trend (i.e. higher band gap energy would cause ...
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### Surface bound charge in the electric displacement

In Griffiths, the electric displacement is written with just volume charge density, and that is because, he says, 'we cannot apply gauss law precisely at the surface of a dielectric, for here volume ...
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### How does a bulb light up when it's connected in a circuit with an uncharged capacitor and a cell?

Since there is a capacitor, isn't it an incomplete circuit? How does the current flow across the dielectric medium? If a bulb was connected to a cell alone and if there was a break in the wires of the ...
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### The truest/most general Maxwell's equations in isotropic, linear, inhomogeneous media with sources

Sources use $\mu H=B$ and $\epsilon E= D$, assuming homogeneous media. Obviously if $\mu$ is space varying, $\nabla . (\mu H)$ need not be equal to $\nabla . B$ What is the most general form for ...
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### Dielectric slab counter-intuitive formula?

For the calculation of force on one of the two equal(in magnitude, opposite in sign) point charges separated by $r$ with a dielectric slab of dielectric constant $K$ and width $d$ in between, the ...
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### Dielectric constant of water

I need the dielectric constant of water from $10^{-2}$ Hz to $10^4$ Hz. As stupid as it may seem, I cannot find much info. I've googled for days. All I can find is close to GHz. And the only info ...
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### Calculating rise in water surface due to a charged capacitor

ï»¿Two metal plates separated by a distance d & initially charged with charge +Q & -Q are kept so that it just touches the surface of a very large water tank as shown in figure a. Thus water ...
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### Does water absorb microwaves above of beneath its relaxation frequency

I am a bit confused about the concept of relaxation frequency. In my course text we derived a model with the help of Newton's law to describe the movement of polar molecules in an electromagnetic ...
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### Does polarization take place in non polarized solid?

According to polar - non polar division polar substances like H2O have dipole moment but unpolarised matter like O2 doesn't have dipole moment I.e. Dipole moment = 0. But my question is does ...
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### Calculate characteristic frequency from atomic polarizability

With Lorentz model, the plasma frequency can be calculated from electron density $$\omega_p=\sqrt\frac{4\pi N e^2}{3m}$$ But I also found in this paper that it could also be calculated from atomic ...
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### Density of polarisation charge is zero always for linear isotropic homogeneous dielectrics?

It seems to me that the volumetric density of polarisation charge in a linear homogeneous isotropic dielectric in an external field is always zero, but I find this rather surprising. Consider such ...
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### What is the origin of the “polarization catastophe”?

According to the Clausius-Mossotti relation, $$\frac{\epsilon_r - 1}{\epsilon_r + 2}=\frac{n\alpha}{3\epsilon_0}$$ So when $n\alpha = 3\epsilon_0$, the relative permittivity $\epsilon_r$ ...
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### What would be electric potential due to induced charge sphere?

We know that the potential at the center of the charged sphere (if it is conductor) would be $$V_o = \frac{1}{4\pi E_0}\frac{+q}{x}$$ If the distance between charges is x from their center of the ...
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### In the electric field we have dielectrics.What about the magnetic field?

Do we have insulators in the magnetic field just like we have dielectrics in the electric field? How are they called and how do they work?
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I read the description and the explanation of the result of the experiment in my book but still I can't understand it. Here is the process of the experiment. A pair of concentric metallic spheres ...
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### How to find dielectric constants of ferroelectric materials experimentally?

What is the procedure to find out dielectric constant of barium titanate at different temperatures ?
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### Inhomogeneous scattering from a dielectric box in 2D?

I wrote an E&M simulator and need to verify the accuracy. My simulator evaluates a 2D grid (which is what my camera measures), and would like to test an object that is minimally perturbed by ...
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### Validity of the static limit of a dielectric function

In general, the dielectric function $\epsilon(q,\omega)$ reflects the spatial and temporal response of a condensed matter system to an applied potential. If we put an electron into an electron sea, ...
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### Why does the medium affect the Coulomb's constant but not the gravitational constant?

Why does the medium affect the Coulomb's constant but not the gravitational constant? My friend said maybe the particles of the medium affect the electric field. But the net charge in the medium is 0 ...
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### What is the force between two charged objects when the space between them is partially filled by a dielectric medium?

I am given two charged particles of same charge at a distance of $r$. They initially apply force $F$. Now an infinite dielectric (of dielectric constant $4$) of width $\frac{r}{2}$ is introduced ...
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### Speed of light in a medium as superposition of dipole radiation

Studying electromagnetism I know that the speed of light in a medium is $v = c/\eta$ and that it's possible to derive this from the Maxwell equations in the medium. But I wanted to find a microscopic ...
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### Dielectric constant of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMD)

Why is the in-plane dielectric constant of transition metal dichalcogenides larger than the out-of-plane dielectric constant? Is this because of the spacing between monolayers of the TMD? Why do ...