Density is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance.

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Before a once-warm lake starts to freeze, must its temperature be 4°C throughout at some point?

This is a problem I just started puzzling over, and I felt this would be a good forum to check my reasoning. So here are the relevant observations followed by my question: Water achieves its maximum ...
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Why is jumping into water from high altitude fatal?

If I jump from an airplane straight positioned upright into the ocean, why is it the same as jumping straight on the ground? Water is a liquid as opposed to the ground, so I would expect that by ...
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Is there a compound denser than the densest element?

I'm musing about how to give students an intuitive feeling about density by letting them lift a same sized volume of different materials, e.g. 1 liter of water, a 10x10x10 cm cube of iron, lead etc. ...
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Why does sound travel faster in iron than mercury even though mercury has a higher density?

The speed of sound depends on the density of the medium in which it is travelling and increases when the density increases. For example, in solids sound travels faster than in liquid and even faster ...
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Why isn't jumping from a high altitude fatal?

After seeing this answer claiming that displacing matter "In a very short time", "no matter whether the matter is solid, liquid, or gas" (even though he concludes that falling from a high altitude is ...
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Why does a black hole have a finite mass?

I mean besides the obvious "it has to have finite mass or it would suck up the universe." A singularity is a dimensionless point in space with infinite density, if I'm not mistaken. If something is ...
11
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Why does this perpetuum mobile not work?(Gases and Densities)

I recently came up with the following concept. It is very simple, and may have been thought of before. A picture says more than a thousand words, so here is it explained in a picture: Note that ...
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Is ultradense deuterium real?

I've found several articles discussing experimental evidence of a deuterium state of densities over $140 \textrm{ kg}/\textrm{cm}^3$: F. Winterberg. Ultradense Deuterium. arXiv. Shahriar Badiei, ...
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Density of a proton

I was doing some exercises the other day, when I came across this question in my book: A proton weighs about 1.66 x 10-24 g and has a diameter of about 10-15 m. What is its density in g/cm3? ...
8
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Hydrostatic pressure - doesn't density vary with depth?

Our class is learning about hydrostatic water pressure and we have been told that we can calculate the force of the liquid on an object at any depth using "the density x 9.8 x the depth". However, as ...
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Why does ice have a lower density than water?

Can someone explain me why is ice lighter than water? As I know, all solids are usually heavier than the liquids (correct me if I am wrong).
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Do glass panes become thicker at the bottom over time?

Is it true that a glass window, that has been placed in a wall for about 10 years or more, is thicker on the bottom than on the top? I can vaguely remember my physics teacher saying that this was ...
8
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What is the relationship between Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics and the grand canonical ensemble?

In the grand canonical ensemble one derives the expectation value $\langle \hat n_r\rangle^{\pm}$ for fermions and bosons of sort $r$: $$ \langle \hat n_r\rangle^{\pm} \ \propto \ ...
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How can super massive black holes have a lower density than water?

I heard on a podcast recently that the supermassive black holes at the centre of some galaxies could have densities less than water, so in theory, they could float on the substance they were gobbling ...
7
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3answers
237 views

How wide does a wall of ice need to be to stay in place?

Let us say that we have unlimited manpower to construct a huge wall of water ice e.g. 200 m tall (700 feet). -and that the wall is placed in a climate, where the temperature never (for your purpose) ...
7
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196 views

What structural or chemical mechanism results in Saturn having a density less than that of water?

According to NASA’s Saturn fact sheet, Saturn has a density considerably less than water and the lowest density of the major planets. What compositional and/or structural mechanisms are theorised to ...
6
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166 views

Hollow gold bar

A scammer got a hollow gold bar and fills it with a combination of lead and air, with the same average density as gold. What's the simplest way of discovering the fraud? I know that x-rays will see ...
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What is exactly the density of a black hole and how can it be calculated?

How do scientists calculate that density? What data do they have to calculate that?
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197 views

Do hail stone fall down just when it is created?

Density of ice is much higher than air. Then how can hail stone remain in earth atmosphere before they fall down ?
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335 views

Does the mass of a star change as it collapses into a black hole?

I know (I think!) that when a really big star collapses on itself it creates a black hole. My question: When a star collapses, is the mass equal to the mass of the star when it's not a black hole? Or ...
5
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Are coffee's properties different enough from water's to cause increased spillage while walking?

I recently found this article, which describes how... It just so happens that the human stride has almost exactly the right frequency to drive the natural oscillations of coffee, when the fluid is ...
5
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Is it possible to have a singularity with zero mass?

A singularity, by the definition I know, is a point in space with infinite of a property such as density. Density is Mass/Volume. Since the volume of a singularity is 0, then the density will thus ...
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645 views

Is it possible that the force due to gravity varies based on density?

It took a while to find relativity and the various subtle (or unmeasurable) effects it has within our universe. Is it possible that, although Newton's gravitational force equation leaves out any ...
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653 views

Planetary Gravity and its effects

This is my first question on the Physics portion of Stack Exchange. I was hoping to get some light on the topic of gravity. I don't have much background knowledge of physics so I might as well start ...
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Does gravity cause Archimedes' principle and how?

Why do lighter objects float and denser sink? I understand this from the perspective that if the object can displace the equal mass of water it will float, but I wonder from the perspective of ...
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Why is powdered sugar less dense than granulated sugar?

The density of powdered sugar is about 20% lower than that of granulated sugar. There is small composition difference between the two - about 3% cornstarch and 0.5% water in powdered sugar, but that's ...
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Why $e$ in the formula for air density?

I am reading a book that says that the density of air is approximately $D = 1.25 e^{(-0.0001h)}$, where h is the height in meters. Why is Euler's number $e$ used here? Was a differential equation ...
3
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Can we make an environment where the density of air equals the density of water?

Also, in case an environment with equal density of air and water can be made: Will it be possible for a human to breathe in that environment?
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How can I determine density of a gas only given temperature?

I have a homework problem where exhaust is traveling through an exhaust system (assumed to be air for simplicity) from and engine and then released into the atmosphere. The exhaust is at a temperature ...
3
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2answers
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How does the viscosity (besides density) of a fluid affects sinking

If water, air of whatever fluid had a different viscosity, but the same density, would things fall/sink differently?
3
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299 views

Determination of mass density distribution of an object

This is a follow-up to a previous question How can you weigh your own head in an accurate way?. My purpose is not to restart the flurry of more or less humorous jokes (which are not such a bad thing ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to have a Gas heavier than a liquid?

Does such a pair of substances exist, that in certain physical conditions (temperature, pressure) when both are placed in the same conditions, one will be a liquid, the other - a gas, and the gas ...
3
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2answers
316 views

Density of states via a Laplace transform

Is this formula correct? $$ \frac{-1}{\pi}Im\int_{0}^{\infty}\!dt~\exp(Et)\Theta (t)\exp(i \epsilon t) ~=~ \sum _{n}\delta (E-E_{n}), $$ $$ \Theta (t)~=~ \sum_{n}\exp(-tE_{n}) ,$$ and I have used ...
3
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Why is gas(oline) in gas stations sold by volume (as opposed to mass)?

Fluids (including natural gasoline/petroleum) have variable volume based on the ambient temperature for the same mass of fluid. So, really, the amount of gas that you're filling your car with depends ...
3
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335 views

What is electron density and its unit in plasma physics?

I can not find (through Google search engine) that what means electron density and what is its unit? and what is there relation between electron density and electrical conductivity?
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Is there a material with non-monotone density dependence on pressure?

Is there a material with such non-linear effects (including chemical reactions, phase transitions etc ...) so that there would be range where pressure increase would yield density decrease? What ...
3
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2answers
124 views

Pressure versus Volume system problem

A rigid air tight container of volume 1.5 m$^3$ is filled with a gas of density 8 kg/m$^3$. The container has a density meter that allows us to watch the changes in density in the gas in the ...
3
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Charge distribution and potential in a 1-dimensional quasistatic system

Suppose you have an 1-dimensional system with a charge distribution $\rho(x)$ (not given) moving with an speed $v(x)$ (not given), calculate the potential $\phi(x)$ and the charge distribution ...
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In the αβγ cosmology paper, how do the authors assume the integral of density over time in the early universe?

In the famous Alpher-Bethe-Gamow paper, the authors say: "it is necessary to assume the integral of $\sigma_n dt$ during the building-up period is equal to $5 \times 10^4 \frac{\text{g ...
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Delta Dirac Charge Density question

I have to write an expression for the charge density $\rho(\vec{r})$ of a point charge $q$ at $\vec{r}^{\prime}$, ensuring that the volume integral equals $q$. The only place any charge exists is at ...
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How can black holes be so dense?

It is said that if the Earth were a black hole, it would be the size of a peanut!? How is this density possible, are atoms really that sparse that they can be compressed so tightly? Is there some ...
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Do we hear sounds differently on the highest mountains?

Some searching gives that above 6,000 meter altitude the air density is less than half of that at sea level. Speed of sound is about 15-20% slower and "acoustic impedance" seems to change too. Do ...
2
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Is there some special cutoff density after which spacetime “collapses” and forms a black hole?

With crude calculations following densities can be approximated: Given that radius of proton is $1.75×10^{−15} m$ and it's mass is $1.67 × 10^{-27}kg$, this gives density of proton to be $\dfrac ...
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Relativity and volume of black hole

Does Einstein's theory of special or general relativity incorporate volume? In a particle accelerator two particles smash together at relativistic speeds and "create" new particles (quarks etc) due ...
2
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1answer
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Does salt $NaCl$ as a solid float in molten salt?

I know ice floats in water because it's crystalline structure causes $H_20$ solid to be less dense than $H_20$ liquid. Is the same true for salt because it is crystalline? If not why?
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When can a surface charge density exist?

In my syllabus about electromagnetism, they state: "This surface charge density will not always be present, e.g. when considering two non-conducting dielectrics such surface charge density remains ...
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1answer
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Computing a density of states of Hamiltonian $ H=xp$

How could I compute the integral $$ N(E)~=~ \int dx \int dp~ H(E-xp) $$ the 'Area' inside the Phase space is taken for $ x \ge 0 $ and $ p\ge 0 $? The result should be $$ N(E)~=~ ...
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What are the physical limitations on energy density for a useful, safe battery, and are we anywhere near them?

Energy storage seems to be a fairly major bottle neck in technological development at the moment, especially for important things like clean-energy powered transport, but also for consumer goods. Are ...
2
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Calculating Air Density Lapse With Altitude (Specifically, pressures)

This might be a bit more of an engineering question, but I'm calculating air density drop-off with altitude, and I'm having some problems calculating the pressure (I'll run through my method). This ...
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Water vs Milkshake being sucked through a straw

Consider water in a glass being sucked through a straw. The water rises up in the straw because of a pressure gradient introduced by the sucking action. Now, change the liquid from water to something ...