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What happens to Goldstone bosons in the Higgs potential after symmetry breaking?

When the gauge symmetry of our Lagrangian breaks spontaneously through the Higgs mechanism, we usually find that $n$ Higgs degrees of freedom become massless through the vacuum expecation value (vev), ...
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Virial theorem and the energy in a gas

I clearly am interpreting the Virial Theorem incorrectly, but I don't know how. In dipole gases, the molecules can exhibit five kinetic modes, while they can only experience 2 potential modes. Doesn't ...
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Degrees of freedom in double Atwood machine?

Why the degree of freedom in double Atwood machine (one block on one side and a pulley with one block in its each side on other side) is 2 and not 1? According to the formula $s=3*n-m$; where $n=$...
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Degrees of freedom and temperature

I quote the following lines directly from the Wikipedia page titled "Heat capacity": "...rotational kinetic energy of gas molecules stores heat energy in a way that increases heat capacity, since ...
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Regarding $f$ degrees of freedom & $f\!-\!1$ constants & inclusion of these constants

In the classic & famous book "Electromagnetic fields & Interactions" by Richard Becker (Dover publishing), on page 55 (of volume 2) , author says: If the system possesses f degrees of ...
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Variation of the metric with respect to the metric

For a variation of the metric $g^{\mu\nu}$ with respect to $g^{\alpha\beta}$ you might expect the result (at least I did): \frac{\delta g^{\mu\nu}}{\delta g^{\alpha\beta}}= \delta^\...
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Maxwell's equations - underdetermined - uniqueness

Maxwell's equations can be seen as two dynamical equations (the two curl equations), and two constraint equations (the two divergence equations). So we have 6 unknowns ($E_x,E_y,E_z,B_x,B_y,B_z$). ...
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The “potential energy” degree of freedom?

I'm reading Schroeder's "An Introduction to Thermal Physics" and he mentions the vibrational degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecule: A diatomic molecule can also vibrate, as if the two atoms ...
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Holonomic constraints and degrees of freedom?

Can we see that a constraint can decrease the degrees of freedom of a system if and only if it is holonomic. Either way please can you explain why?
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Do Maxwell's Equations overdetermine the electric and magnetic fields?

Maxwell's equations specify two vector and two scalar (differential) equations. That implies 8 components in the equations. But between vector fields $\vec{E}=(E_x,E_y,E_z)$ and $\vec{B}=(B_x,B_y,B_z)$...
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Two bodies connected to each other with with a string of lenth L is a rigid body? [duplicate]

Suppose we have two bodies A and B, they are connected to each other with an ideal string of length $L$. Then is this system a rigid body? This system has 5 degrees of freedom ( 6-1 constraint). But a ...
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I read at a book this quote "As the degrees of freedom of a particle are the product of all the degrees of freedom of its sub-particles, were a particle to have infinite subdivisions into lower-...
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How can I get the Resonant Frequencies (Bode plot)? (Response of 2-DOF System)

I want to study the response of the system. I want to find the resonant frequency of the sprung mass (m1) and the resonant frequency of the unsprung mass (m2). Because I am not sure if I have ...
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What Magnitude(db) and Phase(deg) represent on Bode Diagram?

What Magnitude(db) and Phase(deg) represent on Bode Diagram? I am working on 2 DOF System and I want to understand some basic things. Below (on the picture) you can see the system, the transfer ...
In Srednicki P33, we tried to generalize the time evolution equation in Heisenberg picture: $$e^{+iHt/\hbar}\varphi(\mathbf x, 0)e^{-iHt/\hbar}=\varphi(\mathbf x, t)$$ into relativistic form: $$e^{-... 0answers 15 views Microscopy - Depth of Field Shrinks with Magnification From empirical results I was able to gather that the DOF of a microscope I was working with had been reduced, when I swapped the tube lens to a one with greater magnification (but the same objective ... 0answers 33 views Why changes in the degrees of freedom implies changes in the internal energy? In Thermodynamics we describe equilibrium states of macroscopic systems. For those equilibrium states we make a description giving one macroscopic coordinate for each measured degree of freedom (like ... 1answer 40 views Question about the concept of particle's degrees of freedom For all I know, an one-dimensional free particle has 1 degree of freedom and 3 degrees of freedom in the 3-D world. And in thermal physics, one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator has 2 degrees of ... 0answers 53 views Splitting different aspects of a system in Quantum Mechanics with tensor products My understanding from Classical Mechanics is that the degrees of freedom of a system are the generalized coordinates which we use to describe the system. In that case the number of degrees of freedom ... 1answer 112 views Are path integrals integrals with countable or uncountable infinite dimensions? Path integrals are integrals with infinite dimensions. But I recently became confused about if the number of dimensions are discrete/countable or continuous/uncountable. I always thought it should be ... 0answers 38 views Number of components of a One-Form Superfield A Supersymmetric Yang Mills theory has 8 bosonic and 8 fermionic components. Since SUSY YM Theory is described via the Vector Superfield,$$V=C(x)+i\theta\chi(x)-i\bar{\theta}\bar{\chi}(x) \dots.$$... 1answer 158 views Rigorous definition of degrees of freedom According to this Wikipedia article, the definition of degrees of freedom is: The degree of freedom (DOF) of a mechanical system is the number of independent parameters that define its ... 1answer 73 views Rigid body motion degrees of freedom A rigid body moving in \mathbb{R^2} has 3 degrees of freedom and in \mathbb{R^3} has 6 degrees of freedom. Could you please help me show that a rigid body moving in \mathbb{R^n} has \frac{n+n^2}... 0answers 45 views General relativity degrees of freedom — simplified version? I'm afraid my question may be too general, but I would like to ask how I could find out the degrees of freedom in a given tensor. I have had this question since I started studying GR. At first, I ... 1answer 1k views Counting degrees of freedom for gravitational waves as a gauge field Sean Carroll has a new popularization about the Higgs, The Particle at the End of the Universe. Carroll is a relativist, and I enjoyed seeing how he presented the four forces of nature synoptically, ... 1answer 98 views On the c-theorem I have been reading a few papers on CFT and AdS/CFT regarding the c-theorem and I have a few questions regarding c-theorems: a) Why is it that the c-theorem is usually considered for only unitary ... 1answer 28 views Indistinguishability versus Lack of energy for degrees of freedom of a symmetrical atom Consider the degrees of freedom (thermodynamic) for an Argon atom. It has 3 translational degrees of freedom. Everyone seems to agree that at normal temperatures it has no rotational degrees of ... 1answer 50 views Counting number of degrees of freedom in constrained system Following Counting degrees of freedom in presence of constraints, we know that there would be N-2M-S dofs if we have M 1st-class constraints and S 2nd-class constraints in N-dim phase space. I don't ... 1answer 61 views Kinetic theory of physics [closed]$$E = (3/2) kT$$For average kinetic energy of a molecule gas.The constant k does not depend on the type of molecule. Can this result be true for both hydrogen and chlorine? 1answer 66 views State counting in the d = 1+2, \cal{N} = 2 vector multiplet The question is from Box 8.2, page 282 of the book "Gauge Gravity Duality" by Ammon and Erdmenger. The link to the specific page from Google Books is here. According to the authors, a \mathcal{N} = ... 1answer 29 views Degrees of freedom for custom made finger I'm designing a 3D printable prosthetic hand. Each finger has 3 joints. The first 2 joints let the finger only move in the vertical (y) direction. The final joint is like a ball and socket joint (... 4answers 2k views Degrees of freedom of the graviton versus classical degrees of freedom I have a puzzle I can not even understand. A graviton is generally understood in D dimensions as a field with some independent components or degrees of freedom (DOF), from a traceless symmetric ... 1answer 362 views A different proof for 6 degrees of freedom I want a different proof of 6 degrees of freedom of a solid object made of N particles. I am thinking along these lines: The definition of rigid body is$$\left\lvert \vec{r_i}-\vec{r_j} \right\...
Suppose we consider a rigid body, which has $N$ particles. Then the number of degrees of freedom is $3N - (\mbox{# of constraints})$. As the distance between any two points in a rigid body is fixed, ...