The definition tag is used in situations where the question is either about how some term or concept is defined or where the validity of an answer depends on a subtle definition of some term or concept used in the question.

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Observationally indistinguishable quantum states

What does it mean for 2 quantum states to be "observationally indistinguishable"? If I may venture a guess: Does that mean that the set of possible measured values are the same though the ...
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2answers
373 views

Higgs boson and quasiparticles

Do we know exactly the difference between particles and quasiparticles? Is Higgs boson a particle or a quasiparticle? I ask this because if I understood well, Higgs boson created by a spontaneaous ...
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2answers
3k views

Why is the mechanical advantage of a wedge = length of slope/ width?

Mechanical advantage is defined as Force Output/Force Input For a symmetrical wedge with the length of the slopes being equal and the width being the distance between the end points, the articles ...
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3answers
6k views

What is displacement? Position relative to a reference point or change of position

What is the "official" or most useful definition of displacement in the context of kinematics? There are two common ones: Displacement is the length and direction of a line from a fixed reference ...
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3answers
392 views

Intuition behind the formula for macroscopic entropy

Wikipedia says that the 'macroscopic' definition of entropy is: $$ \Delta S = \displaystyle \int \dfrac{dQ_{\rm rev}}{T}$$ Where $T$ is the uniform absolute temperature of a closed system and $dQ_{\...
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2answers
8k views

Why is a degree Celsius exactly the same as a Kelvin?

How on earth is it possible that the difference between two temperatures in Celsius and Kelvin is exactly the same. Given the historical definition of Celsius, I find it hard to believe that this is ...
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2answers
2k views

What is a Null Geodesic? [duplicate]

What is a Null Geodesic? My textbook only explains it as the Minkowski metric which equals to zero, but I'd appreciate a more detailed explanation.
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6answers
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What distinguishes between physics and chemistry? [closed]

What are the major differences between physics and chemistry? I know that they both study atoms, electrons and molecules, but what makes some topics part of one and some part of another?
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4answers
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Newton's first law: is his concept of (force of ) inertia still useful and used?

The force of inertia is the property common to all bodies that remain in their state, either at rest or in motion, unless some external cause is introduced to make them alter this state. That is ...
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3answers
298 views

What is a “Center Of Mass” issue of a Gorillapod?

I read somewhere that a Gorillapod may have "Center Of Mass" issues when used with the long lenses. So, I wish to understand what is a "Center Of Mass" issue? I have to clarify that I am NOT a ...
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2answers
432 views

Definition of “Quantizing”

Could anyone explain to me what "quantize" means in the following context? Quantize the 1-D harmonic oscillator for which $$H~=~{p^2\over 2m}+{1\over 2} m\omega^2 x^2.$$ I understand that the ...
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2answers
1k views

The definition of entropy in quantum mechanics

I have seen entropy with several different definitions. Like Von Neumann entropy and Rényi entropy, etc. So I am curious why there are so many different definitions in quantum mechanics while only ...
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3answers
2k views

What is the physical meaning of electric potential, potential difference, and voltage?

When resembling the electricity flow through a wire to people walking through a street: electrons are people, current is the number of people, resistance is the barriers on the way. But what is the ...
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2answers
208 views

Can we correctly define momentum operator only by means of position operator and their commutation relation?

In "J.M. Ziman. Electrons and Phonons: The Theory of Transport Phenomena in Solids" the author formally introduces the position (displacement) operator and then defines the momentum operator with the ...
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2answers
2k views

what is meant by “crossover phenomena”?

In many articles I read the term "crossover phenomena" and a lot of methodology discussed according to it, with little or no description about what is meant by it. Sometimes there is a connection to ...
3
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1answer
310 views

What is the meaning of “moment”?

What is the meaning of moment? I'm little confused about the word as there are some terms like moment of momentum, moment of mass, moment of force, etc. I want to know what exactly is meant by the ...
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3answers
158 views

Bounded operator - definition?

As mentioned also in Bounded and Unbounded Operator, an operator $A$ is said to be bounded, if $$\|Af\|\leq k \|f\|,$$ where the constant $k$ does not depend on the choice of $f$ (let us consider a ...
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2answers
19k views

Are all metals good conductor of electricity?

I am writing an article for kids, which is on conductors and insulators of electricity. If I make a statement that "All metals are electrical conductors and all non-metals are electrical insulators" ...
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3answers
2k views

What exactly is the “coherence” between waves?

I know, by definition, that coherence means that a pair of waves have constant phase difference. What does this mean? Does it mean they always have a 360 degrees, or 0 degrees phase difference? Or ...
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3answers
3k views

Direction of motion

What does the term direction of motion actually mean? Is it a direction where a particle is moving or the direction of its velocity? For example, what is the direction of motion of a projectile in ...
3
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1answer
737 views

What is “charge discreteness”?

I assume it is some kind of quantity. Google only made things more confusing. I get that it has something to do with circuits. I also get what a discrete charge is. In fact, I thought charges were,...
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3answers
204 views

Why is the definition of inertial mass circular?

On Wikipedia, the definition of inertial mass is: Inertial mass is the mass of an object measured by its resistance to acceleration. And, can be evaluated using $F = ma$, Newton's second law....
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2answers
483 views

What does Power really mean?

I've been trying to solve a problem for some time. I have been given conflicting information by both literature, colleagues and people on this very forum. It's a very simple question: What is the ...
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1answer
115 views

Neutral current: terminology

In particle physics, where does the term 'neutral current' originate? An example would be an electron exchanging a Z boson with another electron. I understand that the Z boson itself is neutral, but ...
3
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1answer
197 views

Doubts about the definition of mass

I'm having some problems understanding what are the possible definitons of mass and how they are related to each other. In Classical Mechanics, we can distinguish between inertial and gravitational ...
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3answers
322 views

Question on Radiance equation

The radiance equation is $$ L = \frac{d}{dA} \frac{2(\phi)}{dW cos(\theta)} (watt/srm^2) $$ where $\phi$ is the flux. I am thinking, should not be the cosine term on the numerator instead of the ...
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1answer
437 views

Mathematical definitions in string theory

Does anyone know of a book that has mathematical definitions of a string, a $p$-brane, a $D$-brane and other related topics. All the books I have looked at don't have a precise definition and this is ...
3
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1answer
70 views

Will centre of gravity coincide with centre of mass if density of object is non uniform?

I read that for bodies of very large dimensions, but having non-uniform density, the centre of gravity does not coincide with centre of mass. I can understand that with large dimensions the strength ...
3
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1answer
51 views

Difference between Fermi and Riemann normal coordinates

What is the difference between Fermi normal coordinates and Riemann normal coordinates? Which one of them is related to the vanishing of the Christoffel symbols?
3
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1answer
73 views

What exactly is conservative vector field?

I'm studying calculus, but since the example involved a physical concept. I will ask here: This is how it goes: This means that in a conservative force field, the amount of work required to ...
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5answers
1k views

The elusive difference between force and impulse

Impulse is defined as the product of a force $F$ acting for a (short) time $t$, $J = F*t$, and that is very clear. What I find difficult to understand is how a force can exist that doesn't act for a ...
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2answers
1k views

Understanding relationship between work and energy

I've read over 10 books about work and energy, and I just simply can't understand it. First of all, they go ahead and randomly define that work is force times distance: $$W=F X \cos\theta$$ Okay, ...
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1answer
2k views

Definition respective derivation of angular momentum formula

I am reading An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow (2014). On page 241 is the definition of the angular momentum: Here is the formal definition of the angular momentum $\vec{L}$ ...
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1answer
106 views

Zwiebach scalar product notation

I am currently working through Zwiebach's a First Course in String Theory. He seems to use dot-product notation interchangeably with the "down-up" notation. For example, on pg 176/section 9.1, he ...
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1answer
229 views

Does a reference or classification standard for altitude classifications of geocentric orbits exist?

I'm looking for a primary reference of the altitude classifications of geocentric orbits (LEO, MEO, GEO, HEO), but I was not able to find something so far. I noticed that there is very different ...
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3answers
284 views

Name for celestial “Prime Meridian”?

Is there name for the line that goes from celestial pole to pole at RA 0 degrees 0 minutes 0 seconds? On Earth we would call it the Prime Meridian. Is it called the "Celestial Meridian"?
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1answer
246 views

What's a pseudo-rotation?

I'm sorry for this lexical, probably extremely elementary, question. But what is a pseudo-rotation? I just read this term for the first time, in the beginning of the 4th chapter book of CFT by Di ...
3
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1answer
52 views

Reversible process, equivalence of two definitions?

There are two common definitions of a reversible process: A reversible processes is quasistatic with no dissipation. And A process where an infinitesimal change in conditions would reverse ...
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1answer
134 views

What is the difference between flow and expansion?

Fluids (both liquids and gases) will move from one point in space to another due to a potential gradient. Some examples may be: 1) horizontal pipe flow, a fluid will move from a region of high ...
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3answers
447 views

What is a photon? [duplicate]

I'm trying to get a definitive and clear answer to the question of what a photon actually is. Textbooks seem to give quite vague explanations, all starting with Einstein's idea that a quanta is a form ...
3
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1answer
364 views

Definition of a field line?

Ok so I finished by A-levels last year (english exams 18 year olds take) and we defined in my physics course we defined field lines (for an electric field) as: The path a free positive test charge ...
3
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1answer
85 views

What does “sites” mean in the lattice language?

I acknowledge that this question is quite trivial. But in the lattice jargon, what does a $N$-sites lattice mean? it's a lattice $N\times N$ or it's a lattice with $N$ vertices? another option ...
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2answers
655 views

Strict general mathematical definition of drag

Is there a formal definition of drag, say, as some surface integral of normal and shear forces? There seem to be a lot of formulas for specific cases, but is there a general one? I need to accurately ...
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2answers
119 views

How mass is determined in dynamics?

Mass is one of the most core and complicated concepts in dynamics. I have tried many books but I still don't have a good idea of how the mass of any object is determined relative to another. In The ...
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1answer
152 views

Rigorous definition of degrees of freedom

According to this Wikipedia article, the definition of degrees of freedom is: The degree of freedom (DOF) of a mechanical system is the number of independent parameters that define its ...
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3answers
360 views

Line integral definition of work clarification

So I am kind of confused about the role of force when calculating work. Specifically, when defining work using a line integral. There is a paragraph in my calculus book that is really throwing me off ...
3
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1answer
958 views

What are Low-lying energy levels?

I am reading about some canonical transformations of the Hamiltonian (of a system consisting of an electron interacting with an ionic lattice) due to Tomanaga and Lee, Low and Pines. One of the ...
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0answers
101 views

What are Killing spinors?

What are Killing spinors? How can they be motivated? Are they directly related to Killing vectors and Killing tensors and is there an overarching motivation for all three objects? Any answer is ...
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0answers
35 views

Is renormalization associated with a volume scale or with an energy-momentum and length scale?

Given that real-space renormalization blocks together small volume elements to construct larger volume elements, is it more appropriate/helpful to consider the renormalization scale to be a volume ...
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3answers
1k views

Non-linear dynamics vs Chaos

I am confusing between non linear dynamics and chaos. Chaos is also a non-linear dynamics right? then what is the difference between chaos and non-linear dynamics? What I understood about chaos is ...