The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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3
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1answer
93 views

Could the singularity that gave rise to our universe be past-eternal?

Are there any compelling models that include a past eternal singularity that ultimately gave rise to our universe? Does the "no-boundary" hypothesis that utilizes imaginary time have past eternal ...
1
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1answer
39 views

Cosmological constants

I've heard that the cosmological constant is 0.[123 more zeros] and then a 1. Does that means that it used to be exactly zero? Is the value of this constant changing or is it fixed at a particular ...
0
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0answers
19 views

How redshift-space distortions affects baryonic acoustic oscillations

I have a question with BAO (baryonic acoustic oscillations) and RSD (redshift-space distortions). On large scales, Kaiser effect makes the observed radial separation of galaxies smaller then ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Raychauduri equation for Milne universe

I am trying to solve this kind of problem: Consider the Milne model, i.e., the empty $ \kappa = −1 $ Friedmann model. Verify by a direct calculation that the expansion $ \Theta $ of the unit ...
0
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0answers
22 views

cosmology - Hubble parameter equation [duplicate]

I have a question. We know that the Hubble constant in the space is a constant, is the same everywhere, but it changes in time, so we don't talk of H0 but H(t). Is there a way, a formula to compute ...
1
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0answers
32 views

Cosmological Bulk Viscosity - is the universe a fluid?

I was trying to make heads of tails of both this paper and the press release about it. The scientists have used bulk viscosity (as opposed to shear viscosity) and popped it into a model and somehow ...
0
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0answers
45 views

What fills the space between the galaxies, stars and planets? [duplicate]

What fills the space between the galaxies, stars and planets with the exception of gas clouds, dust, atoms, elementary particles and electromagnetic radiation? What the authoritative opinions exist on ...
0
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0answers
35 views

Astronomy - Hubble Law and Universe age [on hold]

We know that the approximated age of the Universe is calculated as 1/H0 where H0 is expressed like (km/s/Mpc). If I try to calculate the dimensional equation I obtain: (10^3 m/(s* 10^6*10^16 m))^-1, ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Global cosmic strings evolution

Recently I've read about axion string. It can be shown that the energy per unit length of the string located along $z$ axis is $$ \mu = 2 \pi f_{a}^{2}\ln\left( \frac{L}{\delta}\right), $$ where $L$ ...
0
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0answers
47 views

Applicability of Occam's Razor [on hold]

Is there a solid mathematical or physical argument on the applicability of Occam's Razor at cosmological scales, or with regard to physical laws? I've recently become aware of mathematical ...
0
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4answers
96 views

Can a photon have little to no energy and/or speed?

Can a photon move more slowly than the speed of light and behave 'non-relativistically,' so to speak. Perhaps another way to express my thought is: could we stop a photon from moving?
0
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1answer
27 views
+50

Single field vs single clock inflation?

My question is very simple and short, but I couldn't find any explicit answer in papers and/or lecture notes. What is the difference between single field and single clock inflation? Or, maybe, what ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

The universe ringing like a bell? What would that mean for the cosmological constant?

The claim that the rate of expansion accelerates and decelerates periodically over time is here and that it has already gone through seven such cycles, each being damped further with each oscillation. ...
0
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1answer
41 views

Distance and luminosity distance

In my cosmology lecture notes I read that a way to measure distances in cosmology is to use standard candles and the comparison between "absolute luminosity" of the candle and the apparent luminosity. ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

Does isotropy imply homogeneity?

This question comes from exercise 27.1 in Gravitation by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler. They required the following: Use elementary thought experiments to show that isotropy of the universe implies ...
0
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0answers
55 views

How can we measure the speed of light in spacetime, and the rate of universe expansion, and come up with conflicting answers? [closed]

In spacetime, there should be no way to measure anything at the speed of light or passed it. The conclusion I make from here, is that we can't observe anything moving faster than the speed of light. ...
0
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0answers
38 views

Do The Diameters of Distant Objects Seem to Get Larger?

So I'm curious about the dynamics of an expanding universe, My question may stem from misunderstanding so i'll outline what I know. When we view distant objects in the observable universe we are not ...
1
vote
1answer
127 views

Spiral galaxies and gravity lenses

Spiral Galaxies must have a great deal more mass than elliptical galaxies of the same size in order to account for the flat velocity curve. I've seen references of eight to ten times the visible ...
22
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1answer
2k views

Why haven't we seen the big bang?

The Andromeda galaxy is 2,538,000 light years away, so if we view Andromeda from a telescope, we see Andromeda how it was 2,538,000 years ago. Now the diameter of the visible universe is 92 billion ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Best evidence for Big Bang? [duplicate]

Why is the existence of cosmic microwave background regarded as the best evidence of Big Bang (or Big Bang model?)?
1
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0answers
29 views

Significance of light travel time in cosmology

When in astronomical news they say something like "It took $T$ billion years for the light from that galaxy to reach the Earth" or "The light traveled $L$ light years" what is the physical ...
0
votes
3answers
127 views

Is the Universe being dragged into a singularity rather than expanding?

Recently I've read that the expansion of the Universe as observed is not exactly uniform as proposed by Hubble. Therefore is it possible that instead of space expanding in all directions all matter is ...
28
votes
6answers
5k views

Total energy of the Universe

In popular science books and articles, I keep running into the claim that the total energy of the Universe is zero, "because the positive energy of matter is cancelled out by the negative energy of ...
1
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1answer
27 views

Galaxy bias and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO)

I have a doubt with the concept of galaxy bias and how it affects baryon acoustic oscillations, it is supposed to mean that by measuring the distribution of galaxies we are not measuring the actual ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Boltzmann equation collisional operator in thermal equilibrium

Edited after Thomas' answer http://jila.colorado.edu/~ajsh/astr5770_14/grbook.pdf#section.30.5 Question 30.6. "Detailed balance": System is in thermal equilibrium, and the physics of the system is ...
-3
votes
0answers
52 views

End of the universe [duplicate]

Is there hope that the universe does not die? How sure do the physicist know that the universe will die? What do you think: will the universe die?
2
votes
2answers
77 views

What's the point of looking at distances beyond $13,7$ billion light years?

Question: Provided that the age of the universe is $13.7$ billion years, but the actual radius is $48$ billion ly, what are we really going to see if we built a telescope powerful enough to reach ...
3
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2answers
178 views

How confident are we that mass is not being lost in the universe?

After reading about the latest super-massive black hole in Nature 518, 512–515 (26 February 2015), I couldn't help but wonder if the accelerating expansion is a result of mass being lost. Would a ...
2
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1answer
146 views

Question about universe expansion

In general relativity, we cannot determine the global structure of the universe (since it is not flat), therefore all measurements and observations are only meaningful locally. In particular, we can ...
13
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1answer
815 views

Is the “Doctor Who” spacetime affected by Hawking's chronology protection mechanism?

Recently, there has been a paper1 (and an accompanying layman-ized white paper2) on "Traversable Achronal Retrograde Domains In Spacetime", TARDIS for short. It proposes a spacetime geometry that ...
0
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2answers
38 views

How the mass is conserved during continuous expansion?

If universe is continuously expanding doesn't it contradict the fact that mass is conserved? Because if mass is conserved so how is universe expanding?
1
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2answers
121 views

Tachyonic field

i'm working on a paper about symmetron cosmology. symmetron is a scalar field that by its symmetry breaking can explain the dark energy. the action is: ans A , V are assumed to be: where M ...
3
votes
1answer
533 views

What is the future of gravitional lensing? [closed]

What do physicists expect to find or accomplish with gravitational lensing in the next 15 years? Is there a specific type of object, or a concept that they are looking for?
2
votes
2answers
83 views

What is the current rate of change of the volume of the Universe?

Is it possible to know the current rate of change of the volume of the Universe? If we can't see past the cosmic horizon, can we still get a value for this rate of change, and if so, how would it be ...
16
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4answers
2k views

Shape of the universe?

What is the exact shape of the universe? I know of the balloon analogy, and the bread with raisins in it. These clarify some points, like how the universe can have no centre, and how it can expand ...
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2answers
129 views

The Big Bang theory hypothesis

Is there a simple way to state the hypotheses of the Big Bang theory? I have the impression that the Big Bang singularity is merely a consequence of Freedman equations. Could somebody clarify what ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Why is the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) calculated like this?

In the Wikipedia, it says that, when calculating the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (sound horizon), we measure $150\text{ Mpc}$, saying that the sound horizon is the "Physical Length of sound horizon ...
6
votes
1answer
213 views

Fate of largest scale structures?

In $\Lambda\mathrm{CDM}$, structures form "bottom up" with larger structures forming later. Structures are generally speaking supported by the velocity dispersion of their constituent objects (e.g. ...
-1
votes
1answer
33 views

modified gravitational model

In the modified gravitational model $ f(R)=R+\lambda{R_{0}}\left(\left(1+\frac{R^{2}}{R_{0}^{2}}\right)^{-n}-1\right) $ what are the units of $\lambda$ and $R_{0}$.
0
votes
2answers
196 views

How can the universe be flat?

Okay, so I just want to clarify a few things. According to what I have read, we have measured the universe to be flat, and the shape of the universe is directly related to the mass-energy density. ...
0
votes
2answers
178 views

I understand the Big Bang Theory (BBT), but how was the matter in the BBT created?

I understand the Big Bang Theory to consist of all of the matter being pulled into one great gravitational pull. such a great force that it expelled the matter out causing the idea of Red-Shift and ...
1
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4answers
2k views

Why is the singularity of the Big Bang not considered to be the center of the Universe? [duplicate]

If the universe is expanding, then at some time in the past, it must have started from a single point but why this point is not the center of the Universe. Just like the singularity of black holes is ...
2
votes
3answers
295 views

Books on cosmology

I am a 14 year old who is independently studying physics. I finished the book: Spacetime and Geometry: An Introduction to General Relativity by Sean Carroll. I am specifically interested in cosmology, ...
0
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1answer
42 views

General questions related to inflation of the universe

(i) We know that the universe is expanding. As it expands, something has to "fill in", even if it is vacuum. Isn't energy required for this? For creating new "dark matter"? But we can't get energy ...
1
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0answers
35 views

Does the total particle energy increase in FRW Universe?

If a particle travels on a geodesic with 4-momentum $P^\mu$ in a spacetime with a Killing vector $K_\mu$ then we have a constant of motion, $K$, given by: $$K=K_\mu P^\mu$$ Using the relationships: ...
0
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0answers
26 views

what are the relativistic/cosmological implications on a long rigid body? [duplicate]

This is my first question. Hope it's in respect of quality standards. Let's suppose to have a "long" rigid almost unbreakable bar of fixed negligible diameter . (we can imagine it as a rigid wire) ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Using a mask with a (2D) Fourier Transform

For a project I'm working on, I (1) take a (gaussian) random field of 256x256 pixels, (2) apply numpy's fast fourier transform (numpy.fft package), (3) filter the k-space image (using a Tukey ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

CMB and Gibbs free energy

I was doing my homework and I have a doubt. I proved that if I have the radiation energy density $$u = \frac{U}{V} $$ and $$P = \frac{1}{3}u $$ Then the Gibbs free energy is 0. But, how can I to ...
2
votes
2answers
135 views

Why doesn't a global frame of reference exist for GR?

I only have at best a layperson's familiarity with GR, so forgive me if I am asking a basic question, but I have heard that in GR, we cannot have a global frame of reference, that is a frame of ...
1
vote
2answers
68 views

What do we mean by the size of the universe? [duplicate]

Isn't it true that the concept of length exists only within the universe? Are we simply measuring the observable universe, that is to say, the spatial limits of our observation?