The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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3
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1answer
186 views

Can we regard dark matter as a special fluid rather than individual particles?

If we assume that dark matter is an $N$-body system of sizeless and collisionless particles which only interact via newtonian gravity, do these huge quantity of particles manifest some collective ...
0
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1answer
217 views

How fast are we moving when standing still? [duplicate]

The Earth rotates around itself and revolves around the Sun. Our solar system revolves around the center of our galaxy and our galaxy is moving in some way throughout the universe. If you took into ...
0
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1answer
57 views

What would antimatter planets look like?

Let's say – hypothetically – in the vastness of space, we found a planet made entirely out of antimatter and surrounded by barely any matter. If someone were to look at the planet, would they confuse ...
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2answers
141 views

Why does dark energy seem to push things apart? [duplicate]

Ordinary matter acts to slow down the expansion of the universe. That makes intuitive sense, because the matter is exerting a gravitational force, acting to pull things together. Moreover, dark ...
-3
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1answer
49 views

Explanation and quantum gravity [closed]

Is spacetime accelerating? Is it accelerating within an acceleration ?Or is it a constant? (are different objects or particles influenced by other rates in spacetime compared to one-another and if ...
7
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1answer
128 views

Did the initiation of the Higgs Field and the inflationary period occur simultaneously?

My question is: Both of these concepts involve a phase transition and they both started, as far as I know, early in time, so are the above two ideas linked in any way? My first source for this query ...
4
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2answers
89 views

What evidence is there for additional dark energy coming into existence when space increases?

As I understand since cosmological constant is a 'constant' - increasing the space must generate additional dark energy that fills that space This does sound counter-intuitive to me, but I am sure ...
1
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0answers
45 views

Bulk action - Can a brane velocity be defined?

a) If a brane action in a bulk is defined, in that case, that a brane is modelwise moving through a bulk, how is this ratio defined? Is this a regular "velocity" in that meaning, that space is being ...
6
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1answer
89 views

Could observed accelerating expansion be an illusion based on distance?

The thought occurred to me that if we just happened to be born into a time when the the universe started slowing down, it would take some time for us to observe this - especially in more distant ...
2
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2answers
72 views

During the “Dark Ages” of the Universe's evolution, how lumpy (anisotropic) and dynamic was the mass distribution?

In the dark ages between recombination (~0.4 Myr post-BB) and reionization (~300 Myr post-BB) of atoms, there was not any condensed-phase matter (except maybe some form of dark matter), nor radiation ...
2
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1answer
85 views

Convert from Relative Magnitude to Mass

I have data which gives me the magnitude density (${\rm mag}\,{\rm arcsec}^{-2}$) of M31 as a function of radius. How can I convert these data to the (enclosed) mass at a given radius (for velocity ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Why did formation of the first stars (population III) not happen earlier?

Was it the cooling of the universe? Naively, I would expect the lowering density to work against star formation.
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1answer
78 views

If everything in the universe doubled in size overnight, would objects in space appear to move slower? [closed]

I've been struggling with this question for a while. Imagine an object moving from planet A to planet B at a constant speed of lets say 10 m/s. If everything suddenly doubled in size, I would imagine ...
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0answers
46 views

Connection between the energy scale when inflation starts, ends, the inflaton mass and the reheating temperature?

Let's assume inflation starts at some energy scale $E_s$ and ends at $E_e$. Is there anything general (I know there are many inflation models) one can say about the inflaton mass and the reheating ...
-1
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1answer
54 views

Singularity - Origin Point

How can it be said that the real beginning of the real universe involved a "singularity of zero size and infinite density of mass" when no space existed at all to define any density and when ...
1
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1answer
36 views

What are the best parameters for λCDM?

A man with one watch knows what time it is. A man with two watches is never sure. I've seen several combinations of 'standard' λCDM parameters. The NED search site has the three year WMAP as the ...
0
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0answers
28 views

How to calculate source counts in cosmology?

I can derive the equation for source count of galaxies as a function of magnitude or flux for a euclidean universe, but don't know how to derive the same for standard model of cosmology or tired light ...
5
votes
2answers
91 views

Velocity of Solar System relative to CMB

In the book 'An introduction to science of cosmology' by Raine and Thomas, they have two equations $$ \frac{\Delta T}{T} = \frac{v}{c}\cos\theta'\qquad (4.14) $$ $$ T = ...
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2answers
78 views

How to calculate the event horizon and the cosmological radius in a metric?

From reading about general relativity, the event horizon and the cosmological radius are the radius when $f(r)=0$, in the metric $$ ds^{2}=-f(r)dt^{2}+\frac{dr^{2}}{f(r)}+r^{2}d\Omega^{2} $$ However, ...
-1
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2answers
69 views

How would Boltzmann Brain function with all anti-matter in it? [closed]

Please cope with me, I have been thinking about Boltzmann Brain yesterday and if Quantum fluctuations always happen in pairs of particle and antiparticle since sum of all energy has to be 0. My brain ...
1
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1answer
61 views

How Is Universal Energy Conserved Here? (Cosmology)

There are three scenarios I will like to discuss here. 1- Jupiter and other "failed star" planets. These are gas giant planets which are much much bigger than earth (100 times or more, by mass) but ...
1
vote
4answers
281 views

Boltzmann brain vs Actual universe probability actual calculations [closed]

I have been reading lots of physics lately about how universe came into being. One idea is that universe is long gone (thermal death) and it might not exist the way I feel it and I am a sequence of ...
5
votes
1answer
86 views

How do symmetries break in cosmology?

The way I understand spontaneous symmetry breaking in thermodynamic systems is that the symmetry is actually explicitly broken by an infinitesimally small field. The system chooses one of the ...
0
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0answers
39 views

Do the entropy of the universe and third law of thermodynamics conflict? [duplicate]

We know that our universe was in low entropy state at the earlier time after the Big bang. But we also know that the temperature at that times was enormously high. But what the third law of ...
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0answers
49 views

Equilibrium temperature of the universe [duplicate]

At what temperature will the universe eventually equilibrate?
0
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1answer
96 views

How is the speed in Hubble's law determined, if not from the Doppler shift?

Hubble's law originally mentions the speed (i.e. proper motion) of a receding galaxy, as calculated via the Doppler effect from the observed redshift. However, the observed redshift is today explained ...
0
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1answer
132 views

Pre Big Bang knowledge

I have read that no one knows what preceded the Big Bang, but is this true? The Big Bang process (with or without inflation) followed known rules which “existed” prior to time zero. For example, some ...
5
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0answers
41 views

In a perturbative FRW cosmology, why do constant-density hypersurfaces define a good gauge?

It appears to be common in the discussion of perturbative FRW cosmologies to choose a gauge using hypersurfaces for special values of some quantity, like surfaces of constant density $\rho$, constant ...
4
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1answer
409 views

Is the cosmic microwave background radiation red shifted?

My question is. If the cosmic background radiation is red shifted how would you calculate the wavelength at the time it was emitted ?
4
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2answers
77 views

Are orbits possible in de sitter space?

Since the de sitter space has constant positive curvature does that mean that objects can't orbit around other objects?
0
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1answer
38 views

Clocks at rest in Kruskal coordinates

The proper time in Kruskal coordinates is given by $$d\tau^2=\frac{4}{e^rr}(dT^2-dX^2)$$ (where r is measured in units of Schwarzschild radii). Since at $T=+/-\infty$, $dT^2-dX^2$ goes to zero for an ...
0
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1answer
53 views

Does Schwarzschild metric have cosmological horizon?

Since the space is not expanding in the Schwarzschild metric does that mean that there is no cosmological horizon? Also, what if the Schwarzschild metric was not asymptotically flat and we replace ...
0
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2answers
97 views

WIMP dark matter annihilation rate equation (approximation)?

WIMP is a possible dark matter candidates, which self-annihilates. What is the WIMP annihilation rate, as a function of density? Most sources state this scales as $\rho^2$, (density squared), but ...
6
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4answers
233 views

Speed distribution of objects in the universe

If we pick a reference frame where, for example, our planet is standing still (although it should be irrelevant), what would the speed distribution of all objects in the universe look like? For the ...
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0answers
23 views

The universe is said to have begun as a singularity, but how do we know nothing else existed? [duplicate]

When I imagine the big bang, I first imagine a tiny ball surrounded by black void. Then the ball explodes and the universe begins. I assume most physicists have the same basic idea. But how do we ...
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2answers
108 views

Can anyone tell me the name of this constant?

I was watching a TV program about cosmology (I can't remember which or how old it was). In it, it mentioned a fundamental number (which I'm assuming is a constant, but that's not necessarily true). ...
1
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1answer
69 views

What is Drake equation?

I was reading an article on aliens, where I found something called Drake equation. I tried to understand it, but just couldn't get it in my head, as I belong to class 11. So, can anyone explain me it ...
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0answers
27 views

Does the Big Bang Theory explain about the formation and destruction of matter? [duplicate]

I read here here that, The Big Bang theory explains how the universe was created. Even though it was unable to explain that how everything in the universe did came to existence from no matter state ...
1
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3answers
122 views

Is there any situation in which a primordial black hole-sized black hole form AFTER the “Big Bang?”

I have seen that primordial black holes may have formed at the start of the universe due to the density of matter. So, is there any way in which our current Universe could spawn a non-stellar mass ...
0
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1answer
48 views

Equations for Big Bang expansion, distance and energy

On the back page of the CPEP poster “The History and Fate of the Universe” a table gives distance scale (size), temperature, and energy (radiation) for seven expansion times (10-43 sec to now). ...
3
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1answer
42 views

How does space expansion affect cosmic rays?

As high energy protons travel through expanding space do we measure some physical difference depending on how far they travel before reaching us?
0
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1answer
73 views

Fractional number of particles in the universe?

Is it possible, that the metagalaxy contains a fractional (non whole) number of particles or fractional number of a particular kind of particles (such as electrons)? Sorry, if my question is stupid, ...
0
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0answers
50 views

Modeling of Big Bang [duplicate]

Well, I’m just an ordinary High School passed student. I had passion towards space-time- relativity and other things related with physics :D I have been watching theories of physics like Big Bang from ...
3
votes
2answers
148 views

How do we know that the CMBR is the oldest light?

How do we know that the CMBR is the oldest light which we can see? Is it based just on the facts 1.that waves redshift with expanding space, and 2.predictions of the big bang theory; Or is there a way ...
1
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2answers
216 views

Could we be on the inside of a concave hollow universe?

Recently I was discussing this theory again (a little drunk, I admit) and then tried to find answers, but couldn't find anything satisfying. There is a theory (or several theories) that we could be ...
-3
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1answer
146 views

Are time and space interchangeable? [closed]

Mass and energy are interchangeable. Does that mean time and space are interchangeable too? Reason for question: The only difference I can comprehend between matter and energy is that energy has no ...
0
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0answers
36 views

Singular isothermal density distribution

Does anyone know where the Singular isothermal density distribution $$ \rho(r)=\frac{\sigma_{V}^{2}}{2\pi\,G\,r^{2}} $$ or how it was derived. Are there any good references on how this equation was ...
2
votes
1answer
126 views

How can the Hubble telescope see the light from galaxies that are millions of light years distant?

The Hubble Space Telescope is in the news every now and then. How can it photograph galaxies that are millions of light years from Earth? We can understand that light comes from galaxy and Hubble ...
3
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1answer
149 views

Do photons have six degrees of freedom?

Calculations involving pressure and volume relationships of photon gas during the cosmologic expansion of the universe posit an adiabatic cooling process with a heat capacity ration of 4/3. This ratio ...