The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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172 views

Baryon masses in Wetterich's new cosmology

Christoph Wetterich has put out a paper in which the universe isn't always expanding; it can be static or expanding just some of the time or even shrinking. And then there is an interaction which ...
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3answers
2k views

Scale factor and age of the universe

Why is the cosmological scale factor (expansion rate of the universe) not simply the time $t$, i.e. the age of the universe?
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1answer
386 views

What are the general relativity equations for relativistic constant acceleration?

At constant acceleration in special relativity, the time differs for a stationary observer and the astronaut. see the following article for an in-depth explanation: Relativistic Rocket However, when ...
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2answers
684 views

Is Hubble's constant really constant? [duplicate]

How does Hubble's constant resembles age of universe? Isn't universe getting old each day? How can a constant be a reciprocal of age of universe? Hubble's value must be variable, isn't it?
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2answers
452 views

Excluding big bang itself, does spacetime have a boundary?

My understanding of big bang cosmology and General Relativity is that both matter and spacetime emerged together (I'm not considering time zero where there was a singularity). Does this mean that ...
3
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1answer
157 views

What would happen in the final days of the universe?

I would like to know the stages of how the universe would end and what would happen and what the possible scenarios are. I understand that eventually all the stars would burn out and that would ...
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2answers
941 views

Zero divergence of energy-momentum tensor and gravitational energy

Trying to teach myself general relativity and have just hit yet another confusion. I'm reading that in curved spacetime the energy-momentum tensor has zero divergence, ie ...
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2answers
135 views

Why doesn't a global frame of reference exist for GR?

I only have at best a layperson's familiarity with GR, so forgive me if I am asking a basic question, but I have heard that in GR, we cannot have a global frame of reference, that is a frame of ...
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39 views

Dark Energy EoS: which models ruled out, which remain?

Dark energy density is mostly assumed to be a constant, where the equation of state for w=-1 (for radiation it would be w=1/3, for matter w=0 and for curvature -1/3), so in the simplest model the ...
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1answer
177 views

Is there an alternative to dark matter?

I've been reading about dark matter. I understood that its existence is inferred by the discrepancy between the gravity exerted by a galaxy (total mass) and the movement of the stars that compose it. ...
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1answer
74 views

Can the proportion of dark energy change?

This post generalizes the posts: - Proportion of dark matter/energy to other matters/energy at the beginning of the universe? - How do people calculate proportions of dark matter, dark energy ...
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1answer
79 views

If we were able to double the mass of the ordinary matter in the universe it will recollapse?

What will happen if we suppose to be able to add mass at the universe? For example doubling the mass of the ordinary matter?
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3answers
784 views

Why the temperature is getting lower when the universe is expanding

As we know, if an ideal gas expands in vacuum, as its energy is unchanged, the temperature remains the same. An ideal gas's energy does not depend on volume. In general, the energy is $kT$ times the ...
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265 views

Temperature in space

Temperature is a measure of kinetic energy transferred to particles, henceforth, space being vacuum, temperature cannot be measured. But then, there is cosmic background radiation. It is the leftover ...
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1answer
115 views

If the nucleation bubble radius is greater than the deSitter radius, does that make the de Sitter space stable?

In our de Sitter phase, the cosmological constant is tiny. $10^{-123}M_P^4$. Suppose there is another phase with a lower vacuum energy. Is de Sitter phase still stable? The tunneling bubble radius has ...
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3answers
238 views

Which universe had a beginning? The universe or the observable universe?

When we say the universe had a beginning, do we mean the entire universe or the observable universe? Or did both of them have a beginning?
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1answer
89 views

Cosmic bubble collision

I'm reading this review right now. The claim seems to be that when you have an expanding "false vacuum", finite size bubbles form due to phase transition (cause by finite action instantons) (which, in ...
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1answer
104 views

What is the best evidence/theory about the first generation of stars

In particular, during what range of years after the Big Bang did the stars form? What is the expected range of masses of these stars and what is the expected lifetime before they supernova? I assume ...
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3answers
343 views

Can extra dimensions be too large to be observable

String theory postulates 6 extra dimension, all too small to be observed. The best description of a small dimension is that of an ant walking on a flagpole: The ant observes that the flagpole allows ...
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2answers
198 views

Can the implications of dark energy be used to bridge the gap between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity?

Can the findings of the Physics Nobel Laureates of 2011, namely the overpowering existence of dark energy (vacuum energy) have any implications in the quest the combine Quantum Mechanics and General ...
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1answer
177 views

Violation of Lorentz symmetry on cosmological distances

This question is about the domain of validity of Lorentz symmetry. As far as I know, general relativity is a generalization of special relativity. Does that mean that Lorentz symmetry is violated on ...
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1answer
570 views

Does the heat death of the universe really imply a maximum entropy state *all* of the time? Or most of the time?

Statistically speaking, you're going to still encounter deviations from equilibrium, even though the expected value is equilibrium. But these rare deviations from equilibrium - which are inevitable - ...
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3answers
255 views

Distance in cosmology

How can we calculate the change in distance over time between (say) two galaxies that they are at rest in respect to each other? In other words, how do we modify the "classical" equation: $$ ...
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1answer
635 views

How to calculate the density of relic neutrinos?

May be not neutrinos, but antineutrinos? Or both types? In the last case, why they didn't annihilate and what is the ratio of relic neutrinos to relic antineutrinos? Is that ratio somehow related to ...
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1answer
79 views

Horizon problem in the standard cosmological model

The horizon problem is usually stated as follows: Causally disconnected parts of the universe that we see today have the same temperature, so how could that be so if no information travels faster than ...
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3answers
223 views

Does the Universe have finite number of particles? [duplicate]

I read that the number of atoms in the entire observable universe is estimated to be within the range of $10^{78}$ to $10^{82}$. Does the Universe have finite number of particles? If so, how could it ...
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1answer
149 views

Can Hubble red shift be interpreted as time dilation?

Can we interpret the de Sitter universe as a spherical cosmic horizon null surface of finite radius, centered at Earth, and containing the Hubble volume of space where time is dilated and radial ...
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4answers
316 views

The universe is expanding but why the galaxies have no motion?

It is said that the universe is expanding and the galaxies are moving apart. I understand that the space between every two galaxies is increasing. Doesn't this seem to imply that the galaxies will ...
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2answers
247 views

Bathroom photons from the edge at the universe [duplicate]

I was looking through my bathroom window this night and I was wondering if any of the photons my retina is hit with are from 13 (40) billion light years away ?! I was looking through it a few ...
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1answer
493 views

What is the curvature of an empty universe?

My calculations tell me an empty universe has hyperbolic curvature. Is this correct? If it is, can anyone help me understand why this is intuitively?
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1answer
2k views

Did space and time exist before the Big Bang? [duplicate]

I accept the Big Bang theory. What I can't understand is how there can be a where or when to the Big Bang if space time did not exist prior to it. Did space and time exist prior to the Big Bang?
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1answer
256 views

Ricci scalars for space and spacetime, local and global curvature

If Ricci scalar describes the full spacetime curvature, then what do we mean by $k=0,+1,-1$ being flat, positive and negative curved space? Is $k$ special version of a constant "3d-Ricci" scalar? ...
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0answers
60 views

Is the speed of light the ultimate speed limit? [duplicate]

As we all know nothing can go faster than the speed of light as mentioned by most of our pioneer's in physics. But as I was listening to one of the statements of Sir. Stephen Hawkins he stated that at ...
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2answers
140 views

Distance of universe's most distant objects in relation to expansion of the universe

Was reading this article about the Hubble XDF and it had the quote: The most distant objects here are over 13 billion light years away, and we see them when they were only 500 million years old. ...
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1answer
504 views

Do atoms expand with universe? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Why space expansion affects matter? Why does space expansion not expand matter? As we know, the universe is expanding, galaxies are away from each other. But what ...
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1answer
1k views

Relation between comoving distance and conformal time?

In cosmology, we have two quantities and I want to understand the physical relation between these two : $\chi = \int_{t_e}^{t_0}c\frac{dt'}{a(t')}$ : the comoving distance with $t_e$ the time at ...
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2answers
271 views

$\Omega_{r}$ from WMAP results?

To do some Friedmann-Lemaître cosmology calculations, I would like to know an estimation of $\Omega_{r_0}$ ($\Omega$ radiation today). WMAP 7 give estimation of $\Omega_{b}$, $\Omega_{c}$ and ...
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1answer
266 views

Are there any theories or suggestions for how the multiverse came into existence?

I've just seen a documentary about the multiverse. This provides an explanation for where the big bang came from. But it leaves me wondering: how did the multiverse come into existence? Because this ...
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0answers
69 views

How is it possible to measure expansion of universe [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Why does space expansion not expand matter? If according to Hubble's law space the expanding then shouldn't everything else along with the space expand and we should not ...
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0answers
219 views

Presence Of an Another Universe [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Experimental evidence for parallel universes Is there an universe similar to ours somewhere else, I mean I had heard from Einsteins theories that,actually when I am ...
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1answer
646 views

Has Cosmological Natural Selection been disproved?

I've been reading Lee Smolin's Life of the Cosmos. Great book and it makes a lot of sense that the conditions in black holes are the same as conditions at the big bang. Question is, has his theory ...
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2answers
433 views

Expansion of the space-time metric [duplicate]

If the space-time metric is expanding with the expansion of the universe, if I could travel back in time, would I be less dense than the matter in that previous era?
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33 views

Space within galaxies. Is it stuck by the gravity of the galaxy or expanding and “slipping past”? [duplicate]

I understand that the inter-galactic space is expanding but galaxies themselves are not. What is happening to the space within a galaxy? Is it fixed by the gravity of the galaxy or is it expanding and ...
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1answer
577 views

Does the universe have an edge/boundary/barrier? If yes, what is at the edge? [duplicate]

My question related kind of to asking what the shape of the universe is. Say a hypothetical alien civilization built an faster-than-light spaceship. If they keep flying would they end up where they ...
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0answers
36 views

Is the expansion accelerating or decelerating? [duplicate]

I have already asked this on Astronomy.SE but I couldn't understand the answer there. According to Hubble's Law, the farther a galaxy is, the farther it is moving away. But do we take into account ...
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1answer
68 views

does space-time expansion affect on fundamental particle? [duplicate]

does space-time expansion affect on fundamental particle or point particle?
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0answers
310 views

If nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, how can there be parts of the universe we can't see? [duplicate]

Assuming we originated from a single infinitely dense point in space time in the big bang, how can there be parts of the universe that we can't see as the light has not reached us yet, if nothing can ...
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2answers
540 views

If the universe didn't expand faster than light, would our nights brighter like day?

There's a common QnA which has amused and inspired many kids: There are billions of Stars in the sky. If we combine lights received from all stars, wouldn't it beat Sun? Why is night dark really? ...
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2answers
195 views

What is the universe expanding into? [duplicate]

Due to curiosity, it made me wonder what is outside of the universe, is it a new chemical or just empty space? But empty space have protons appearing and disappearing in it, it basically still has ...
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1answer
137 views

Speed of Universe Expansion [duplicate]

How much is the universe expanding every second (Earth second)? If you could be a bit simple in the answer that would be good.