The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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The CMB and the Hubble comoving radius

I have been thinking on this for a while and i don't get it. My point is, the comoving Hubble radius $(aH)^{-1}$ is the distance at wich the universe expansion begins to be superluminical. In an ...
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1answer
47 views

Is it possible for the universe to be already developed when the dark energy appeared and expansion started?

The main piece of evidence that supports Big Bang Theory is basically evidence that the expansion of the universe started long time ago (not necessarily from the begining of the universe). Is it ...
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6answers
328 views

If space is “expanding” in itself - why then is there redshift?

The "kid's" way of understanding the expanding universe is that: "space" is totally "ordinary", and all the galaxies are expanding through it (like an explosion). Of course, that's wrong. The usual ...
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26 views

Curved light cones converge at big bang

Space has expanded manyfold since the big bang, presumably even 1090x since the CMB. Thus our light cones which start out straight must curve inward to theoretically meet at the single point of the ...
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0answers
61 views

Size of the universe from CMB?

The CMB is almost 13.8 billion light years away in every direction so the diameter of the visible universe as we actually observe it is 27.6 billion light years, twice the distance light traveled over ...
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1answer
53 views

If there were infinite many stars [duplicate]

If there were infinite many stars, is the sky then always full of light so is there than even night?
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39 views

Cyclic model of the universe and second law of thermodynamics

Cyclic model from wikipedia The above link shows some theories on cyclic model. It states that a scientist named Richard C. Tolman showed that the cyclic model proposed by Einstein can not be ...
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0answers
34 views

Comparing $X_\text{red}^2$ statistics for cosmological models

I'm evaluating a cosmological model which competes with ΛCDM. I have charted the $Χ_{red}^2$ and $R^2$ statistics for the sample of galaxies from McGaugh et al (2001) for my model and ΛCDM. Each ...
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32 views

What is the form of Higgs potential, when written using higgs mass and quartic coupling.

Usually we write Higgs potential as $V=-\frac{1}{2}m^2 \phi^2 + \frac{1}{4}\lambda \phi^4$ What are the present reliable values of parameters '$\lambda$' and '$m$'? Is '$m$' used here Higgs mass? If ...
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0answers
58 views

Would quantum fluctuations cause problems for scalar-field inflation?

Wheeler once said that spacetime would be highly curved at very small scales because of the uncertainty principle for energy-momentum. In which case the spacetime becomes very bumpy and not smooth ...
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1answer
50 views

Can you escape from a black hole in an expanding universe?

Suppose I have a mass $M$ crushed below the Schwarzschild limit. I'm assuming singularities are unphysical; the mass inside the black hole is a super dense and hot cloud of exotic matter, but it's ...
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2answers
86 views

Age of universe?

Well relativity teaches us that time interval between two events is a frame dependent quantity, then how can we say that our universe is 13.8 billion years old? Should it not depend on who is asking ...
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1answer
40 views

Space is expanding but the space around me isn't [duplicate]

Everyone says space is expanding and distances between galaxies growing. But space isn't limited to outside of the earth. Space is everywhere on earth and around me. However I don't notice any ...
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1answer
37 views

Frequency shift for accelerating source due to equivalence principle? Do cosmologists consider it alongside the Doppler shift?

It's a question that's been bugging me since I first read Einstein's paper on gravitational frequency shift. He derives it using the equivalence principle, and considers an accelerating source first. ...
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3answers
247 views

Confusion about the concept of cosmological horizon

This question was inspired by this one By definition we cannot see any event happening beyond the cosmological horizon. Let us assume that the expansion rate of the universe is such that the radius ...
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0answers
33 views

“How” infinite is the Universe? [duplicate]

They say the Universe may be infinite. Is it about matter (energy) or space? If it's about space, then would the "spatial infinity" likely imply that the amount of energy is also infinite? If ...
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4answers
198 views

Is it possible to learn about an event that occurred outside of your observable universe?

I have mixed intuitions about this. On one hand, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light and if there is enough space between you and an event then a signal will get stuck in the middle of ...
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3answers
68 views

Why didn't helium continue to generate after a few minutes post-Big Bang?

Helium stopped generating after a few minutes after the Big Bang, but what made it impossible for its generation to continue?
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0answers
20 views

How long would it take matter to double according to the steady-state theory?

So the universe would have to maintain an average constant density, right? If that's the case, then would I just have to calculate how long it would take for space to double in size? Would I just go ...
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1answer
36 views

What would a universe that expands at a constant rate, that has no pressure, and no cosmological constant be like?

Consider a universe that is expanding at a constant rate, or that a double dot is zero, and there is negligible pressure and no cosmological constant. What are some of its properties?
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0answers
25 views

Question of the scale factor $a(t)$ for the dark-energy, $\Lambda$, epoch

Just a quick question. I find a lot that the scale-factor $a(t)$ goes as $a(t)\propto{\exp(Ht)}$ in the $\Lambda$ dominated model, however, what I am specifically looking for is the exact scale factor ...
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1answer
61 views

What's the bubble's wall made up of in false vacuum decay? [closed]

It is well known that for some kind of double well potentials, there are two minima with one is unstable called the false vacuum while the other stable one called the true vacuum. The tunneling is ...
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1answer
87 views

In what manner does momentum of a particle with mass decrease due to spatial expansion?

I've read that the momentum of particles declines due to the universe's expansion. In particular, that $p \propto \frac{1}{a}$, where $a$ is the scale factor. For light, this momentum reduction ...
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1answer
22 views

Vacuum solutions to the EFEs

I was wondering if there are any papers in which authors have compared cosmological observations to those phenomena predicted by vacuum solutions to the EFEs? Obviously there is matter in the ...
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0answers
60 views

How to understand particle decoupling in the early universe?

We often say that when the rate of some interactions, say the beta decay and electron capture, are slower that the rate of universe's expansion, then the corresponding particles, say neutrinos, ...
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0answers
35 views

Why is it useful to study spatially inhomogeneous spacetimes? [closed]

There are many scholars who have dedicated their efforts towards finding solutions to the Einstein Field Equations that are spatially inhomogeneous. Current cosmological observations indicate that on ...
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1answer
61 views

How do we know that supermassive black holes formed in the early universe?

Could they have existed from the very beginning? Could they be leftover fragments of the cosmic egg?
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81 views

Matter and dark energy

So dark energy is the biggest thing in the universe, it keeps accelerating the expansion. But it's a constant so at some point there was a matter - dark energy equivalence. My question is how can you ...
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1answer
53 views

How long was the universe radiation dominated?

Using the Friedmann metric I've been trying to calculate how long the universe was radiation energy dominated. I've reduced the metric to: $c.dt$ = $a(t).dr$ where a is the scale factor. I can work ...
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1answer
64 views

How far can a sub-light-speed particle travel? And how fast will it arrive? [duplicate]

If we send a photon away from earth, it would eventually reach a comoving distance of about 16.5 billion light years (the universe's event horizon). I'm interested in how far (in comoving distance) ...
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1answer
196 views

The cosmological constant as a Lagrange multiplier?

The cosmological constant $\Lambda$ can be introduced into the gravitational action like this : \begin{equation} S = \frac{1}{2 \kappa} \int_{\Omega} (R - 2 \Lambda) \sqrt{-g} \; d^4 x + \text{matter ...
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0answers
61 views

Is spacetime elastic or inelastic [closed]

If spacetime is nonelastic and the zero mass curvature is zero than local perturbations of spacetime by mass describable as circumference -2r(pi)is less than zero must be balanced by areas of ...
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0answers
23 views

Does matter shrink due to energy radiation and does it have anything to do with dark matter and dark energy?

Is matter shrinking? Is shrinking the cause of concentrated dark matter that makes up matter moving from concentration to unconcentration. Does dark energy and expansion of the universe come from this ...
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2answers
129 views

Most stationary object in the universe

There is an object in the universe for which the Sun appears to be more stationary as it travels through the universe than a star on some other system. There is probably another object for which both ...
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2answers
192 views

Does the second law of thermodynamics imply a spacetime beginning of the universe?

Recently I have been studying thermodynamics and I noticed a article by a religious person which says that the second law of thermodynamics proves that the universe had a beginning. A spacetime one. ...
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0answers
35 views

Is the CMB Cold spot growing or shrinking?

What do we know about the nature of this region of the sky? is that region entirely devoid of galaxies? Could it be a bubble void, and we are simply unable to see the galaxies that are on the ...
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0answers
23 views

Observed flux from distant galaxies

If anyone is able to shed some light on this (pun intended). For an observed distant galaxy with known luminosity: L = 10^10 L(sun), the light is emitted at redshift z = 2 The Flux equation is F = ...
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0answers
81 views

Drawbacks of single-field inflationary models with $\phi^2$ or $\phi^4$ potential?

I am aware that existing models of inflation, especially the single field chaotic inflation with quadratic or quartic potential, e.g. $$ V = \frac12 m^2 \phi^2 \qquad \text{or} \qquad \lambda \phi^4 ...
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1answer
211 views

An argument that massive particles don't redshift?

I start with the spatially flat FRW metric in conformal co-ordinates: $$ds^2=a^2(\eta)(d\eta^2-dx^2-dy^2-dz^2)$$ This metric has the following non-zero Christoffel symbols: \begin{eqnarray} ...
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3answers
103 views

Why is the universe expanding while its components actually attract each other?

First of all, what's the difference between gravity & gravitation? Anyway that's not the actual question. If every matter attracts each other toward itself, then wasn't the universe supposed to be ...
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0answers
10 views

DGP model, minus one dimension

Is there a name for a theory like the DGP model, but with one fewer dimension? That is, a theory whose action consists of the 4D Einstein Hilbert action at long distances, and the 3D one at small ...
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1answer
46 views

how is the state parameter determined?

For radiation, dark energy and dust the pressure and energy density are related, respectively, by: $p=\frac{1}{3}\rho$ $p=-\rho$ $p=0$ My question is why? How does one show that this is how ...
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0answers
33 views

Cosmology: Gravitational collapse, particle horizon

Looking for some insight on this. I know gravitational collapse happens when the size (lambda) of perturbation is greater than the Jeans length (lambda J) of the medium. How might I express (lambda ...
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1answer
34 views

Cosmology: Partical horizons and structure formation

In the concept of 'particle horizons' and structure formation. How would I show that before the matter-radiation equality, the proper particle horizon during this era evolves as Dh=2ct, where t is ...
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0answers
44 views

What are the definitions and the differences between string “background” and string “vacuum”?

In cosmology one studies perturbations around FRW metric classically (pure GR, we say that we perturbe the FWR "background"). In QFT we have perturbation theory quantistically (we expand around a ...
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0answers
74 views

Does rest mass increase in the FRW metric?

The flat FRW metric can be written in conformal co-ordinates: $$ds^2=a^2(\eta)(d\eta^2-dx^2-dy^2-dz^2)$$ where $\eta$ is conformal time. Let us assume that $a(\eta_0)=1$ when $\eta_0$ is the present ...
2
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1answer
336 views

Is there a relationship between the Cosmological constant and the Hubble constant?

I looked around to see if this precise question was asked before and it appears not to be. So is it just me or has anyone else noticed that, no matter what consistent set of units you use, $$ ...
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1answer
58 views
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116 views

Why doesn't the Cosmic Microwave Background heat my food like a Microwave?

I know the reason we have a CMB is because the photons don't react with any of the matter in the universe, or the mean distance between interactions for photons generated since decoupling is now the ...