The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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How come the cosmological constant supports the idea of dark energy existing? [duplicate]

According to an article I've read recently, the cosmological constant was used to support the theory of dark energy. But the cosmological constant already defines an inclination in the essence of ...
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0answers
58 views

Where does all the energy in the universe come from? [duplicate]

The principle of conservation of energy says that all energy in a system will remain the same. It can just be transformed. The universe contains a huge amount of energy, but where did it come from? ...
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1answer
55 views

Was decoupling actually detripling?

As I previously understood it, before recombination, high energy photons were bound up in interactions with excited electrons, meaning electrons couldn't settle into orbit with protons and other ...
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1answer
72 views

Protons, electrons and integers

From this calculation (https://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080724101956AA4zed1), two protons seperated by the distance of one atom feel the electromagnetic force repelling them ...
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1answer
92 views

What effects would a finding of Gravitational Repulsion Between Matter and Anti-Matter in the ALPHA Experiment have on Mainstream Theory? [closed]

The actual nature of the gravitational force between matter and anti-matter (attractive or repulsive) remains unsettled: See Are there experiments taking place right now that might show evidence for ...
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1answer
46 views

Large scale structure of the universe

I have read of two seemingly straightforward explanations that give reasons for the inhomogeneity of the large-scale structure of the universe (i.e. why stars / galaxies formed where they did) One is ...
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1answer
43 views

Hottest period in the history of the universe

Stack exchange's tagline is 'hot questions' - so here is one that will hopefully cause some heated debate. I remember hearing that the period immediately after inflation is theorized to be the ...
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2answers
86 views

Expansion of the Universe [duplicate]

At what speed is our solar system expanding, and if it is, why don't the positions of the sun and planets change, or grow farther apart? Why is the Big Dipper still where it is?
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27 views

Chaotic inflationary model - bubble inside bubble

I was reading a bit about Prof. Linde's chaotic inflationary model of expansion of universe. He has mentioned about 'bubbles' of space time expansion. But no one has spoke about bubbles inside ...
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37 views

How did people think of the universe before Hubble? [closed]

Did they think the universe had always existed? And was there even any serious scientific inquiry into the question, or was it pure speculation?
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1answer
65 views

Is there a correlation between Brownian motion and cosmic microwave background radiation?

Is there any correlation between Brownian motion, the phenomenon of osmosis - compared to cosmic microwave background, the Noise we see in analog television? Brownian motion or pedesis (from Greek: ...
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2answers
146 views

Redshift due to a static gravitational field and the conservation of energy [duplicate]

I am standing on the surface of some planet. Gravity is described via General Relativity with some static metric (e.g. the Schwarzschild metric, so static means no time dependence, but the metric may ...
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1answer
47 views

Help with the Ricci tensor and Chistoffel Symbols [closed]

I really am confused with certain notations of the Ricci tensor and the Christoffel symbols. I'm looking to evaluate $R_{00}$ from my lecture notes, but I'm a little stuck at one point. The Ricci ...
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0answers
69 views

Intuitions for the simplest model in which the evolution of the laws of nature arises from the natural selection of structures [closed]

The problem I’m trying to solve can be described as To create the simplest model possible in which the evolution of the laws of nature arises from the natural selection of structures. This approach ...
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6answers
1k views

What came first, the Universe or the Physical laws that govern the Universe? [closed]

This sounds like the Egg and the Hen question but I am curious about this. If universe came first and created physical laws for itself, then what created the law or the principle as a consequence of ...
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0answers
20 views

What do the $T, E, B$ in polarization spectra mean?

I was reading about CMB Polarization here. I know that $E$ and $B$ stand for E-mode and B-mode, but what does the $T$ mean? The author states that there are 3 observables: $T, E, B$ and six spectra: ...
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1answer
74 views

What is the limit of the deep field exploration?

The deep field exploration is quite fascinating, first the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) showing a small piece of the Univers one billion year after the Big-Bang, next the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF), ...
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54 views

Is there inflationary solution in $R^2$ theory in Jordan frame?

In the Starobinsky $R^2$ inflation model, one usually uses a conformal transformation from Jordan frame to Einstein frame in which the action can be written just like Einstein action + scalar field ...
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32 views

Comoving and physical momentum in a Friedmann universe

It is most probably a very basic question, but I'm a bit stuck with it. Let us consider a spatially flat Friedmann universe with the usual metric ...
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0answers
33 views

Non-homogeneous expansion of the observable universe

This question may be more philosophical than cosmological, but here goes. Given that expansion of the observable universe is based on secondary data, i.e., we haven't actually measured the expansion ...
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2answers
124 views

Redshift of distant galaxies: why not a doppler effect?

How can I explain to my 17 year old pupils that the observed redshift of distant galaxies cannot be interpreted as a doppler effect and inescapably leads to the conclusion that space itself is ...
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2answers
88 views

Is space expanding equally in every direction?

Does space expand equally in every direction, so that it draws a perfect sphere or is expansion asymmetric, so it creates "bubbles" (when seen from the outside)?
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0answers
308 views

750 GeV diphoton resonance: KK graviton?

As everybody of you may know at LHC they found this probable resonance (https://cds.cern.ch/record/2114808, https://cds.cern.ch/record/2114853?ln=en). It may be a scalar or a KK graviton mode. Now, ...
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1answer
71 views

What is the average temperature of mass in the universe?

That is, ignoring speculative concepts like Dark Matter and just summing across stars and gas clouds etc
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1answer
34 views

About the ratio of the density of dark energy at the time of cosmic microwave background emission to the current density of dark energy [closed]

In a question, I am given the current densities of dark energy, dark matter and normal matter and am asked to find the ratio of density of dark energy at the time of CMB and now. The answer is 1. Is ...
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0answers
43 views

Direction of Gravity [duplicate]

I ran into a pde that has a parameter in it that can be either $+1$ or $-1$. They say the $+1$ case corresponds to gravity pointing upwards, whereas the $-1$ case applies to gravity pointing ...
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1answer
137 views

How long ago, and how far away, could “A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away” have been? [closed]

Assume an event happened "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away", and assume this event includes intelligent carbon-based life forms. What are bounds$^{a}$ on the time and distance (from us) of ...
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62 views

What would we observe as background on the sky if the big bang had never occurred?

The data we've received so far from satellites such as WMAP paints a near uniform distribution in intensity of the background radiation that we take as evidence that our universe had an origin, and ...
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0answers
37 views

I need Resources on CMB Neutrinos

I am doing a research paper for upper level undergrad class on CMB neutrinos (C$\nu$B). I need papers that explain CMB Neutrinos from the ground up like the main theory behind the CMB Neutrinos and ...
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1answer
32 views

Photon outside of Hubble sphere from perspective of comoving frame

I understand that there have been alot of questions on Hubble sphere, but I seek a more direct answer to this confusion that I have because I still can't resolve it after going through the posts. ...
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0answers
14 views

How is the Lyman alpha forest and Gunn-Peterson trough evidence for Reionization? [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand how the Lyman alpha forest and Gunn-Peterson trough are evidence for Reionization. From what I've read, the Lyman alpha forest tells us how much neutral hydrogen is in the ...
3
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1answer
102 views

Hawking in A Brief History of Time: No beginning or end of the Universe

I am reading Stephen Hawking's book - A Brief History of Time. I haven't studied cosmology and the related sciences. Nevertheless, I am interested to know few things regarding the extract taken from ...
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2answers
40 views

Were more stellar objects part of our observable universe in the past? [duplicate]

In the past, i.e. a billion years ago, if the universe is larger than our observable universe, would there have been more objects in our observable universe that have now accelerated beyond it?
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1answer
68 views

How can I best independently study physical cosmology? [duplicate]

My background : I'm currently in my junior year in college majoring in astrophysics. I have taken GR, and some intro cosmology here and there, but nothing in great depth. I had my heart set on ...
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3answers
108 views

How big bang could produce later collisions

The Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies are supposed to "collide" in 4 billion years (collide in the sense of overlapping space, but nothing is really supposed to contact anything else). Assuming: ...
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1answer
79 views

Could our universe be destroyed within seconds? [closed]

I'm not that deep in physics. But some days ago I read, there could be different coexisting universes, which could even share "space" (or what ever it is) where each of them could have absolutely ...
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2answers
71 views

Relative motion of an arbitrary volume of space ( is space static or dynamic?) [closed]

Do physicists consider space as being "static" or "dynamic" ? Hi I asked a question about whether space can move, and from the answer, I realized I was not precise enough and did not actually ask ...
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0answers
28 views

Is there any reason (other than convenience) to assume the universe is paracompact?

In this discussion on MathOverflow, it is mentioned that the universe, being a Riemannian manifold, must be paracompact. But is there any reason to assume the universe is globally 'small enough'? In ...
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4answers
182 views

What allows us to assume spacetime is flat when no normal matter is present?

Dark matter causes a bend in spacetime. We see this through gravitational lensing. But what allows us to assume spacetime is flat when no normal matter is present? Why can't we say that dark matter ...
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4answers
1k views

How do we know that the cosmic background radiation comes from the early universe?

How do we know that the source of the CMB comes from the early universe, and we don't simply observe the rare interstellar or intergalactic dust of 3K temperature?
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1answer
59 views

Is dark matter (if any) the reason why we even exist?

If we were to model a universe without any dark matter in it, would stars and other large scale cosmic structures (galaxies or clusters) form in timescales similar to our universe? Or would they never ...
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1answer
75 views

Implications of observable Universe growing indefinitely [closed]

Why, if the observable Universe becomes infinitely large in proper units as time goes to infinity, the objects in space, that we can actually observe, become fewer? I don't know how to use ...
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1answer
35 views

When measuring distance how do we know when supernova comes from binary star and not single one?

The way I understand distance is measured for far out objects is by binary star supernova, since at the point of explosion there's is always same amount of energy released. But then supernova can ...
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1answer
50 views

How to calculate the scalar amplitude when two inflations happen successively?

Consider a single scalar field with some strange potential such that slow-roll inflation happens twice when it rolls down from the high potential point to the low potential point. In-between the two ...
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1answer
103 views

How did inflation lead to the expansion of space?

Big bang Theory gives a scientific explanation of the evolution of the Universe, where the scientific picture of it starts with Universe(space) uniformly filled with matter and energy, already ...
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0answers
21 views

Possible fate of our universe? A point in the future where the expansion remains a constant and the universe is just energy dominated.

What if The universe is ever expanding, but slows down at a continuous exponential rate, let's say (e), but continues as an asymptote. Is that liable? Would you say that, when it reached to an ...
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1answer
94 views

How are light years measured? [closed]

I know what a light year is but do not know how they are measured.I have tried several sites and can not find the answer. I thought you might have it.
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0answers
26 views

Cosmological inflation in LQG/LQC

I seek the state-of-the-art report on how cosmological inflation is described by loop quantum cosmology. I know that LQG/LQC predicts a big bounce to replace the classical big bang singularity of GR. ...
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1answer
59 views

Does the Entropy of the Visible Universe Decrease?

My understanding is that the entropy in a closed system increases. However, I would also assume that the number of particles in the open system of a visible universe decreases because of accelerated ...
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1answer
135 views

The CMB and the Hubble comoving radius

I have been thinking on this for a while and i don't get it. My point is, the comoving Hubble radius $(aH)^{-1}$ is the distance at wich the universe expansion begins to be superluminical. In an ...