The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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A question about multiverse

I have a question that I would like to ask here since I'm not an expert or any near to that. Actually I just came up with this question when I was watching The fabric of cosmos. I couldn't find where ...
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2answers
570 views

Plotting the CMB power spectrum - Why $C_\ell \ell (\ell+1)$ rather than only $C_\ell$?

I can't find any convincing answer for the following question : Why do we always (or often) plot the CMB power spectrum in this way? I mean the y axis is $C_\ell \ell (\ell+1)$ and not only ...
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0answers
92 views

Does dark energy affect asymptotic freedom?

If the Hubble constant is extremely large, what will happen with quark confinement? I guess that quarks will remain confined because of asymptotic freedom. But can gravity or dark energy have any ...
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3answers
621 views

Can the big bang be “light turning into space” at the edge of the universe? [closed]

The theory I've recently come to postulates that: The volume of space filling the universe is finite and is constantly growing, thus the boundaries of the universe are constantly expanding. The ...
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1answer
50 views

observation and implied time since creation

I read on a post Big Bang and Cosmic microwave background radiation? We detect light from another 13 billion years ago does this mean that one billion years ago we could only detect light from about ...
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1answer
391 views

How is it possible that we see light from shortly after the big bang?

How can astronomers see light from shortly after the big bang? How did we get "here" before the light that emanated from our "creation"?
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0answers
105 views

Temperature of the CMB when the Earth formed and the faint young Sun paradox

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has a modern temperature of about 2.7 K. At the time of the origin of the CMB, about 13.6 billion years ago, it had a temperature of about 3000 K. ...
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2answers
1k views

Zero divergence of energy-momentum tensor and gravitational energy

Trying to teach myself general relativity and have just hit yet another confusion. I'm reading that in curved spacetime the energy-momentum tensor has zero divergence, ie ...
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1answer
81 views

If space is being doubled, how fast is it doubling? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How long does it take for expanding space to double in size According to the standard concordence model, I heard that it's likely that space is doubled after 11.4 ...
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1answer
157 views

Proportion of energy compared to mass in universe

In Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_matter), there is a picture that shows us the proportion of matter and energy in the current universe - CMB. It seems to suggest there is nothing that ...
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1answer
455 views

Does the current acceleration of universe imply that our universe is open?

Does the current acceleration of universe imply that our universe is open? If the universe is closed, from the Friedmann's equation, the acceleration of universe wouldn't be possible, would it be? (Of ...
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1answer
1k views

In what sense does the universe have an outer edge?

I'm having trouble understanding something about Suskind's Holographic principle. Suskind speaks about the surface of the universe? In what sense does the universe have an outer surface? I'm a bit ...
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2answers
4k views

How is Big Bang related to theory of relativity?

I'm not someone with good scientific knowledge, so if my question are weird, correct me. I was reading about big bang and I came by the theory of relativity. Can someone explain the relation between ...
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1answer
115 views

What would be the effects of an inflating universe?

If our universe is inflating, which means it is getting bigger and bigger in size, and every thing it consists of is also enlarging, in a special way such that the mass of the universe remains ...
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1answer
442 views

If the unobservable universe is not “open” and will collapse, would we be able to tell?

Assuming hypothetically that it happens now while we are alive and analyzing our observable universe. If the unobservable universe collapses in a "Big Crunch", will we see its effects in our ...
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1answer
227 views

Do black holes play a role in quantum decoherence?

Sorry for such a vague question but I could have sworn I read somewhere that Hawking proposed the reason we might see a classically appearing universe is due to the possible role of black holes in ...
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1answer
576 views

What allows us to infer the existence of dark energy?

A recent Indian examination asked: how do we infer dark energy is there? It gave as options: rotation curves of galaxies, accelerated expansion of the universe, existence of microwave background ...
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1answer
685 views

spacetime expansion and universe expansion?

First of all, does the expansion of spacetime solely cause the expansion of universe? Secondly, if spacetime is the sole cause, do objects(matter with mass) themselves expand? Thirdly, by spacetime ...
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1answer
347 views

String theory landscape and false vacua

What is the multiverse of string theory? I always thought it would be from brane cosmology where there's chances for multiple collisions of the branes that can make a universe. So this "multiverse" ...
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0answers
37 views

Baryon asymmetry [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Baryon asymmetry Baryon asymmetry refers to the observation that apparently there is matter in the Universe but not much antimatter. We don't see galaxies made of ...
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1answer
285 views

Why is Hawking's No Boundary condition described in terms of an instanton if there's no tunneling?

Regarding his take about combining No Boundary proposal with inflation theory (Hawking and Turok), he talks about the "pea instanton". To my very limited understanding I thought instantons were only ...
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4answers
849 views

Baryon asymmetry

Baryon asymmetry refers to the observation that apparently there is matter in the Universe but not much antimatter. We don't see galaxies made of antimatter or observe gamma rays that would be ...
2
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1answer
191 views

Can someone explain probability flux in the tunneling boundary condition of Vilenkin?

This is what's leading to the notion of a quantum universe tunneling from nothing into existence, right? The idea is that probability flux flows out of superspace (configuration space) at ...
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0answers
247 views

Extrinsic curvature versus Intrinsic curvature (Euclidean versus Riemannian)

Do we believe the universe has any extrinsic curvature at all? As far as I'm aware extrinsic curvature is only used in geometry/math to model the intrinsic curvature, correct? From the answers to ...
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2answers
186 views

Why did the WMAP mission last so much longer than Planck?

NASA endorsed 9 years of data taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The High Frequency Instrument aboard the Planck satellite ran out of coolant at the start of 2012, after about ...
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1answer
441 views

What is the fate of a 3-Torus universe?

Since it is flat, will it expand forever like a flat and open universe or collapse like a closed and curved universe?
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1answer
314 views

Is the FRW metric describing the shape of the universe or the shape of the expansion applied to the universe?

Is it (the output, i.e, spherical, flat, hyperbolic) describing the physical shape of the universe and its curvature at any given instance of time or is it describing the shape of the expansion ...
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1answer
361 views

Could the unobservable universe have curvature (be spherical)?

What prevents the unobservable universe from being a continuously enlarging sphere due to the inflating bubble universes? Our observable universe being close to flat could support such a scenario?
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5answers
329 views

Age of universe estimates

I was recently involved in a discussion on a sister site regarding how tightly coupled Physics is with the age of the Universe (and Earth). I believe that the Earth and the Universe are both billions ...
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1answer
606 views

Why is the universe described in terms of Euclidean space and not Minkowski spacetime?

The universe is described as an infinite Euclidean space in cosmology. Why isn't it treated as Minkowski spacetime?
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2answers
1k views

How did the inflaton field “add” energy to the universe?

How did inflation add energy to the universe? What mechanism did this occur by? In other words, where did that energy come from? Was it due to the quantum fluctuation (or that scalar field rolling ...
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2answers
428 views

Why does inflation (the inflaton field) push Omega down closer to zero (flatten the universe)?

I know that in our particular case the inflaton field expanded the volume of the universe while simultaneously maintaining a mass-energy density close to the critical density all the while, thus the ...
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2answers
2k views

Zero energy universe

Regarding this thread: http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=506985 Why is the idea that the total energy in the universe "zero" so popular (re: Laurence Krauss) and why is the flatness of ...
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1answer
605 views

How did the energy/entropy/volume/pressure/temperature relationship exist at the Big Bang and how did it evolve thereafter?

According to the current Big Bang with inflation cosmological model? I was under the mistaken impression that there was very low volume, very high temperature/pressure, very low entropy and the Big ...
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2answers
3k views

Hubble time, the age of the Universe and expansion rate

The Hubble time is about 14 billion years. The estimated current age of the Universe is about 13.7 billion years. Is the reason these two time are so close (a) a coincidence, or (b) a reflection that ...
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2answers
373 views

How does the critical density decide the fate of the Universe?

Trying to teach myself cosmology. Given the Friedmann equation $$\left[\frac{1}{R}\frac{dR}{dt}\right]^{2}=\frac{8\pi G}{3}\rho-\frac{kc^{2}}{R^{2}}$$ and the critical density ...
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1answer
139 views

Earth's beginnings and early years, Re radioactive decay or not

It is said that the Earth and solar system are 4.6 billion years old. Presumably this date is achieved from radioactive decay. If this is the case, since most of the radioactive elements would have, ...
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1answer
220 views

Very basic question about empty universe

I'm trying to understand the empty universe model. My first textbook (which doesn't cover the empty universe) gives the Friedmann equation as $$\left[\frac{1}{R}\frac{dR}{dt}\right]^{2}=\frac{8\pi ...
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3answers
622 views

Shouldn't stars disappear from our view due to expansion?

The currently accepted theory of the expansion of the universe would suggest that for any point in the universe, there is a 'boundary' (somewhat like the Schwarzschild radius) beyond which it cannot ...
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8answers
3k views

Are we inside a black hole?

I was surprised to only recently notice that An object of any density can be large enough to fall within its own Schwarzschild radius. Of course! It turns out that supermassive black holes at ...
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3answers
326 views

Why doesn't dark energy vary with time?

Trying to teach myself the basics of cosmology. I can see why, in an expanding universe, radiation and matter density, and radiation and matter pressure vary with time. But why is it assumed that dark ...
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3answers
2k views

How can we be so sure the universe has 3 dimensions?

I'm just a layman here so please bear with me if I don't get all the words or theories by correct name or whatever. I hope it will be clear enough what my question is. Here goes: When I read articles ...
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1answer
288 views

Are there any theories or suggestions for how the multiverse came into existence?

I've just seen a documentary about the multiverse. This provides an explanation for where the big bang came from. But it leaves me wondering: how did the multiverse come into existence? Because this ...
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1answer
194 views

Fine Tuned Universe

Is the fine tuning that cosmologists talk about (that our Universe is fine tuned for intelligent life) is the same as the fine tuning of the squared mass parameter of the Higgs in the Standard Model? ...
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4answers
2k views

Does the universe have a center?

If the big bang was the birth of everything, and the big bang was an event in the sense that it had a location and a time (time 0), wouldn't that mean that our universe has a center? Where was the ...
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3answers
754 views

Why does large curvature of spacetime imply high temperature?

I`ve just stumbled about a sentence which says that high curvature of spacetime implies that any matter present is at high temperature. This somehow confuses me, so my probably dumb question(s) are: ...
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1answer
61 views

Could there be a sort of “Molecular Destiny”?

Let's say we start with the Big Bang. Every bit of matter started from this event. Therefore, given EVERY variable (every particle, movements of particles, weights, times, etc) and an INFINITE amount ...
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2answers
549 views

Why does the homogeneity of the universe require inflation?

They say inflation must have occured because the universe is very homogeneous. Otherwise, how could one part of the universe reach the same temperature as another when the distance between the parts ...
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3answers
466 views

Where does the light of the Big Bang come from?

I'm wondering whether the residual light of the Big Bang comes from one particular direction and what possibilities do we have to detect its position?
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1answer
209 views

What is behind the cosmological horizon barrier?

I'm wondering what is behind the cosmological horizon barrier?